List of rulers of Aleppo

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Aleppo Citadel was the center of the Aleppan monarchs in the Middle Ages
Aleppo Citadel Throne Hall, Built by the Mamluk Sultan of Aleppo Sayf al-Din Jakam

The rulers of Aleppo ruled as kings, Emirs and Sultans of the city and its region since the later half of the 3rd millennium BC,[1] starting with the kings of Armi,[2] followed by the Amorite dynasty of Yamhad,[3] and ending with the Ayyubid dynasty which was ousted by the Mongol conquest in 1260.

The rulers of Yamhad used the Titles of King and Great King, the Hittite dynasty monarchs used the titles of king and viceroy.

The Emirate of Halab was established in 945 by the Hamdanid dynasty and lasted until 1086, when it was elevated to the rank of Sultanate under the Seljuq dynasty, the sultanate was sometimes ruled along with Damascus by the same sultan.

The Artuqids rulers used the Titles of King (Malik) and Emir, so did the Zengid rulers in addition to the title Atabeg, while the Ayyubid monarchs used the titles of Sultan and Malik

The dates for Yamhad and the Hittite Dynasties are proximate and calculated by the Middle chronology.

Dynasty of Yamhad[edit]

Main article: Yamhad

Yamhad was the name of the Amorite kingdom centered at Ḥalab (modern day Aleppo),[4] its dynasty ruled for more than two centuries, Aleppo became a major power and dominated Northern Syria with the monarch holding the title of Great King.[5][6]

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Sumu-Epuh c. 1810 BC c. 1780 BC King of Yamhad (Halab)
Yarim-Lim I c. 1780 BC c. 1764 BC  • Son of Sumu-Epuh Great King of Yamhad (Halab)
Hammurabi I c. 1764 BC c. 1750 BC  • Son of Yarim-Lim I Great King of Yamhad (Halab)
Abba-El I c. 1750 BC c. 1720 BC  • Son of Hammurabi I Great King of Yamhad (Halab)
Yarim-Lim II c. 1720 BC c. 1700 BC  • Son of Abba-El I Great King of Yamhad (Halab)
Niqmi-Epuh c. 1700 BC c. 1675 BC  • Son of Yarim-Lim II Great King of Yamhad (Halab)
Irkabtum c. 1675 BC  Middle 17th century BC  • Son of Niqmi-Epuh Great King of Yamhad (Halab)
Hammurabi II Middle 17th century BC Middle 17th century BC Great King of Yamhad (Halab)
Yarim-Lim III Middle 17th century BC c. 1625 BC  • Probably Son of Niqmi-Epuh Great King of Yamhad (Halab)
Hammurabi III c. 1625 BC c. 1600 BC  • Son of Yarim-Lim III King of Yamhad (Halab)

Aleppo was conquered by Mursili I King of the Hittites, who captured Hammurabi III, the dynasty regained Halab after the assassination of Mursili but the "Yamhad" name fell out of use.[7]

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Sarra-El Early 16th century BC Middle 16th century BC  • Probably Son of Yarim-Lim III King of Halab
Abba-El II Middle 16th century BC Middle 16th century BC  • Son of Sarra-El King of Halab
Ilim-Ilimma I Middle 16th century BC c. 1525 BC  • Son of Abba-El II King of Halab

The Hittite Dynasty[edit]

Parshatatar of Mitanni conquered Aleppo, the city became part of that kingdom until conquered by Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites in the 14th century BC, who installed his son Telipinus as king of Aleppo, not all the Kings of this Dynasty are known, the Hittite dynasty remained in power until the Late Bronze Age collapse.[8][9][10]

Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Telepinus Later Half of the 14th century BC  • Son of the Hittite king Suppiluliuma I King of Halab
Talmi-Sarruma c. 1300 BC  • Son of Telepinus King of Halab
Halpazitis c. 1220 BC King of Halab

