Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

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Charles V
Titian - Portrait of Charles V Seated - WGA22964.jpg
Charles V by Titian, 1548. Alte Pinakothek, Munich, Germany
Holy Roman Emperor;
King of Germany;
King of Italy
Reign 28 June 1519 – 27 August 1556[1]
Coronation 26 October 1520 (Germany)
22 February 1530 (Italy)
24 February 1530 (imperial)
Predecessor Maximilian I
Successor Ferdinand I
King of Spain
(alongside Joanna until 1555)
Reign 23 January 1516 – 16 January 1556
Predecessor Joanna and Ferdinand II
Successor Philip II
Lord of the Netherlands;
Count Palatine of Burgundy
Reign 25 September 1506 –
25 October 1555[2]
Predecessor Philip IV
Successor Philip V
Spouse Isabella of Portugal
Issue Philip II of Spain
Maria, Holy Roman Empress
Joanna, Princess of Portugal
John of Austria (illegitimate)
Margaret, Duchess of Parma (illegitimate)
House House of Habsburg
Father Philip I of Castile
Mother Joanna of Castile
Born 24 February 1500
Ghent, Flanders
Died 21 September 1558 (aged 58)
Yuste, Spain
Burial El Escorial, San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature

Charles V[a] (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain in 1556.

As the ruler of many greater and lesser European states, Charles had a very complicated coat of arms. He was the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties, the House of Habsburg of the Habsburg Monarchy, the House of Valois-Burgundy of the Burgundian Netherlands, and the House of Trastámara of the Crowns of Castile and Aragon. He ruled over extensive domains in Central, Western, and Southern Europe, and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. As Charles was the first king to rule Castile, León, and Aragon simultaneously in his own right, he became the first King of Spain.[3] In 1519, Charles became Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria. From that point forward, his empire spanned nearly four million square kilometers across Europe, the Far East, and the Americas.[4] Much of Charles's reign was devoted to the Italian Wars against France which, although enormously expensive, were militarily successful, and which led to the development of the first modern professional army in Europe, the Tercios. Charles's forces re-captured both Milan and Franche-Comté from France after the decisive Habsburg victory at the Battle of Pavia in 1525,[5] which pushed Francis I of France to form the Franco-Ottoman alliance. Charles's rival Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the central part of the Hungarian Kingdom in 1526 after defeating the Christians at the Battle of Mohács. However, the Ottoman advance was halted after they failed to capture Vienna in 1529.

Aside from his military endeavors, Charles is best known for his role in opposing the Protestant Reformation.[6] Several German princes abandoned the Catholic Church and formed the Schmalkaldic League in order to challenge Charles's authority with military force. Unwilling to allow the wars of religion to come to his other domains, Charles pushed for the convocation of the Council of Trent, which began the Counter-Reformation. The Society of Jesus was established by St. Ignatius of Loyola during Charles's reign in order to peacefully and intellectually combat Protestantism, and continental Spain was spared from religious conflict largely by Charles's nonviolent measures according to some authors.[7] In the New World, Spain conquered the Aztecs of Mexico and Incas of Peru, then extended its control across much of South and Central America. Charles oversaw the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Charles provided five ships to Ferdinand Magellan whose voyage – the first circumnavigation of the Earth – laid the foundation for the Pacific oceanic empire of Spain and began Spanish colonization of the Philippines.

Though always at war, Charles was a lover of peace. "Not greedy of territory," wrote Marcantonio Contarini in 1536, "but most greedy of peace and quiet."[8] Charles abdicated in 1556. The Habsburg Monarchy passed to Charles's younger brother Ferdinand, whereas the Spanish Empire was inherited by his son Philip II. The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century. Charles was only 54 when he abdicated, but after 34 years of energetic rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery where he died aged 58.

Coat of Arms of Charles V[edit]

Greater Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain, Charles V as Holy Roman Emperor (1530-1556).svg
Arms of Charles, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, KG at the time of his installation as a knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter

Coat of Arms of Charles I of Spain and V of Germany according to the description: Arms of Charles I added to those of Castile, Leon, Aragon, Two Sicilies and Granada present in the previous coat, those of Austria, ancient Burgundy, modern Burgundy, Brabant, Flanders and Tyrol. Charles I also incorporates the pillars of Hercules with the inscription "Plus Ultra", representing the overseas empire and surrounding coat with the collar of the Golden Fleece, as sovereign of the Order ringing the shield with the imperial crown and Acola double-headed eagle of the Holy Roman Empire and behind it the Spanish Cross of Burgundy. From 1520 added to the corresponding quarter to Aragon and Sicily, one in which the arms of Jerusalem, Naples and Navarra are incorporated.

