Emotional dysregulation

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Emotional dysregulation (ED) is a term used in the mental health community to refer to an emotional response that is poorly modulated, and does not fall within the conventionally accepted range of emotive response. ED may be referred to as labile mood (marked fluctuation of mood)[1] or mood swings.

Possible manifestations of emotional dysregulation include angry outbursts or behavior outbursts such as destroying or throwing objects, aggression towards self or others, and threats to kill oneself. These variations usually occur in seconds to minutes or hours. Emotional dysregulation can lead to behavioral problems and can interfere with a person's social interactions and relationships at home, in school, or at place of employment.

Emotional dysregulation can be associated with an experience of early psychological trauma, brain injury, or chronic maltreatment (such as child abuse, child neglect, or institutional neglect/abuse), and associated disorders such as reactive attachment disorder.[2] Emotional dysregulation may present in people with psychiatric disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and complex post-traumatic stress disorder.[3][4] ED is also found among those with autism spectrum disorders, including Asperger syndrome.[3] In such cases as borderline personality disorder, hypersensitivity to emotional stimuli causes a slower return to a normal emotional state. This is manifested biologically by deficits in the frontal cortices of the brain.[5]

Etymology[edit]

The word "dysregulation" is a neologism created by combining the prefix "dys-" to "regulation" According to Webster's Dictionary, dys- has various roots. With Latin and Greek roots, it is akin to Old English tō-, te- "apart" and in Sanskrit dus-" bad, difficult."

Child psychopathology[edit]

There are links between child emotional dysregulation and later psychopathology.[6] For instance, ADHD symptoms are associated with problems with emotional regulation, motivation, and arousal.[7] One study found a connection between emotional dysregulation at 5 and 10 months, and parent reported problems with anger and distress at 18 months.[8][citation needed] Low levels of emotional regulation behaviors at 5 months were also related to non-compliant behaviors at 30 months.[9] While links have been found between emotional dysregulation and child psychopathology, the mechanisms behind how early emotional dysregulation and later psychopathology are related are not yet clear.

Symptoms[edit]

Smoking, self-harm, eating disorders, and addiction have all been associated with emotional dysregulation.[10] Somatoform disorders may be caused by a decreased ability to regulate and experience emotions or an inability to express emotions in a positive way.[11] Individuals who have difficulty regulating emotions are at risk for eating disorders and substance abuse as they use food or substances as a way to regulate their emotions.[12][13]

Early childhood[edit]

Research has shown that failures in emotional regulation may be related to the display of acting-out, or externalizing, behavior problems. When presented with challenging tasks, children who were found to have defects in emotional regulation (high risk) spent less time attending to tasks and more time throwing tantrums or fretting than children without emotional regulation problems (low risk). These high risk children had difficulty with self regulation and had difficulty complying with requests from caregivers and were more defiant.[14] Emotional dysregulation has also been associated with childhood social withdrawal.[15] Common signs of emotional dysregulation in early childhood include: isolation, throwing things, screaming, lack of eye contact, refusing to speak, rocking, running away, crying, dissociating, high levels of anxiety, or inability to be flexible.

Internalizing behaviors[edit]

Emotional dysregulation in children can be associated with internalizing behaviors including [10]

  • exhibiting emotions too intense for a situation
  • difficulty calming down when upset
  • difficulty decreasing negative emotions
  • being less able to calm themselves
  • difficulty understanding emotional experiences
  • becoming avoidant or aggressive when dealing with negative emotions
  • experiencing more negative emotions

Externalizing behaviors[edit]

Emotional dysregulation in children can be associated with externalizing behaviors including [10]

  • exhibiting more extreme emotions
  • difficulty identifying emotional cues
  • difficulty recognizing their own emotions
  • focusing on the negative
  • difficulty controlling their attention
  • being impulsive
  • difficulty decreasing their negative emotions
  • difficulty calming down when upset

Protective factors[edit]

Early experiences with caregivers can lead to differences in emotional regulation. The responsiveness of a caregiver to an infant’s signals can help an infant regulate their emotional systems. Caregiver interaction styles that overwhelm a child or that are unpredictable may undermine emotional regulation development. Effective strategies involve working with a child to support developing self control such as modeling a desired behavior rather than demanding it.[16] The richness of environment that a child is exposed also helps development of emotional regulation. An environment must provide appropriate levels of freedom and constraint. The environment must also allow opportunities for a child to practice self regulation. A social environment that allows opportunities to practice social skills without overstimulation or excessive frustration helps a child develop their self regulation skills.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Beauchaine, T., Gatzke-Kopp, L., Mead, H., (2007). Polyvagal Theory and developmental psychopathology: Emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence. Biological Psychology, 74, 174-184.
  2. ^ Daniel Schechter, Erica Willheim (2009). Disturbances of attachment and parental psychopathology in early childhood. Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health Issue. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinics of North America, 18(3), 665-687.
  3. ^ a b Pynoos, R., Steinberg, A., & Piacentini, J. (1999), Bipolar Disorder, and Asperger Syndrome. A developmental psychopathology model of childhood traumatic stress and intersection with anxiety disorders. Biological Psychiatry, 46, 1542-1554.
  4. ^ Schore, A., (2003). Affect dysregulation and disorders of the self. New York: Norton.
  5. ^ Treatment of Aggression, Anger and Emotional Dysregulation in Borderline Personality Disorder - ClinicalTrials.gov. (2007, April 25). Retrieved March 29, 2012, from http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00467038[unreliable medical source?]
  6. ^ Elien De Caluwé, Mieke Decuyper and Barbara De Clercq (July 2013). "The child behavior checklist dysregulation profile predicts adolescent DSM-5 pathological personality traits 4 years later". European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 22, Issue 7, pp 401-411 (7): 401–411. 
  7. ^ Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin,121,65–94.
  8. ^ Stifter, C. A., & Jain, A. (1996). Psychophysiological correlates of infant temperament: Stability of behavior and autonomic patterning from 5 to 18 months. Developmental Psychobiology, 29, 379–391.
  9. ^ Stifter, C. A., Spinrad, T. L., & Braungart-Rieker, J. M. (1999). Toward a developmental model of child noncompliance: The role of emotion regulation in infancy. Child Development, 70, 21–32.
  10. ^ a b c Macklem, G.L.(2008). Practitioner's Guide to Emotion regulation in School – Aged Children. NY: Springer.
  11. ^ Waller E, Scheidt CE. Somatoform disorders as disorders of affect regulation: a development perspective. International Review of Psychiatry 2006;18:13–24.
  12. ^ Sim, L., & Zeman, J. (2006). The contribution of emotion regulation to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in early adolescent girls. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 2,207-216.
  13. ^ Tice, D.M., Bratslavsky, E., & Baumeister, R.F. (2001). Emotional distress regulation takes precedence over impulse control: If you feel bad, do it! Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 53-67.
  14. ^ Calkins, S. D., & Dedmon, S. A. (2000). Physiological and behavioral regulation in two-year-old children with aggressive/destructive behavior problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.
  15. ^ Garcia–Coll, C., Kagan, J., & Reznick, J. (1984). Behavioral inhibition in young children, Child Development, 55, 505–529.
  16. ^ a b Bronson M. B. (2000). Self-regulation in early childhood. New York: Guilford Press.