Emigration from Europe

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The European diaspora refers to the communities throughout the world that are descended from the movement of peoples from Europe — predominantly to the Americas, Oceania and Africa, among other areas around the globe.
European diaspora
Total population
480,000,000 +
7% of the total world population
Americas - approximately 446,394,000
Oceania - 23,185,000
Regions with significant populations
European descended population
based on the references below.
 United States 223,553,265[1]
 Brazil 92,003,000[2]
 Argentina 38,000,000+[3]
 Canada 27,220,465[4]
 Mexico 25.000.000
 Australia 20,982,665
 Colombia 17,519,500[5][6]


 Cuba 7,271,926[10]
 South Africa 4,472,100[11]
 Chile 3,5M-5,128,000[12][13]
 Costa Rica 3,500,000[14]
 New Zealand 3,381,076[15]
 Uruguay 3,100,000[9]
 Puerto Rico 3,064,862[16]
 Dominican Republic 2,000,000[9]
 Bolivia 2,000,000[9]
 Peru 1,4M-4,4M[17][9]
 Ecuador 1,400,000[18]
 Paraguay 1,300,000[14]
 Nicaragua 1,000,000[9]
Languages of Europe
P christianity.svg Majority Christianity· Atheism  · other
Star of David.svg Jewish · Star and Crescent.svg Muslim · Dharma Wheel.svg Buddhist · Om.svg Hinduism
Related ethnic groups

Emigration from Europe began on a large scale during the European colonial empires of the 17th to 19th centuries and continues to the present day. This concerns especially the Spanish Empire in the 16th to 17th centuries (expansion of the Hispanosphere), the British Empire in the 18th to 19th centuries (expansion of the Anglosphere), the Portuguese Empire and the Russian Empire in the 19th century (expansion to Central Asia and the Russian Far East).

From 1815 to 1932, 60 million people left Europe (with many returning home), primarily to "areas of European settlement," in North and South America (especially to the United States, Canada, Argentina and Brazil), Australia, New Zealand and Siberia.[19] These populations also multiplied rapidly in their new habitat; much more so than the populations of Africa and Asia. As a result, on the eve of World War One, 38% of the world’s total population was of European ancestry.[19]

In Asia, European-derived populations (specifically Russians) predominate in Northern Asia, which is part of the Russian Federation. Africa has no countries with European-derived majorities, but there is a significant minority in South Africa and Namibia.

The countries in the Americas that received a major European immigrants wave from 1871 to 1960, were: the United States (27 million), Argentina (6.5 million), Brazil (4.5 million), Canada (4 million), Venezuela (more than 1 million),[20] Cuba (610,000), Uruguay (600,000); another countries received a modest and minor immigration flow (accounting less than 10% of total European emigrate flow to Latin America), they were: Chile (183,000), Peru (150,000),[21] and Mexico (25,000).[22][23][24]

Early emigration[edit]

Colonial period[edit]

The discovery of the Americas in 1492 stimulated a steady stream of voluntary migration from Europe. About 200,000 Spaniards settled in their American colonies prior to 1600, a small settlement compared to the 3 to 4 million Amerindians who lived in Spanish territory in the Americas. In Brazil the European emigration remained very small in the first two centuries of colonization: between 1500 and 1700, only 100,000 Portuguese settled there. However, the development of the mining economy in the 18th century raised the wages and employment opportunities in the Portuguese colony and the emigration grew: in the 18th century alone, about 400,000 Portuguese settled in Brazil, a mass emigration given that Portugal had a population of only 2 million people. In North America the immigration was dominated by British, Irish and other Northern Europeans.[33]

Post-independence emigration[edit]

Mass European emigration to the Americas happened in the 19th and 20th centuries. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars until 1820, some 60 million Europeans (and 10 million Asians) emigrated. Of these, 71% went to North America, 21% to Latin America (mainly Argentina and Brazil) and 7% to Australia. About 11 million of these people went to Latin America, of whom 38% were Italians, 28% were Spaniards and 11% were Portuguese.[34]

