An éminence grise (French for "grey eminence") is a powerful decision-maker or advisor who operates "behind the scenes" or in a non-public or unofficial capacity.
This phrase originally referred to François Leclerc du Tremblay, the right-hand man of Cardinal Richelieu. Leclerc was a Capuchin friar who was renowned for his beige robe attire (as beige was termed "grey" in that era.) The title "His Eminence" is used to address or reference a Cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church. Although Leclerc never achieved the rank of Cardinal, those around him addressed him as such in deference to the considerable influence this "grey" friar held over "His Eminence the Cardinal". 
Leclerc is popularly referenced in several works. Aldous Huxley wrote an English biography of Leclerc entitled Grey Eminence. There is also an 1873 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme, L'Éminence Grise, which depicts him descending the grand staircase of the Palais Cardinal. Leclerc is referenced in Alexandre Dumas' The Three Musketeers as the character Father Joseph, a powerful associate of Richelieu and one to be feared.
An éminence grise may alternatively refer to an elderly ("grey-haired") personage who is renowned for accomplishments in the past, but now acts as an advisor rather than a principal actor. He may be politically influential as a consequence of his honored status within an influential group or society as a whole. For example, a distinguished retired physics professor emeritus who advises scientific leaders and government officials on nuclear energy; or a retired U.S. Senator who advises the President on an informal basis, etc.
During the George W. Bush administration, his vice president Dick Cheney was viewed as an eminence grise, an "intellectual godfather" of its attempted expansion of presidential powers and its aggressive foreign policy, as well as its Manichaean view of the world. Said Lawrence Wilkerson, Secretary of State Colin Powell's chief of staff: "The power behind the throne--an eminence grise--that's what Dick Cheney has become. The real president of the United States is Dick Cheney." Cheney "essentially assembled the entire administration" and by putting close allies in key positions, built his own power base, "one that perhaps exceeded that of the president himself".
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- Historical reference to address in the Roman Catholic Church
- Mould, Michael (2011). The Routledge Dictionary of Cultural References in Modern French. New York: Taylor & Francis. p. 149. ISBN 978-1-136-82573-6. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- O'Connell, D.P. (1968). Richelieu. New York: The World Publishing Company.
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