Emmanuel Louis Masqueray
Emmanuel Louis Masqueray (1861–1917) was a Franco-American preeminent figure in the history of American architecture, both as a gifted designer of landmark buildings and as an influential teacher of the profession of architecture.
He was born in Dieppe, France, on September 10, 1861 to Charles-Emmanuel and Henriette-Marie-Louise Masqueray, née de Lamare. He was educated in Rouen and Paris. Having decided to become an architect, he studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris, as a pupil of Jean-Claude Laisné and Paul-René-Léon Ginain, and was awarded the Deschaumes Prize by the Institute of France. He also received the Chandesaigues Prize. While in Paris, he also served on the Commission des Historiques.
He came to the United States in 1887 to work for the firm of Carrère and Hastings in New York City; both John Mervin Carrère (November 9, 1858 – March 1, 1911) and Thomas Hastings (1860–1929) had been fellow students with Masqueray at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. While in their employ, Masqueray created the watercolor elevation of the Ponce de Leon Hotel in St. Augustine, Florida. Other important work on the boards during his time with the firm included the Hotel Alcazar, St. Augustine, Florida, 1887, now the Lightner Museum, The Commonwealth Club, Richmond, Virginia, 1891, and the Edison Building, New York City, 1891 (razed). Five years later, he joined the office of Richard Morris Hunt (1827–1895), the first American architect to attend the Ecole des Beaux Arts; in Hunt's firm he helped design many notable buildings including the Elbridge Gerry residence in Marblehead, MA, the William Astor house on Fifth Avenue in New York City, and Ochre Court in Newport, Rhode Island. It is likely that he made major contributions to the design of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. He also contributed to the design of The Breakers for Cornelius Vanderbilt II in Newport, Rhode Island.
In 1893, Masqueray opened the Atelier Masqueray, for the study of architecture according to French methods; architect Walter B. Chambers shared in this enterprise. Located at 123 E. 23rd Street, this was the first wholly independent atelier opened in the United States. A colorful, dynamic teacher, Masqueray pleaded with his students to make things simple. Beginning in 1899, Masqueray made special provision for women to number among his architectural students by establishing a second atelier especially for women at 37–40 West 22nd Street in New York. As was said at the time, "...he has unbounded faith in women's ability to succeed in architecture...provided they go about it seriously."
Among his students over the next decade in New York were:
- William T. L. Armstrong (later of the firm De Gelleke and Armstrong, New York)
- W. Bellows (architect Charles Walter Bellows of Columbus, OH)
- Guy Bolton (Broadway impresario)
- Seymour Burrell (architect of the St. Germain Lofts, Houston, TX; S. H. Kress & Co. Corporate Architect)
- James E. Cooper (of d'Hauteville & Cooper, Long Island architects); Greentree, William Payne Whitney Mansion.
- Lester A. Cramer (later practiced in Los Angeles; architect of the Rosicrucian Fellowship Temple and the Sanatorium at Mount Ecclesia)
- Roy Corwin Crosby (architect of houses on the Palisades)
- Clarence E. Decker (later of Decker and Stevenson, architects of the YWCA, San Diego)
- Mortimer Foster (later of Foster, Gade and Graham)
- Frederick George Frost, Sr. (principal of his own firm in New York City which later included his son and namesake), Hall of Fashion, New York 1939 World's Fair
- Leon N. Gillette (of the NYC firm Walker & Gillette)
- ? Gray
- William Cook Haskell (later of the firm Townsend, Steinle & Haskell)
- James Hopkins (of the Boston architectural firm of Kilham and Hopkins)
- John G. Hough
- William S. Hutton (later an Indiana school architect who partnered with George Grant Elmslie)
- Louis Jallade (architect of the gymnasium at the University of Delaware)
- John R. Jordan
- Rupert W. Koch (architect of men's dorm at the University of Michigan)
- Frederick Larkin (later of the US State Department in charge of Embassy design)
- ? Loud
- Louis Levitansky (later "Louis Levine") – Westchester County NY architect
- Charles E. Mack (associated with the firm of Cass Gilbert)
- Sylvester S. McGrath (later of the firm Davis, McGrath & Kiessling, architects of among many others, Gramercy East Professional Building, 115 East 23rd Street, New York City)