After the end of the Hittites, Arameans tribes began to settle in the region,[11] Aleppo became part of the Syro-Hittite state of Palistin,[12] then its successor Bit Agusi centered at Arpad,[13] Afterwards, it was sequentially part of Assyria,[14] Chaldea,[15] Persia,[16] Macedonia,[17] Seleúkeia,[18] Armenia,[19] Roman,[20] and Byzantine empires,[21] the Rashidun,[22] Umayyad,[23] and the Abbasid Caliphate.[24]

Hamdanid Dynasty[edit]

Main article: Hamdanid dynasty

The Hamdanids were an Arab dynasty, established in 945 by Ali ibn Abdallah nicknamed Sayf al-Dawla,[25] they ruled most of Syria with Aleppo as their capital,[26] under the titular authority of the Abbasid Caliph.[27]

Portrait Epithet Name Emir From Emir Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Sayf al-Dawla at his court.png Sayf al-Dawla Ali ibn Abu'l-Hayja 'Abdallah (Ali I) 945 967 Emir of Halab
Sa'd al-Dawla Sharif ibn Ali (Sharif I) 967 969  • Son of Sayf al-Dawla Emir of Halab

Non Dynastic[edit]

Qar'awyh the chamberlain of Sayf al-Dawla ousted Sa'd al-Dawla and assumed control over the city, Sa'd al-Dawla was able to regain Aleppo in 977.[27][28]

Portrait Epithet Name Emir From Emir Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Qar'awyh 969 975 Emir of Halab
Bakjur 975 977 Emir of Halab

Hamdanid Dynasty[edit]

Portrait Epithet Name Emir From Emir Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Sa'd al-Dawla Sharif ibn Ali (Sharif I) 977 991  • Son of Sayf al-Dawla Emir of Halab
Sa'id al-Dawla Sa'id ibn Sharif (Sa'id) 991 1002  • Son of Sa'd al-Dawla Emir of Halab
Abu'l-Hasan Ali (Ali II) 1002 1004  • Son of Sa'id al-Dawla Emir of Halab
Abu'l-Ma'ali Sharif (Sharif II) 1004 1004  • Son of Sa'id al-Dawla Emir of Halab

Lu'lu' Dynasty[edit]

Lu'lu' was a slave and then chamberlain of Sa'd al-Dawla, he married his daughter to Sa'id al-Dawla, and after the latter death he assumed direct power over Aleppo, at first as ostensible guardians over Sa'id al-Dawla's sons Abu'l-Hasan Ali and Abu'l-Ma'ali Sharif, until in 1004 when he had them exiled to Egypt.[29]

Portrait Epithet Name Emir From Emir Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Lu'lu' al-Kabir Abu Muhammad Lu'lu' al-Sayfi (Lu'lu') 1004 1009  • Sa'id al-Dawla Father in Law Emir of Halab
Murtada al-Dawla Abu Nasr Mansur (Mansur) 1009 1016  • Son of Lu'lu' Emir of Halab

Non Dynastic[edit]

a rebellion broke in the city, Mubarak al-Dawla Fateh the custodian of the Citadel opened the doors for the rebels causing Mansur to flee, then Fateh accepted the authority of the Fatimid Caliph and after a brief rule ceded Aleppo to the caliph in return for the treasury and the rule of Tyre.[30]

Portrait Epithet Name Emir From Emir Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Mubarak al-Dawla Abu Nasr Fateh Al-Qal'i (Fateh) 1016 1017 Emir of Halab

The caliph sent Fatik Aziz al-Dawla as governor but in 1020 Fatik declared his independence, and ruled for two years before being assassinated by a Fatimid agent.[30]

Portrait Epithet Name Emir From Emir Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Aziz al-Dawla Abu Shuja' Fatik (Fatik) 1020 1022 Emir of Halab

Mirdasid Dynasty[edit]

Main article: Mirdasid dynasty

The Mirdasids conquered Aleppo, establishing their independence in it, they kept their autonomy through political maneuvers allying themselves with the Byzantines at times or the Fatimid at others,[30] Ibn al-Adim an Aleppan historian who lived in the 13th century recorded the history of the Mirdasid Dynasty in his book The cream of the history of Aleppo.

