Emma Mærsk

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Emma Mærsk2.jpg
Container ship Emma Mærsk in Aarhus, September 5, 2006
Name: Emma Maersk
Owner: Moller-Maersk[1]
Operator: A. P. Moller-Maersk Group
Port of registry: Taarbæk,  Denmark
Builder: Odense Steel Shipyard Ltd, Denmark
Laid down: 20 January 2006[2]
Launched: 18 May 2006
Acquired: 31 August 2006
In service: 31 August 2006
Identification: ABS class no: 06151181
Call sign: OYGR2
IMO number: 9321483
MMSI number: 220417000
Status: In service
General characteristics
Class & type: Mærsk E-class container ship
Tonnage: 170,794 GT
55,396 NT
156,907 DWT
Length: 397 m (1,302 ft)
Beam: 56 m (184 ft)
Draught: 16.02 m (52.6 ft)
Depth: 30 m (98 ft) (deck edge to keel)
Propulsion: 80 MW (109,000 hp) Wärtsilä 14RT-Flex96c plus 30 MW (40,000 hp) from five Caterpillar 8M32
Speed: 25.5 knots (47.2 km/h; 29.3 mph)
Capacity: 14,770+ TEU
1000 TEU (reefers)
Crew: 13, with room for 30
Notes: [3]

Emma Mærsk is the first container ship in the E-class of eight owned by the A. P. Moller-Maersk Group. When launched in 2006 she was the largest container ship ever built, and in 2010 she and her seven sister ships were among the longest container ships. Officially, she is able to carry around 11,000 twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) or 14,770 TEU depending on definition. In May 2010, sister ship Ebba Mærsk set a record of 15,011 TEU in Tanger-Med, Tangiers.[4]

History[edit]

She was built at the Odense Steel Shipyard in Denmark. In June 2006, during construction, welding work caused a fire within the superstructure.[5][6] It spread rapidly through the accommodation section and bridge, which delayed her completion by six to seven weeks.

She was named in a ceremony on 12 August 2006, after Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller's late wife. She set sail on her maiden voyage on 8 September 2006 at 02:00 hours from Aarhus, calling at Gothenburg, Bremerhaven, Rotterdam, Algeciras, the Suez Canal, and arrived in Singapore on 1 October 2006 at 20:05 hours. She sailed the next day for Yantian in Shenzhen, then Kobe, Nagoya, arriving at Yokohama on 10 October 2006, and returning via Shenzhen, Hong Kong, Tanjung Pelepas, the Suez Canal, Felixstowe, Rotterdam, Bremerhaven, Gothenburg to Aarhus, arriving on 11 November 2006 at 16:00 hours.[7]

She appeared in headlines prior to Christmas 2006, when she was dubbed SS Santa because she was bound for the United Kingdom from China loaded with Christmas goods. The return journey to southern China was loaded with UK waste for recycling.[8]

Her appearance in the news prompted the State Environmental Protection Administration in China to promise to "closely watch the progress of investigation into the dumping of garbage in south China by Britain". Ministry officials added that no official approval had been given to any company in the area to import waste.[9]

In 2008 she appeared in an episode of the TV documentary series Mighty Ships during a voyage between Malaysia and Spain.[10]

In 2011, the National Bank of Denmark issued a 20 DKK commemorative coin for her.[11]

Going eastwards on 1 February 2013, she suffered a damaged stern thruster and took on so much water in the Suez Canal that she became unmaneuvrable. Tugs, anchors and the wind[12] took her to Port Said to offload 13,500 containers, drain her and be investigated by divers. She has not been in danger of sinking.[13][14][15][16][17] On 15 February 2013, Maersk Line confirmed that she was about to leave Port Said under tow to a yard for further assessment and repair.[18] On 25 February she reached the yard of Palermo, Italy, where she was scheduled to stay for four months.[19] In August 2013, she was in service again[20] after a DKK 250 million (roughly US$44.5m) repair.[21]

Capacity[edit]

Originally Maersk reported a capacity of 11,000 TEU (twenty-foot equivalent units) as the maximum capacity of fully loaded 14 ton containers, according to Maersk company's then method of calculating capacity,[22] which, at her introduction into service, was about 1,400 more containers than any other ship.[23] However, Maersk also acknowledges the standard method of defining capacity, stating 14,770 TEU.[24]

By normal calculations, she has a capacity significantly greater than reported—between 13,500 and 15,200 TEU.[25][26] The difference between the official and estimated numbers is because Maersk calculates the capacity of a container ship by weight (in this case, 14 tons/container), i.e. 11,000+ containers,[27] of which 1,000 can be reefers.[28] Other companies calculate capacity according to the maximum number of containers that can be carried irrespective of weight, always greater than the number calculated by the Maersk method.