- Henry Murphy (architectural advisor to China)
- George Nagle (associated with Masqueray at the St. Louis Fair)
- Clarence A. Neff (later of Neff and Thompson, Norfolk, VA)
- Charles F. Owsley (principal of a Youngstown, OH, firm; designed art deco Isaly's headquarters there)
- Barnet Phillips, Jr. (later of the firm Barnet Phillips Architectural Decorators, New York)
- Carl Richardson
- Isabel Roberts (of the Oak Park studio of Frank Lloyd Wright)
- Lincoln Rogers (of the 1920s firm Rogers and Stevenson, in San Diego) 
- Frank B. Rosman
- ? Schalkenbach
- Leonard B. Schultze (architect of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel see Schultze and Weaver)
- Walter W. Sharpley (builder of Philadelphia's Bellevue-Stratford Hotel)
- Martin Shepard (New Orleans architect)
- Francis S. "Frank" Swales (later of the firm Painter & Swales; designer of Selfridges' Store, Oxford Street, London, and The Brussels Exposition of 1910’s Canadian Pacific Railway Pavilion)
- George E. Sweet (who became a naval architect)
- William Van Alen (architect of the Chrysler Building)
- Elwood Williams (associated with Masqueray for the St. Louis Exposition; later with offices at 507 Fifth Avenue, NYC)
- Edward J. Willingale (associated with J E M Carpenter as architects of the Lincoln Building (42nd Street, New York, New York) now known as One Grand Central Place)
- Wilison Joseph Wythe (assistant professor of drawing, University of California)
His reputation became international in 1901 when the commissioner of architects of the St. Louis Exposition selected him to be Chief of Design. Masqueray in turn employed some of his former students including Frank Swales and George Nagle. As Chief of Design of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, a position he held for three years, Masqueray had architectural oversight of the entire Fair and personally designed the following Fair buildings:
- Palace of Agriculture
- The Cascades and Colonnades
- Palace of Forestry, Fish, and Game
- Palace of Horticulture
- Palace of Transportation
Design ideas from all of these were widely emulated in civic projects across the United States as part of the City Beautiful Movement. Masqueray resigned shortly after the fair opened in 1904, having been invited by Archbishop John Ireland of St. Paul to come to Minnesota and design the new Cathedral of Saint Paul in Saint Paul for the city.
Masqueray arrived in St. Paul in 1905 and remained there until his death. He designed about two dozen parish churches for Catholic and Protestant congregations in the upper Midwest, including:
- Cathedral of Saint Paul in Saint Paul
- Basilica of Saint Mary, Minneapolis (1908)
- St. Paul's Episcopal Church on the Hill, St. Paul (1912)
- Bethlehem Lutheran Church, 655 Forest Street, St. Paul
- University Hall at the University of St. Thomas, St. Paul
- Chapel of St. Thomas Aquinas, 121 Cleveland Ave., St. Paul (1918)
Masqueray designed several small churches in what is now the Diocese of New Ulm.
- The Church of the Holy Redeemer, Marshall, Minnesota (1915)
- Church of St. Peter, St. Peter, Minnesota (1911) The Church was destroyed by a tornado that struck St. Peter on March 29, 1998, a new church-school complex was built at a new location west of the city at 1801 West Broadway. The St. Peter Community Center and Public Library occupy the site of the former church.
- Church of St. Edward, Minneota, Minnesota
- Church of St. Francis, Benson, Minnesota
- Sacred Heart Church, Murdock, Minnesota
And in the Diocese of Dubuque in Iowa.
- Church of St. Patrick, Cedar Falls, Iowa
He also designed three more cathedrals, of which two were built:
- The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Wichita, Kansas
- St. Joseph Cathedral, Sioux Falls, South Dakota
Masqueray also designed important residences in and around St. Paul (one of which, a 1915 home at 427 Portland Avenue, has been owned by radio personality Garrison Keillor) and "Wind's Eye" in Dellwood MN, as well as several parochial schools for the Catholic Archdiocese of St. Paul.
He also designed:
In St. Paul in 1906, Masqueray founded an atelier which continued his Beaux Arts method of architectural training, among his students who trained there, perhaps the best known is Edwin H. Lundie (1886–1972). Other architects associated with Masqueray in St. Paul were Fred Slifer and Frank Abrahamson.