Between 1821 and 1880, 9.5 million Europeans settled in the United States, mainly Germans and Irish. Other waves included British and Scandinavian people. Despite the large number of immigrants arriving, people born outside of the United States formed a relatively small number of U.S. population: in 1910, foreigners were 14.7% of the country's population. Nothing similar to what happened in Argentina, which was the American country where immigrants had a larger impact in the ethnic composition. By 1914, 30% of Argentina's population was foreign-born, with 12% of its population born in Italy, the largest immigrant group. Next was Canada: by 1881, 14% of Canada's population was foreign-born, and the proportion increased to 22% in 1921. In Brazil the proportion of immigrants in the national population was much smaller, because immigrants tended to be concentrated in the central and Southern parts of the country. The proportion of foreigners in Brazil peaked in 1920, with 7%, mostly Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, Germans and Japanese.[33] In 1901-1920 immigration was responsible for only 7 percent of Brazilian population growth but in the years of high immigration, 1891–1900, the share was as high as 30 percent (higher than Argentina's 26% in the 1880s).[35]


By populations[edit]

Country Percentage of the local population Population in
Australia Australia 90 [36] 20
Uruguay Uruguay 88[37][9] 3
Argentina Argentina 85[14] or 97[38][9] 34 or 38
Canada Canada 80 [4] 27.2
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 75.8[39] 3.1
United States United States 72.4 [1] 223.5
Cuba Cuba 37[14] or 65.1[40] 4.5 or 7.3
Costa Rica Costa Rica 40[41] or 82[14] 1.7 or 3.8
Brazil Brazil 47.7[42] 91
Venezuela Venezuela 42.2[43] 11.9M
Colombia Colombia 25[44] or 37[45][46] 11 or 17
Chile Chile 20,[12] or 30.[13] 3.5 or 5.1
Paraguay Paraguay 20[14] 1.3
Nicaragua Nicaragua 17[47] 1
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 16[48] 2.0
Mexico Mexico 9[49] or 15[14] 10.1 or 16.8 or 20
Bolivia Bolivia 15[50] 2.0
Peru Peru 4.9[17] or 15[51] 1.4 or 4.4
Ecuador Ecuador 6.1[52] 1.3

By region[edit]

Nations and regions outside of Europe with significant populations of European ancestry:[53]


About 0-1 percent of the populations in Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone, usually are in the professional business elites. Not limited to Europeans, the "white" population includes Arab peoples: Lebanese and Syrians.[59]


Today, the official percentage of Filipinos with Spanish ancestry is unknown. The Philippine Statistics Department does not account for the racial background or ancestry of an individual. The official population of all types of mestizos (Asian, American, Hispanic, etc.) that reside inside and outside of the Philippines remains unknown. Although a study provided by Stanford University[78] claimed that around 3.6% of the population have White or Caucasian ancestries from both Spanish and American colonization, it only genotyped 28 individuals from the Philippines, a sample size far too small to draw conclusions on a population of over 90 million people.

In addition there are different estimates of this mixed descent, either by the parent side, it is calculated that some 3,500,000 to 5,000,000. In other cases it is also estimated with a proximity of 17,000,000 to 36,550,197 (15-39% of the Philippine population) people of Hispanic descent. But none of these estimates are supported by genetic studies.[79]

    •  Indonesia (Indo people) - 14,000 people, mostly of mixed Indonesian and Dutch descent.[80]
    •  Cambodia - approximately 16,000 people or 0.1% of the total population are Cambodian Eurasians, mainly of French ancestry from former French settlers.[81]
    •  Pakistan (Anglo-Indian) (Anglo-Pakistani) - approximately 11,000 people or 0.005% of the total population are the descendents of former British settlers who intermarried with local populations.[82]
    •  East Timor - approximately 1,100 people or 0.08% of the total population are Portuguese, descended from former Portuguese settlers.[83]
    •  Laos - an unknown number of Eurasians with French ancestry who are the descendents of former French settlers reside in Laos.
    •  Christmas Island - approximately 13% of the total population are white, with a further 2% Eurasian, both are British Australian.[84]
    •  Cocos (Keeling) Islands - 28.5% or one third of the total population are White, mostly British Australian.[85]

Small communities of European and American expatriates live in East Asia, such as China, Japan, Korea and Thailand.