Portrait Epithet Name Emir From Emir Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Notes Title
Asad al-Dawla Salih ibn Mirdas (Salih) 1024 1029 Emir of Halab
Mu'izz al-Dawla Thimal 1029 1030  • Son of Asad al-Dawla Salih First Reign Emir of Halab
Shibl al-Dawla Nasr (Nasr I) 1029 1038  • Son of Asad al-Dawla Salih Emir of Halab

After the death of Salih, his sons Nasr and Thimal ruled together, in 1030 Nasr deposed Thimal and ruled solely until killed by Anushtukin Al Dazbari the Fatimid Governor of Damascus, then Thimal regained Aleppo briefly from 23 May to 13 June 1038 when the Fatimid army took the city bringing it back to the Fatimid direct rule.[30]

Portrait Epithet Name Emir From Emir Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Notes Title
Mu'izz al-Dawla Thimal 1038 1038  • Son of Asad al-Dawla Salih Second Reign Emir of Halab

Non Dynastic[edit]

In December 1041 Anushtukin Al Dazbari fell out of favor with Cairo and declared his independence in Aleppo, but died of illness in January 1042.[30]

Portrait Epithet Name Emir From Emir Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Notes Title
Anushtukin Al Dazbari Ḥassān bin Ali (Ḥassān) 1041 1042 Emir of Halab

Mirdasid Dynasty[edit]

Thimal regained Aleppo and accepted the authority of the Fatimid Caliph.[30]

Portrait Epithet Name Emir From Emir Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Notes Title
Mu'izz al-Dawla Thimal 1042 1057  • Son of Asad al-Dawla Salih Third Reign Emir of Halab

In 1057, fearing family intrigues, Thimal handed over Aleppo to the Fatimids in return for Acre, Byblos and Beirut, thus returning Aleppo into the Fatimid direct control.[30]

In July 1060 Thimal nephew, Mahmud the son of Shibl al-Dawla Nasr regained Aleppo only to lose it in 7 August 1060 to the Fatimids.[30]

Portrait Epithet Name Emir From Emir Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Notes Title
Mu'izz al-Dawla Mahmud (Mahmud I) 1060 1060  • Son of Shibl al-Dawla Nasr First Reign Emir of Halab

About three weeks later in 30 August 1060 Asad al-Dawla 'Atiyya son of Salih the founder of the dynasty occupied Aleppo for a day and a half then fled as Mu'izz al-Dawla Mahmud advanced on the city after defeating the Fatimid army.[30]

Portrait Epithet Name Emir From Emir Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Notes Title
Assad al-Dawla 'Atiyya 1060 1060  • Son of Asad al-Dawla Salih First Reign Emir of Halab
Mu'izz al-Dawla Mahmud (Mahmud I) 1060 1061  • Son of Shibl al-Dawla Nasr Second Reign Emir of Halab
Mu'izz al-Dawla Thimal 1061 1062  • Son of Asad al-Dawla Salih Fourth Reign Emir of Halab
Assad al-Dawla 'Atiyya 1062 1065  • Son of Asad al-Dawla Salih Second Reign Emir of Halab
Mu'izz al-Dawla Mahmud (Mahmud I) 1065 1075  • Son of Shibl al-Dawla Nasr Third Reign Emir of Halab
Jalal al-Dawla Nasr (Nasr II) 1075 1076  • Son of Shibl al-Dawla Nasr Emir of Halab
Sabiq ibn Mahmud (Sabiq) 1076 1080  • Son of Shibl al-Dawla Nasr Emir of Halab

Uqaylids Dynasty[edit]

Main article: Uqaylid Dynasty

The pressure of Tutush I led the people of Aleppo along with the Mirdasid Emir to offer the city keys to Sharaf al-Dawla Muslim the ruler of Mosul, the Mirdasid family members were compensated by various towns in Syria.[31]

Portrait Epithet Name Emir From Emir Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
Sharaf al-Dawla Muslim ibn Quraysh (Muslim) 1080 1085 Emir of Halab

Sharaf al-Dawla was killed in June 1085 and was succeeded by his brother Ibrahim ibn Quraysh in Mosul, while Halab was Managed by the Sharif Hassan ibn Hibat Allah Al-Hutayti.