Masqueray was a charter member of the Society of Beaux-Arts Architects (now the Van Alen Institute) and the Architectural League of New York, the New York Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, as well as the national organization. Masqueray died in St. Paul on May 26, 1917. His body was buried in Calvary Cemetery in St. Paul.
- Basilica of St. Mary — http://four.mary.org/
- St Paul's on the Hill — http://stpaulsonthehillmn.org/
- University of St. Thomas, MN — http://www.stthomas.edu/
- Church of the Incarnation, 38th Street and Pleasant Avenue, Minneapolis — http://www.incarnation-church.com/
- Church of the Holy Redeemer, Marshall, MN — http://www.holy-redeemer.com/
- Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Wichita, KS — http://www.kansastravel.org/cathedralimmaculateconception.htm
- St. Joseph Cathedral, Sioux Falls, SD — http://www.cathedralofstjosephsiouxfalls.parishesonline.com/scripts/HostedSites/org.asp?p=1&ID=12730
- Novitiate for the Sisters of St. Joseph, St Paul, MN (now the Carondelet Center) (1912) – http://carondeletcenter.org/
- Church of St. Louis, King of France, St. Paul, MN — http://www.stlouiskingoffrance.org/
- "Noted Architect Dead. E. L. Masqueray Was Chief of Design of St. Louis Exposition". New York Times. May 27, 1917. Retrieved March 22, 2011. "Emmanuel Louis Mnsqueray chief of design of the St Louis ... of a number of American cathedrals died here today aged 56. Mr. Masqueray was ..."
- "Emmanuel Louis Masqueray". University of Minnesota - Twin Cities. Retrieved March 22, 2011. "Emmanuel Louis Masqueray was born in Dieppe, France, on September 10, 1861. He studied architecture at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1879 to 1884, receiving several awards for his designs. He immigrated to the United States in 1887 to work for the firm of Carrere & Hastings in New York City. Five years later, he joined the office of Richard Morris Hunt, where he helped design many notable buildings including the Breakers for William Vanderbilt in Newport, Rhode Island. In 1897 he left the Hunt office to work for Warren & Wetmore, also in New York City. ..."
- A French Architect in Minnesota, by Alan K. Lathrop, in "Minnesota Profiles", Summer 1980, p. 46
- A French Architect in Minnesota, by Alan K. Lathrop, in "Minnesota Profiles", Summer 198, p. 47
- Higher: A Historic Race to the Sky and the Making of a City, by Neil Bascomb, page 23
- What Women Can Earn, by Grace Hoadley Dodge, Thomas Hunter, page 109
- "New York Times" obituary, September 6, 1979
- Long Island Country Houses and Their Architects, 1860–1940, by Robert B. MacKay, Anthony K. Baker, Carol A. Traynor, p. 126.
- Added to NRHP (Reference#: 95000390) in April 7, 1995
- Mt. Ecclesia Sanitarium, Oceanside, California. Pamona Public Library Digital Collections
- Complete Historical Notes on The Rosicrucian Fellowship, 1907 – 1990. Oceanside, California
- National Cyclopedia of American Biography: Volume 1; 1927
- "New York Times" obituary, May 4, 1945
- "New York Times" obituary, October 4, 1954
- Dalles, John, "The Pathbreaking Legacy of Ryan and Roberts", in "Reflections", the journal of the Historical Society of Central Florida, Summer 2009; pages 8 and 9.
- "New York Times" obituary, May 6, 1944
- "New York Times" obituary, August 26, 1951
- "New York Times" obituary, May 24, 1952
- Wind Stresses in Buildings, by Robins Fleming, 1930
- Contemporary accounts of architectural exhibitions listing students, chiefly from the New York Times
- Register, by University of California, Berkeley, p. 26
- “One Thousand Men of Mark Today”, Chicago, IL, 1916
- St. Paul's Architecture, by Jeffrey A. Hess, Paul Clifford Larson, page 95.
- "AIA Guide to St. Paul's Summit Avenue and Hill District", by Larry Millett, page 33.
- websites of each of these buildings
- "The Architecture of Edwin H. Lundie", by Dale Muflinger
- Six Feet Under By Stew Thornley, page 12
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