Small communities of European and American expatriates in the Persian Gulf countries like Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and the UAE; and in Aramco compounds in Saudi Arabia. Historically before 1970, small ethnic European (esp. Greek and Italian) enclaves were found in Egypt (Greeks in Egypt, Italian Egyptians) and Syria (Greeks in Syria).


European colonization
of the Americas
First colonization
Colonization of Canada
Colonization of the U.S.

Total European population in the Americas—approximately 446,394,000

Europeans in Northern America[edit]

Europeans in Latin America and the Caribbean[edit]

  • Middle America (including Central America and the Caribbean) and South America (see White Latin American) -- Total European population approximately 197,094,000
    •  Argentina - 97% of the population or 38,913,000, may include a still unknown percentage of mestizos and mulattos.[89]
    •  Bahamas (European Bahamian) - 12% of the population or 39,600, the majority are African or other races.[90]
    •  Barbados (White Barbadian) - 4% of the population or 11,238, it's thought to be the highest of all British West Indies islands.[91]
    •  Bermuda - 34.1% of the population or 23,064, with a black or part-white/black majority.[92]
    •  Bolivia - 15% of the population or 1,636,000, the country except for Paraguay have the lowest white populations of South America.[93]
    •  Brazil (White Brazilian) - 49.7% of the population or 93,000,000. Another 42.6% are pardos of mixed White, African and/or Amerindian descent (showed by genetic research to be of about 80% European ancestry). Afro-Brazilians by genetical research showed to be of about 37.1% European ancestry (the majority inherited by colonial or Imperial times and of Portuguese origin). Some people of claimed Asian and Indigenous origin can also have European descent.[94]
    •  Chile - 20% of population (4,500,000),[12] or 30% of the population (5,128,000) is from European descent;[13] Francisco Lizcano estimates whites Chilean in a cultural base (not ethnic) at 52.7% (9,100,000).[14]
    •  Colombia (white Colombian) - 37% of the population or 17,519,500, 40 to 60% are part white (mestizo or mulatto).[5][6]
    •  Costa Rica - up to 90% white and/or mestizo (European and Amerindian descent), or 3,827,000.[95]
    •  Cuba - 65% of the population or 7,204,000[96]
    •  Dominican Republic - 16% of the population or 1,614,000, with 50-60% are mulatto or European-African.[97]
    •  Ecuador - 6% of the population or 940,000, while 72% are mestizos.[98]
    •  El Salvador - 9% of the population or 720,000, but the remainder 90% have some European ancestry.[99]
    •  French Guiana - 12% of the population or 26,000, but the French government insists all citizens of France regardless of race are "French".[100]
    •  Guatemala 18% of the population or 2,490,000 people.
    •  Haiti - 4% of the population in Haiti are white and mulatto (both African and European ancestry) and 1% European, or 97,000. White Haitians are chiefly of French, Italian, or German origin not including Middle Eastern & North American whites. This figure excludes the percentage of Haitians with less than noticeable European admixture.
    •  Jamaica - Approximately 2% of the population or 40,000 people are White, mainly British, American, and Portuguese (This number increases to 60,000 people and 3% of the total population when Arabs and Lebanese are included). However, the vast majority of the population in Jamaica have some degree of European Ancestry.[101]
    •  Martinique - 2% of the population or 8,000, with another 3% mulatto descent.[102]
    •  Mexico[103] (White Mexican) - About 18% of the population European or about 20,160,000, and an additional 72% of mixed European and Amerindian descent [104][105][106]
    •  Nicaragua - 17% of the population or 1,000,000 people, and 70% mestizo.[107]
    •  Panama 14.0% of the population is White of European origin or 352,000 people, 58.1% mestizo, 7% mulatto, 6.7% Amerindian, 5.5% Asian, and 7.1% other (2000 Census).
    •  Puerto Rico approx. 80% of the population or 2,980,000 are self-declared European ancestry, but over half of Puerto Ricans have some degree of African ancestry, and 10% of males and 84% of females have some indigenous Carib Indians ancestry.[108]
    •  Peru (European Peruvian) - 15% of the population or 3,425,000, about 40% mestizo or partial European descent.[109]
    •  Trinidad and Tobago - 1.7% of European descent or 24,600, mainly British, Spanish, French, German, and Portuguese, with a number of Scandinavian descent, although 30-40% have East Indian or 5% are Lebanese/Syrian Arab backgrounds.[110]
    •  Venezuela (white Venezuelan) - 42,2% of the population or 11,490,018, about 49,9% are part white (mestizo or partial European descent.) making it 92,1% of the population white and/or mestizo (European and Amerindian descent) or 25,076,755.[111]
    •  Uruguay - 88% of the population or 3,074,000, the rest have various levels of European descent.[112]
    •  Saint Barthélemy—90% or 7,940; Saint Martin (Statistics not available).[113]
    •  Falkland Islands, 100% European of British descent—total population 3,140.

