|This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2008)|
|Province (largely autonomous) of the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates|
Arminiya from c. 750-885
|Languages||Armenian (native language)
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
|History of Armenia|
Arminiya, also known as the Ostikanate of Arminiya, Emirate of Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստանի Էմիրություն, Hayastani Ēmirut'iun), was a political and geographic designation given by the Muslim Arabs to the lands of medieval Armenia, Caucasian Iberia, and Caucasian Albania following their conquest of these regions in the seventh century. Though the caliphs initially permitted an Armenian prince to represent the province of Arminiya in exchange for tribute and the Armenians' loyalty during times of war, Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan introduced direct Arab rule of the region, headed by an ostikan with his capital in Dvin.
The first Arab expedition reached Armenia in 639 AD. Dvin was captured and pillaged during this raid on 6 October 640. A second invasion took place in 642–643 and a third in 650, which captured some land north of Lake Van. According to bishop Sebeos, in January , the Arabs took the city of Tovin (Duin) by storm, slaughtered twelve thousand of its inhabitants and carried away thirty-five thousand into slavery. Armenia however remained under Byzantine suzerainty until 653/654, when Theodore Rshtuni voluntarily conceded Arab suzerainty and was recognized as autonomous prince of Armenia in return. According to this agreement, Armenia was recognized as an autonomous state subject to an annual tribute and a contribution of fifteen thousand troops to the Arab army. With Arab aid, Rhstuni repelled Byzantine attacks, and Arab troops even captured Theodosiopolis in 655, and cemented their control of the country by taking Rhstuni to Damascus and appointing his rival Hamazasp Mamikonian in his stead. The outbreak of the Muslim Civil War in 657 led to the recall of the Arab troops to Syria. Thereupon the Byzantines re-asserted their authority over the country, aided by Mamikonian. In 661 however, the victor of the Muslim civil war Mu'awiyah ordered the Armenian princes to re-submit to his authority and pay tribute. In order to avoid another war, the princes complied. The Arab policy of demanding that the tribute be paid in money had an effect on Armenian economy and society. Coins were struck in Duin. The Armenians were forced to produce a surplus of food and manufactured goods for sale. A strong urban life was developed in Caucasia as the economy revived.
The Arabs, for administrative purposes, gathered the whole of the South Caucasus into one vast viceroyalty called al-Arminiya. Under the Umayyads especially, it was usually combined with the governorship of Azerbaijan (classical Media Atropatene), sometimes with the Jazira (northern Mesopotamia), and less often, with Tabaristan (southeast of Gīlān) and even Fars (central Persia). Armenia was governed by an emir or wali headquartered at Dvin (Dabil in Arab sources), whose role however was limited to defence and the collection of taxes: the country was largely run by the local princes, the nakharar. The province was formally established by the time of the caliph Abd al-Malik (r. 685–705). The Emirate of Armenia (al-Arminiya) was divided into four regions: Arminiya I (Caucasian Albania), Arminiya II (Caucasian Iberia), Arminiya III (the area around Aras River), Arminiya IV (Taron). This viceroyalty also contained two large lakes: the salt lake known as Lake Van in the south-west, and the fresh water Lake Sevan (Lychnitis) on its north-eastern border.
With the establishment of the Abbasid Caliphate, a period of repression was inaugurated: Caliph al-Mansur revoked the privileges and subsidies of the nakharar and imposed harsh taxation, leading to the outbreak of a major rebellion in 774. The revolt was suppressed in the Battle of Bagrevand in April 775, an event which saw the near-extinction, reduction to insignificance or exile to Byzantium of some of the most prominent nakharar families, most importantly the Mamikonian.  In the aftermath of the rebellion, the Caliphate tightened its grip on the Transcaucasian provinces: the nobility of neighbouring Iberia was also decimated in the 780s, and a process of settlement with Arab tribes began which by the middle of the 9th century led to the Islamization of Caucasian Albania, while Iberia and much of lowland Armenia came under the control of a series of Arab emirates. At the same time, the power vacuum left by the destruction of so many nakharar clans was filled by two other great families, the Artsruni in the south (Vaspurakan) and the Bagratuni in the north.
Despite several insurrections, the Emirate of Armenia lasted until 884, when the Bagratuni Ashot I, who had managed to win control over most of its area, declared himself "King of the Armenians". He received recognition by Caliph Al-Mu'tamid of the Abbasid dynasty in 885 and Byzantine Emperor Basil I of the Macedonian dynasty in 886. Armenia thus emerged as an independent state once again.