As of 2012, the E-class is still the largest by full-weight 14-tonne capacity. The Marco Polo can carry 10,000 14-t containers, 16,020 if not fully loaded.[29][30]

On 21 February 2011, Maersk ordered a family of ten even larger ships from Daewoo, the Maersk Triple E class, with a capacity of 18,000 containers. A further ten ships were ordered in June 2011. The first was delivered in 2013.[31][32]

Engine and hull[edit]

She is powered by a Wärtsilä-Sulzer 14RTFLEX96-C engine, the world's largest single diesel unit, weighing 2,300 tonnes and capable of 109,000 horsepower (81 MW) when burning 3,600 US gallons (14,000 l)[33] of heavy fuel oil per hour. At economical speed, fuel consumption is 0.260 bs/hp·hour (1,660 gal/hour).[34] She has features to lower environmental damage, including exhaust heat recovery and cogeneration.[35] Some of the exhaust gases are returned to the engine to improve economy and lower emissions,[36] and some are passed through a steam generator which then powers a Peter Brotherhood steam turbine and electrical generators. This creates an electrical output of 8.5 MW,[37] equivalent to about 12% of the main engine power output. Some of this steam is used directly as shipboard heat.[38] Five diesel generators together produce 20.8 MW,[37] giving a total electric output of 29 MW.[28] Two 9 MW electric motors power the main propeller shaft.[37][39]

Two bow and two stern thrusters provide port manoeuvrability, and two pairs of stabilizer fins reduce rolling.[37]

A special silicone-based paint, instead of biocides used by much of the industry, keeps barnacles off of the hull.[23] This increases her efficiency by reducing drag while also protecting the ocean from biocides that may leak. The paint is credited with lowering the water drag enough to save 1,200 tonnes of fuel per year.[40] The ship has a bulbous bow, a standard feature for cargo ships.

The turning diameter at 24 knots (44 km/h) is 0.81 nmi (1.50 km). The engine is near midship to make best use of the rigidity of the hull and to maximize capacity. When banking 20 degrees, the bridge sways 35 metres.[41]

Sailing schedules[edit]

Her regular round trip is between northern Europe and the far east via the English Channel, the Strait of Gibraltar and the Suez Canal, calling at Ningbo, Xiamen, Hong Kong (westbound), Yantian (westbound), Algeciras (westbound), Rotterdam, Bremerhaven, Algeciras (eastbound), Yantian (eastbound), Hong Kong (eastbound), and Ningbo.[7][42][43] As of April 2011, the schedule included Gdansk, Aarhus, and Gothenburg.[44]

Criticism[edit]

She and similar ships have been criticised for burning bunker fuel, which has a high sulphur content,[45] 2.5 to 4.5%, over 2,000 times more than allowed in automotive fuel.[45]

In internationally agreed Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECAs) fuel with a maximum of 1.0% [2010] sulphur is used, to be reduced to 0.1% in 2015. Reduced sulphur in the fuel affects the lubrificatory properties, which could lead to lower reliability, and higher costs for maintenance and repair in addition to purchasing the more expensive low-sulphur fuel.