The Virgin Islands divided between U.S. Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands, each have a small European minority.


  • Oceania -- Total population of Europeans in Oceania is approximately 23,185,000 or approximately 22,818,000 excluding Hawaii.
    •  Australia (European Australian) - 93.2% of the population or 20,299,000 people, and part-white-Australian Aborigines number about 500,000 as opposed to the approximately 50,000 pure blooded Australian Aborigines who can speak Australian languages.
    •  New Zealand (New Zealand European) - 59.1% of the population or 2,361,000, plus some Māori of mixed white-European descent.
    •  New Caledonia (Caldoche) - 44.6% of the population or about 112,050; the territory is under French rule.
    •  French Polynesia - 10% of the population (mostly French with some white Americans) or 26,700, and 6 to 8% are Euronesian (part white-Polynesian).[114]
    •  Hawaii - Europeans are 27.1% of the population (2008 survey) or 367,000 (called Haoles), although 65% of all Hawaiians have white-European descent.
    •  Guam - 10% of the population have Spanish and white American descent (2000 Census) or about 17,800 people. Guam has a history of Spanish settlement before 1900, now a U.S. territory.[115]
    •  Norfolk Island, about 50% British-Polynesian from Pitcairn Island (1,070 people) and 50% white-British descent mainly via Australia (1,070 people).

Contemporary European diasporas[edit]