Arab governors of Armenia
- Hudaifa ibn al-Yaman
- al-Mughira ibn Shu'ba
- al-Qasim ibn Rabi'a ibn Umayya ibn Abi's al-Thaqafi
- Habib ibn Maslama al-Fihri
- al-As'ath ibn Qays al-Kindi (ca. 657)
- Muhallab ibn Abi Sufra (ca. 686)
- Muhammad ibn Marwan (c. 695–705), represented by the following deputies:
- Abd al-Aziz ibn Hatim al-Bahili (706–709)
- Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik (709–721)
- al-Djarrah ibn Abdallah al-Hakami (721–725)
- Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik (725–729)
- al-Djarrah ibn Abdallah al-Hakami (729–730)
- Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik (730–732)
- Marwan ibn Muhammad (732–733)
- Sa'id ibn Amr al-Harashi (733–735)
- Marwan ibn Muhammad (735–744)
- Ishaq ibn Muslim al-Uqayli (744–750)
- Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad (750–753)
- Yazid ibn Asid ibn Zafir al-Sulami (753–755)
- Sulayman (755–?)
- Salih ben Subai al-Kindi (c. 767)
- Bakkar ibn Muslim al-Uqayli (c. 769–770)
- al-Hasan ibn Qahtaba (770/771–773/774)
- Yazid ibn Asid ibn Zafir al-Sulami (773/774–778)
- Uthman ibn 'Umara ibn Khuraym (778–785)
- Khuzayma ibn Khazim (785–786)
- Yusuf ibn Rashid al-Sulami (786–787)
- Yazid ibn Mazyad al-Shaybani (787–788)
- Abd al-Qadir (788)
- Sulayman ibn Yazid (788–799)
- Yazid ibn Mazyad al-Shaybani (799–801)
- Asad ibn Yazid al-Shaybani (801–802)
- Muhammad ibn Yazid al-Shaybani (801–802)
- Khuzayma ibn Khazim (803–?)
- Asad ibn Yazid al-Shaybani (c. 810)
- Ishaq ibn Sulayman (c. 813)
- Khalid ibn Yazid ibn Mazyad (813–?)
- Khalid ibn Yazid ibn Mazyad (828–832)
- Khalid ibn Yazid ibn Mazyad (841)
- Khalid ibn Yazid ibn Mazyad (c. 842–844)
- Muhammad ibn Khalid (c. 842/844–?)
- Abu Sa'id Muhammad al-Marwazi (849–851)
- Yusuf ibn Abu Sa'id al-Marwazi (851–852)
- Muhammad ibn Khalid (857–862)
- Ali ibn Yahya al-Armani (862–863)
- Isa ibn al-Shaykh al-Shaybani (870–878, nominally until 882/3)
- Mjej II Gnuni Մժեժ Բ Գնունի, 628-635
- David Saharuni Դավիթ Սահառունի, 635-638
- Theodore Rshtuni Թէոդորոս Ռշտունի, 638-645
- Varaztirots II Bagratuni Վարազ Տիրոց Բ Բագրատունի, 645
- Theodore Rshtuni Թէոդորոս Ռշտունի, 645-653, 654-655
- Mushegh II Mamikonian Մուշէղ Բ Մամիկոնեան, 654
- Hamazasp II Mamikonian Համազասպ Բ Մամիկոնեան, 655-658
- Gregory I Mamikonian Գրիգոր Ա Մամիկոնեան, 662-684/85
- Ashot II Bagratuni Աշոտ Բ Բագրատունի, 686-690
- Nerses Kamsarakan Ներսէս Կամսարական, 689-691
- Smbat VI Bagratuni Սմբատ Զ Բագրատունի, 691-711
- Ashot III Bagratuni Աշոտ Գ Բագրատունի, 732-748
- Gregory II Mamikonian Գրիգոր Բ Մամիկոնեան, 748-750
- Sahak VII Bagratuni Սահակ Է Բագրատունի, 755-761
- Smbat VII Bagratuni Սմբատ Է Բագրատունի, 761-772
- Tachat Andzevatsi Տաճատ Անձեւացի, 780-782/785
- Ashot IV Bagratuni Աշոտ Դ Բագրատունի, 806-826
- Smbat VIII Bagratuni Սմբատ Ը Բագրատունի, 826-855
- Bagrat II Bagratuni Բագրատ Բ Բագրատունի, 830-852
- Ashot V Bagratuni Աշոտ Ա Հայոց Արքա, Աշոտ Ե իշխան Հայոց, 862-885
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- Ter-Ghewondyan. The Arab Emirates in Bagratid Armenia, pp. 20-21.
- Morgan 1918, p. 139.
- Histoire d’Héraclius. Trancl. Fr. Macler, Paris, 1904.
- Robert H. Hewsen. Armenia: A Historical Atlas. Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2001, 107, map 81.
- Whittow, Mark (1996). The Making of Byzantium, 600–1025. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-520-20496-6.
- Whittow, Mark (1996). The Making of Byzantium, 600–1025. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 213–215. ISBN 978-0-520-20496-6.
- Arab Governors (Ostikans) of Arminiya, 8th Century
- A. Ter-Ghevondyan's "Chronology of the Ostikans of Arminiya," Patma-banasirakan handes (1977) 1, pp. 117-128.
- Rulers of Armenia and of Western and Eastern Empires.
- Morgan, Jacques de (1918), The History of the Armenian People: From the remotest times to the present day, Barry, Ernest F., trans., Boston: Hairenik Press.
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