Seljuq Dynasty[edit]

Main article: Seljuq dynasty

Hassan ibn Hibat Allah Al-Hutayti promised to surrender the city to Tutush but then refused and wrote to Sultan Malik-Shah I offering to surrender the city to him, Tutush attacked and occupied the city except for the citadel in May 1086, he stayed until October and left for Damascus due to the advance of Malik-Shah armies, the Sultan himself arrived in December 1086.[30]

Portrait Epithet Name Sultan From Sultan Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Notes Title
Taj al-Dawla Tutush 1086 1086 First Reign Sultan of Halab
Büyük Selçuklu Sultanı Melikşah.jpg Mu'izz al-Dunia wa al-Din Malik-Shah 1086 1092  • Brother of Tutush Sultan of Halab

After the death of Malik-Shah his governor the Zengid Qasim Ud Dawla Aq Sunqur enjoyed much autonomy, he Pledged allegiance to Malik-Shah son Mahmud I of Great Seljuq (the II of Aleppo) then swore allegiance to Tutush only to switch back to Mahmud II brother Barkiyaruq, in 1094 Tutush defeated and beheaded Aq Sunqur thus assuming full control over Aleppo.[30]

Portrait Epithet Name Sultan From Sultan Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Notes Title
Nasir al-Din Mahmud (Mahmud II) 1092 1093  • Son of Malik-Shah Sultan of Halab
Taj al-Dawla Tutush 1093 1093  • Brother of Malik-Shah Second Reign Sultan of Halab
BarkiyaruqPainting.jpg Rukn al-Din Barkiyaruq 1093 1094  • Son of Malik-Shah Sultan of Halab
Taj al-Dawla Tutush 1094 1095  • Brother of Malik-Shah Third Reign Sultan of Halab
Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan 1095 1113  • Son of Tutush Sultan of Halab
Shams al-Mulk Alp Arslan 1113 1114  • Son of Radwan Sultan of Halab
Sultan Shah 1114 1117  • Son of Radwan Sultan of Halab

Artuqid Dynasty[edit]

Main article: Artuqids

Sultan Shah was only six when he came to the throne, the threats of the Crusader Count Joscelin led Sultan Shah Guardian Ibn al-Khashshab to offer the city to Ilghazi of Mardin who came to Aleppo thus starting the Artuqid dynasty in Aleppo.[30]

Portrait Epithet Name Emir From Emir Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Notes Title
Najm al-Din Ilghazi 1117 1120  • Son in Law of Radwan First Reign Emir of Halab
Shams al-Dawla Suleiman I 1120 1120  • Son of Ilghazi Usurper Emir of Halab
Najm al-Din Ilghazi 1120 1122  • Son in Law of Radwan Second Reign Emir of Halab
Badr al-Dawla Suleiman II 1122 1123  • Nephew of Ilghazi First Reign Emir of Halab
Nour al-Dawla Balak 1123 1124  • Nephew of Ilghazi Emir of Halab
Husam al-Din Timurtash 1124 1125  • Son of Ilghazi Emir of Halab

Timurtash was occupied with taking over the cities of his recently deceased brother Suleiman I (who usurped Aleppo briefly in 1120), the crusaders attacked Aleppo but Timurtash refused to come back, this led the people of Aleppo to seek the help of Aq Sunqur al-Bursuqi the Seljuq Atabeg of Mosul, Aq Sunqur broke the crusader siege adding Aleppo to the domains of his Lord the Seljuq Sultan Mahmud II.[30]

In 1127 The city rebelled against the Seljuq governor Khatlagh Abah and restored Suleiman II.