National diasporas:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b 2010 United States Census statistics
  2. ^ IGBE: Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilio. Tabela 262 - População residente, por cor ou raça.
  3. ^ http://convergencia.uaemex.mx/rev38/38pdf/LIZCANO.pdf
  4. ^ a b Canada Census 2006
  5. ^ a b Bushnell, David & Rex A. Hudson (2010) "The Society and Its Environment"; Colombia: a country study: 87. Washingtion D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
  6. ^ a b "White Colombians". Retrieved 16 January 2014. 
  7. ^ Resultado Basico del XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2011 Venezuela 2011 Census , (p. 14).
  8. ^ http://www.ine.gob.ve/ INE : (adapted the % of 41,1% white people from the census with the actual new official census results
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h "Ethnic groups". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  10. ^ Cuba 2002 Census.
  11. ^ /www.statssa.gov.za South Africa statistics.
  12. ^ a b c "Chile". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2012-09-15. ""Chile's ethnic makeup is largely a product of Spanish colonization. About three-fourths of Chileans are mestizo, a mixture of European and Amerindian ancestries. One fifth of Chileans are of white European (mainly Spanish) descent"." 
  13. ^ a b c [1] Ernesto Medina-Lois&Ana María Kaempffer Elementos de Salud Pública, Universidad de Chile. (See: Chapter 5.2.6 Estructura racial)
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h Fernández, Francisco Lizcano (2007). Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI. UAEM. ISBN 978-970-757-052-8. 
  15. ^ Statistics New Zealand Highlights: Ethnic groups in New Zealand
  16. ^ 2010 Census Data. "2010 Census Data". 2010.census.gov. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  17. ^ a b The Socioeconomic Advantages of Mestizos in Urban Peru. princeton.edu. pp. 4-5.
  18. ^ Nacional de Estadística y Censo del Ecuador INEC.
  19. ^ a b "European Migration and Imperialism". Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 14 September 2013. "The population of Europe entered its third and decisive stage in the early eighteenth century. Birthrates declined, but death rates also declined as the standard of living and advances in medical science provided for longer life spans. The population of Europe including Russia more than doubled from 188 million in 1800 to 432 million in 1900. From 1815 through 1932, sixty million people left Europe, primarily to "areas of European settlement," in North and South America, Australia, New Zealand and Siberia. These populations also multiplied rapidly in their new habitat; much more so than the populations of Africa and Asia. As a result, on the eve of World War One, 38 percent of the world’s total population was of European ancestry. This growth in population provided further impetus for European expansion, and became the driving force behind emigration. Rising populations put pressure on land, and land hunger and led to "land hunger." Millions of people went abroad in search of work or economic opportunity. The Irish, who left for America during the great Potato famine, were an extreme but not unique example. Ultimately, one third of all European migrants came from the British Isles between 1840 and 1920. Italians also migrated in large numbers because of poor economic conditions in their home country. German migration also was steady until industrial conditions in Germany improved when the wave of migration slowed. Less than one half of all migrants went to the United States, although it absorbed the largest number of European migrants. Others went to Asiatic Russia, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand." 
  20. ^ http://www.asean-latin2012.com/venezuela.html "Between 1900 and 1958 more than one million Europeans immigrated to Venezuela."
  21. ^ Giovanni Bonfiglio, Las migraciones internacionales como motor de desarrollo en el Perú, Museo Nacional Japonés Americano. Publicado el 1 de julio de 2008. Consultado el 30 de octubre de 2011.
  22. ^ European Immigration into Latin America, 1870-1930
  23. ^ La estructura social
  24. ^ http://www.discovernikkei.org/en/journal/2008/7/1/2679/
  25. ^ Western North Africa, 1–500 A.D., The Metropolitan Museum of Art
  26. ^ Archaeologists Find Celts In Unlikely Spot: Turkey, New York Times
  27. ^ Diversity in the Desert: Daily Life in Greek and Roman Egypt, 332 B.C.E. - 641 C.E.
  28. ^ Alexander the Great and precious stones in Afghanistan, The Toronto Times
  29. ^ Cyril and Methodius of Thessalonica: The Acculturation of the Slavs
  30. ^ The Fate of Greenland's Vikings
  31. ^ Benjamin Z. Kedar, "The Subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant", in The Crusades: The Essential Readings, ed. Thomas F. Madden, Blackwell, 2002, pg. 244. Originally published in Muslims Under Latin Rule, 1100-1300, ed. James M. Powell, Princeton University Press, 1990. Kedar quotes his numbers from Joshua Prawer, Histoire du royaume latin de Jérusalem, tr. G. Nahon, Paris, 1969, vol. 1, pp. 498, 568-72.
  32. ^ Crusaders 'left genetic legacy', BBC News
  33. ^ a b Boris Fautos - Fazer a América: a imigração em massa para a América Latina."
  36. ^ 2006 Census Tables : Australia[original research?]
  37. ^ "Uruguay: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  38. ^ "Argentina: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  39. ^ "Puerto Rico: People; Ethnic groups". 2010.census.gov. Retrieved 2011-04-14. 