In Europe, new rules regarding the operation of marine shipping will require ships to burn cleaner fuel. MARPOL Regulation 14 will limit global sulphur content to 0.5% in 2020, but a review of global fuel availability due to conclude in 2018 may delay the new regulation until 2025.[46]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Equasis
  2. ^ American Bureau of Shipping: Official Registry Number D4150
  3. ^ "ABS Record: Emma Maersk". American Bureau of Shipping. 23 July 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2010. 
  4. ^ Julie Holt (28 May 2010). "Ebba Mærsk beats world record". Ingeniøren. Retrieved 11 June 2010. 
  5. ^ Pryce, Michael et al. Maersk Line[dead link] New Zealand Ship & Maritime Society, February 2007. Retrieved: 31 August 2010. Pictures
  6. ^ Miranda Max. "The Secret Story Of Building The World’s Largest Container Ship".
  7. ^ a b "Sailing Schedule". Maersk Line. 
  8. ^ Gaoming Jiang (2007-02-08). "China must say no to imported waste". Chinadialogue. 
  9. ^ "SEPA Warns of Crackdown on Foreign Waste Imports" (Press release). Chinese State Environmental Protection Administration. 2007-01-25. 
  10. ^ "Might Ships". DiscoveryHD.ca. CTV Global Media. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  11. ^ . National Bank of Denmark. 15 September 2011 http://www.nationalbanken.dk/DNUK/NotesAndCoins.nsf/side/Emma_Maersk!OpenDocument. Retrieved 15 October 2013.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. ^ "Here it comes" page 29-31, Maersk Post June 2013. Accessed: 22 September 2013.
  13. ^ Accident report
  14. ^ "Emma Maersk ship faces leakage in Suez Canal". Egypt Independent / Al-Masry Al-Youm. 2 February 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013. 
  15. ^ Hjorth, Mikael (2 February 2013). ""Emma Mærsk" tog vand ind i Suez-kanalen". Retrieved 2 February 2013.  English translation
  16. ^ Hjorth, Mikael (2 February 2013). "Såret Mærsk-gigant undersøges af dykkere". Retrieved 2 February 2013.  English translation
  17. ^ "Kæmpe Mærsk-skib tager vand ind: Nu skal 13.500 containerne læsses af". Politiken. 2 February 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013.  English translation
  18. ^ "Emma Maersk: after immediate repairs, the onward journey begins". Maersk Line. 15 February 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2013. 
  19. ^ "Arrivata a Palermo la Emma Maersk la portacontainer più grande del mondo". 
  20. ^ OLE ANDERSEN. "Emma Maersk sails again" ShippingWatch, 1 August 2013. Accessed: 22 September 2013.
  21. ^ TOMAS KRISTIANSEN. "Here comes the bill for Emma Maersk" ShippingWatch, 13 August 2013. Accessed: 22 September 2013.
  22. ^ "Namegiving of newbuilding L 203" (Press release). Odense Steel Shipyard. 2006-12-08. 
  23. ^ a b Koepf, Pam (2006), Overachievers We Love, Popular Science 269 (6): 24 
  24. ^ Vessels Maersk Line, 1 June 2010. Retrieved: 16 June 2010.
  25. ^ Alexander Bakker (2006-09-12). "Big, bigger, biggest". Port of Rotterdam. 
  26. ^ Emma Maersk (PDF)
  27. ^ "Giant Christmas goods ship docks". BBC News. 2006-11-05. 
  28. ^ a b Røe, Magne A. Logistics of building large ships Det Norske Veritas, 23 September 2008. Retrieved: 31 August 2010.
  29. ^ "CMA CGM MARCO POLO". Retrieved 6 November 2012. 
  30. ^ "The race among the world’s biggest ships begins". Retrieved 6 November 2012. 
  31. ^ Maersk orders up to 30 of biggest container ships on trade BusinessWeek, 21 February 2011. Accessed: 21 February 2011.
  32. ^ E-class successor
  33. ^ Wärtsilä RT-flex96C technical information
  34. ^ Emma Mærsk Ship Technology. Retrieved: 31 August 2010.
  35. ^ Waste Heat Recovery (WHR): Fuel savings with less emissions Wärtsilä Corporation, 2006. Accessed: 4 December 2010.
  36. ^ Holsting, Robert. Emma Mærsk, information & data Robse. Accessed: 26 February 2011.
  37. ^ a b c d Distinctive ships 2006 AllBusiness, 1 December 2006. Retrieved: 31 August 2010.
  38. ^ "The world's most powerful Engine enters service" (Press release). Wärtsilä Corporation. 2006-09-12. 
  39. ^ Shaft generator and booster plants – the generations Siemens, 2007. Accessed: February 2011.
  40. ^ http://www.maerskline.com/link/?page=brochure&path=/news_room/photo_archive/vessels
  41. ^ Solmer, Henrik. Q&A with Captain of Emma Mærsk dr.dk, 20 February 2007. Retrieved: 24 July 2010.
  42. ^ Emma Maersk trip 1006 schedule Cargo in China, July 2010. Retrieved: 31 August 2010.
  43. ^ Sailing schedules page 5 Maersk Line. Retrieved: 31 August 2010.
  44. ^ Emma Mærsk schedules Mærsk, 5 December 2011. Accessed: 6 December 2011.
  45. ^ a b Fred Pearce (21 November 2009). "How 16 ships create as much pollution as all the cars in the world". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 11 June 2010. 
  46. ^ http://www.imo.org/ourwork/environment/pollutionprevention/airpollution/pages/sulphur-oxides-(sox)-%E2%80%93-regulation-14.aspx

See also[edit]

External links[edit]