Portrait Epithet Name Emir From Emir Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Notes Title
Badr al-Dawla Suleiman II 1127 1128  • Nephew of Ilghazi Second Reign Emir of Halab

Zengid Dynasty[edit]

Main article: Zengid dynasty

Imad ad-Din Zengi the new Atabeg of Musol sent his army to end the troubles, he ruled in the name of Seljuq Sultan Mahmud II whose death led to civil war, Zengi didn't declare his independence and stood by Mas'ud the Seljuq Sultan of Iraq ruling in his name, however the sultan decided to eliminate Zengi and called upon him to show in his presence, Zengi was warned and declined to show thus becoming virtually independent.[30]

Portrait Epithet Name Atabeg From Atabeg Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Notes Title
Imad al-Din Zengi I 1135 1137  • Son in Law of Radwan Effective Reign 1128-1146 Atabeg of Halab

Zengi reconciled with the sultan and recognized his authority, but in practice he was independent in all but name.[30]

Nur al-Din Mahmud the son of Zengi inherited Aleppo, he took the title of King (Malik) and used the title of Emir,[32] formally the Zengid were subordinate to the Seljuq Sultans of Iraq (Hamedan), firstly Mas'ud then Malik-Shah III followed by Muhammad II, Nur al-Din kept using the Atabeg Title although he was completely independent as the Seljuq empire disintegrated after 1156,[33] and the sultans had to fight in Iraq to keep whats left of their authority, Muhammad II was the last Sultan to hold any real authority, he attacked Baghdad aided by Nur al-Din brother Mawdud, Muhammad II death in 1159 and the fact that his successor Suleiman Shah was a captive of Mawdud ended any real authority of the Seljuq Sultans,[34] Nur al-Din Held the Khutbah in the name of the Abbasid Caliph,[35] an enemy of the Seljuqs thus cutting any links with them.

Portrait Epithet Name Emir From Emir Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Notes Title
Nur ad-Din Zangi2.jpg Nur al-Din Mahmud (Mahmud III) 1146 1174  • Son of Zengi I Also Emir of Damascus Emir of Halab
Al-Salih Ismail 1174 1181  • Son of Nur al-Din Mahmud King of Halab
'Izz al-Din Mas'ud 1181 1182  • Grandson of Zengi I Emir of Halab
Imad al-Din Zengi II 1182 1183  • Brother of 'Izz al-Din Mas'ud Emir of Halab

Ayyubid Dynasty[edit]

Main article: Ayyubid dynasty

The death of Nur al-Din caused chaos as Al-Salih his son and successor was only eleven, the Zengid governor's fought for power, each one of them trying to be the Atabeg of Al-Salih, one of them Gumushtigin became the guardian of the young king and tried to eliminate the others causing the governor of Damascus to ask Saladin the Zengid governor of Egypt for help. Saladin, formally a subordinate to Al-Salih but practically independent, marched on Syria entering Damascus in November 1174, he sieged Aleppo causing Al-Salih cousin Ghazi II the Emir of Mosul to send his army which Saladin defeated at the battle of Tell al-Sultan, Saladin was proclaimed King of Egypt and Syria, the Caliph al-Mustadi conferred the Title of Sultan upon him.[36]

Saladin met Al-Salih and concluded a peace with the 13 years old King in the middle of 1176 leaving him to rule Aleppo independently for life while he (Saladin) ruled the rest of Syria.[30]

After the death of Al-Salih, Saladin expelled Al-Salih relative Zengi II and entered Aleppo in 20 June 1183 thus ending the Zengid Dynasty.

Portrait Epithet Name Sultan From Sultan Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Notes Title
Dirham Saladin.jpg Al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf I 1183 1193  • Married Mahmud III Widow Sultan of Halab
Al-Zahir Ghazi 1193 1216  • Son of Salah al-Din Sultan of Halab
Al-Aziz Muhammad 1216 1236  • Son of Al-Zahir Ghazi Sultan of Halab
AL-Nasir Yusuf II 1236 1260  • Son of Al-Aziz Regency of Dayfa Khatun, Also Sultan of Damascus Sultan of Halab

In 24 January 1260 the Mongol Khan Hulagu Khan entered Aleppo after a month of Siege thus ending the Ayyubid Dynasty.