  41. ^ Informe Latinobarómetro 2011, Latinobarómetro (p. 58).
  42. ^ 2010 Brazilian Census.
  43. ^ Resultado Basico del XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2011, (p. 14).
  44. ^ Library of Congress Country Studies. "Colombia: Race and Ethnicity". Retrieved on April 12, 2011.
  45. ^ Colombia a country study, 2010 (pag 86,87) (English)
  46. ^ http://www.schwartzman.org.br/simon/coesion_etnia.pdf
  47. ^ "Nicaragua: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  48. ^ "D.R.: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  49. ^ "Mexico: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  50. ^ "Bolivia: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  51. ^ "Peru: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  52. ^ 2010 Ecuador Census
  53. ^ Ethnic groups by country. Statistics (where available) from CIA Factbook.
  54. ^ South Africa: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  55. ^ Namibia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  56. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=MA
  57. ^ La Reunion's population
  58. ^ Botswana: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  59. ^ a b Senegal, About 50,000 Europeans (mostly French) and Lebanese reside in Senegal, mainly in the cities.
  60. ^ Swaziland: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  61. ^ Morocco: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  62. ^ Tunisia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  63. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=VM
  64. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=IN
  65. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=BG
  66. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=BM
  67. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=MY
  68. ^ Fiona Hill, Russia — Coming In From the Cold?, The Globalist, 23 February 2004
  69. ^ Robert Greenall, Russians left behind in Central Asia, BBC News, 23 November 2005.
  70. ^ Kyrgyzstan: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  71. ^ Turkmenistan: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  72. ^ Southern Caucasus: Facing Integration Problems, Ethnic Russians Long For Better Life
  73. ^ Georgia: Ethnic Russians Feel Insulated From Tensions, Radio Free Europe
  74. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=AM
  75. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=MG
  76. ^ HK Census. "HK Census." Statistical Table. Retrieved on 2007-03-08.
  77. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=SN
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  79. ^ "Inmigración española en Filipinas". Wikipedia - en Español. Retrieved 2011. 
  80. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=ID
  81. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=CB
  82. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=PK
  83. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=TT
  84. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=KT
  85. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=CK
  86. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/le.html
  87. ^ Greenland
  88. ^ Canadian Census 2006
  89. ^ Argentina: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  90. ^ Bahamas: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  91. ^ Barbados: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  92. ^ Bermuda: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  93. ^ Bolivia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  94. ^ http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/condicaodevida/indicadoresminimos/sinteseindicsociais2006/indic_sociais2006.pdf Tabela 9.1, Accessed: 18 August 2009
  95. ^ "Costa Rica; People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-11-21. "white (including mestizo) 94%"  = 3.9 million whites and mestizos.
  96. ^ "Tabla II.3 Población por color de la piel y grupos de edades, según zona de residencia y sexo". Censo de Población y Viviendas (in Spanish). Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas. 2002. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  97. ^ Dominican Republic: People: Ethnic groups. World Factbook of CIA
  98. ^ "Ecuador: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2014-03-19. 
  99. ^ El Salvador: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  100. ^ French Guiana: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  101. ^ [2]
  102. ^ Martinique: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  103. ^ North America - Britannica Concise Encyclopedia
  104. ^ Mexico :: Ethnic groups - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  105. ^ Mexico: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  106. ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/379167/Mexico
  107. ^ "Nicaragua: People; Ethnic groups". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-11-15. 
  108. ^ Puerto Rico: People: Ethnic Groups World Factbook of CIA
  109. ^ Peru: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  110. ^ Trinidad French Creole
  111. ^ http://www.ine.gov.ve/CENSO2011/documentos/pdf/ResultadosBasicosCenso2011.pdf
  112. ^ Uruguay: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  113. ^ Fact Sheet on St. Barthélemy
  114. ^ French Polynesia: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA
  115. ^ Brazil: People: Ethnic Groups. World Factbook of CIA