Mamluks[edit]

The Mamluk Sultan Qutuz defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in 3 September 1260,[37] the whole of Syria became part of the Mamluk Sultanate, Aleppo was the capital of its own province ruled by a Na'ib (Naib), some of these governors revolted and declared their independence in Aleppo like Shams al-Din Aqosh al-Borli who installed al-Hakim I as Abbasid Caliph in order to legitimize his reign while the Sultan Baibars I installed al-Mustansir II,[38] other governors revolted with the aim of ruling the whole sultanate such as Yalbogha al-Nasiri who had Sultan Barquq dethroned in 1389.[39]

Portrait Epithet Name Sultan From Sultan Until Notes Title
Shams al-Din Aqosh 1261 1261 Expelled by 'Ala' al-Din al-Bunduqdari General of Baibars I Sultan of Halab

Aqosh eventually reconciled with the sultan, in 1404 Sayf al-Din Jakam revolted and declared himself Sultan.[40]

Portrait Epithet Name Sultan From Sultan Until Notes Title
Sayf al-Din Jakam 1404 1406 First Reign : Built the Throne Hall of Aleppo Citadel,[41] Eventually Expelled Sultan of Halab

Jakam Reoccupied the City and was pardoned and reappointed by the sultan, in May 1406 he was replaced by another Na'ib leading him to revolt again.

Portrait Epithet Name Sultan From Sultan Until Notes Title
Sayf al-Din Jakam 1407 1407 Second Reign, Beheaded Sultan of Halab

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

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  2. ^ William J. Hamblin. Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC. p. 220. 
  3. ^ John David Hawkins. Inscriptions of the Iron Age: Part 1. p. 388. 
  4. ^ Martin Sicker (2000). The pre-Islamic Middle East (Hardcover ed.). Praeger. p. 26. ISBN 0-275-96890-1. 
  5. ^ Gordon Douglas Young. Ugarit in Retrospect. p. 7. 
  6. ^ Mario Liverani. The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. p. 234. 
  7. ^ Michael C. Astour. Orientalia: Vol. 38. p. 384. 
  8. ^ John David Hawkins. Inscriptions of the Iron Age: Part 1. p. 388. 
  9. ^ P. J. Van Den Hout. The Purity of Kingship. p. 56. 
  10. ^ P. J. Van Den Hout. The Purity of Kingship. p. 59. 
  11. ^ Herbert Niehr. The Aramaeans in Ancient Syria. p. 6. 
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  13. ^ John Boardman. The Cambridge Ancient History: pt. 1. The prehistory of the Balkans; and the Middle East and the Aegean World. p. 375. 
  14. ^ John Boardman. The Cambridge Ancient History: pt. 1. The prehistory of the Balkans; and the Middle East and the Aegean World. p. 261. 
  15. ^ Trevor Bryce. Ancient Syria: A Three Thousand Year History. p. 138. 
  16. ^ Trevor Bryce. Ancient Syria: A Three Thousand Year History. p. 147. 
  17. ^ Douglas A. Phillips,Charles F. Gritzner. Syria. p. 27. 
  18. ^ Yasser Tabbaa. Constructions of Power and Piety in Medieval Aleppo. p. 16. 
  19. ^ Maurice Sartre. The Middle East Under Rome. p. 28. 
  20. ^ Martin Sicker. Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300 Years of Roman-Judaean Relations. p. 42. 
  21. ^ Philip K Hitti. History of Syria, Including Lebanon and Palestine. p. 351. 
  22. ^ Tony Jaques. Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A-E. p. 28. 
  23. ^ James Schryver. Studies in the Archaeology of the Medieval Mediterranean. p. 132. 
  24. ^ Philip K Hitti. History of Syria, Including Lebanon and Palestine. p. 534. 
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  26. ^ Trudy Ring,Robert M. Salkin,Sharon La Boda. International Dictionary of Historic Places: Middle East and Africa, Volume 4. p. 46. 
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  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Kamāl al-Dīn ʻUmar ibn Aḥmad Ibn al-ʻAdīm. Zubdat al-ḥalab min tārīkh Ḥalab. 
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  39. ^ Carl F. Petry. The Cambridge History of Egypt, Volume 1. p. 291. 
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