Heritage and early life[edit]

Charles was born as the eldest son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna the Mad in the Flemish city of Ghent in 1500. The culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were an important influence in his early life. He was tutored by William de Croÿ (who would later become his first prime minister), and also by Adrian of Utrecht (later Pope Adrian VI). It is said that Charles spoke several vernacular languages: he was fluent in German, French, and Flemish, later adding an acceptable Spanish which was required by the Castilian Cortes Generales as a condition for becoming King of Castile. A witticism sometimes attributed to Charles is: "I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horse." But this quote has many variants and is often attributed instead to Frederick the Great.[9]

From his Burgundian ancestors he inherited an ambiguous relationship with the Kings of France. Charles shared with France his mother tongue and many cultural forms. In his youth he made frequent visits to Paris, then the largest city of Western Europe. In his words: "Paris is not a city, but a universe" (Lutetia non-urbs, sed orbis). He was betrothed to both Louise and Charlotte of Valois, daughters of King Francis I of France, but they both died in childhood. Charles also inherited the tradition of political and dynastic enmity between the Royal and the Burgundian Ducal lines of the Valois Dynasty.

Though Spain was the core of his possessions, he was never totally assimilated and especially in his earlier years felt as if he were viewed as a foreign prince. He could not speak Spanish very well, as it was not his primary language. Nonetheless, he spent most of his life in Spain, including his final years in a Spanish monastery. Indeed, Charles's motto, Plus Ultra ('Further Beyond'), became the national motto of Spain.

Reign[edit]

Copper coin "korte" with portrait of Charles V, struck in Antwerp, 1548
A young Charles V, by Bernard van Orley, Louvre Museum, Paris, France

Burgundy and the Low Countries[edit]

Charles V, 1533, by Titian. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain

In 1506, Charles inherited his father's Burgundian territories, most notably the Low Countries and Franche-Comté, most of which were fiefs of the German Kingdom (part of the Holy Roman Empire), except his birthplace of Flanders which was still a French fief, a last remnant of what had been a powerful player in the Hundred Years' War. As he was a minor, his aunt Margaret of Austria (born as Archduchess of Austria and in her both marriages Dowager Princess of Asturias and Dowager Duchess of Savoy) acted as regent as appointed by Emperor Maximilian until 1515 and soon she found herself at war with France over the question of Charles's requirement to pay homage to the French king for Flanders, as his father had done. The outcome was that France relinquished its ancient claim on Flanders in 1528.

From 1515 to 1523, Charles's government in the Netherlands also had to contend with the rebellion of Frisian peasants (led by Pier Gerlofs Donia and Wijard Jelckama). The rebels were initially successful but after a series of defeats, the remaining leaders were captured and decapitated in 1523.

Charles extended the Burgundian territory with the annexation of Tournai, Artois, Utrecht, Groningen and Guelders. The Seventeen Provinces had been unified by Charles's Burgundian ancestors, but nominally were fiefs of either France or the Holy Roman Empire. In 1549, Charles issued a Pragmatic Sanction, declaring the Low Countries to be a unified entity of which his family would be the heirs.[10]

The Low Countries held an important place in the Empire. For Charles V personally they were his home, the region where he was born and spent his childhood. Because of trade and industry and the rich cities, they also represented an important income for the treasury.

Spain[edit]

Exterior of The Palace of Charles V. It was built by Emperor Charles V from his marriage to Isabel of Portugal held in Sevilla in 1526. Upon the link, the couple was living several months in Alhambra, being deeply impressed by the palace, leaving in charge the construction of the new palace with the intention to establish his residence in the Alhambra in Granada.[11]

In the Castilian Cortes of Valladolid of 1506, and of Madrid of 1510 he was sworn as prince of Asturias, heir-apparent to his mother the queen Joanna.[12] On the other hand, in 1502, the Aragonese Corts gathered in Saragossa, pledged an oath to his mother Joanna as heiress-presumptive, but the Archbishop of Saragossa expressed firmly that this oath could not establish jurisprudence, that is to say, modify the right of the succession, except by virtue of a formal agreement between the Cortes and the King.[13][14] So, with the death of his grandfather, King Ferdinand II of Aragon on 23 January 1516, his mother Joanna inherited the Crown of Aragon, which consisted of Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia; while Charles became Governor General.[15] Nevertheless, the Flemings wished Charles to assume the royal title,[citation needed] and this was supported by his grandfather the emperor Maximilian I and the Pope Leo X. This way, after the celebration of Ferdinand II's obsequies on 14 March 1516, Charles was proclaimed king of the crowns of Castile and of Aragon, jointly with his mother. Finally, when the Castilian regent Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros accepted the fait accompli, he acceded to Charles's desire to be proclaimed king and he imposed his enstatement throughout the kingdom.[16]

Charles arrived in his new kingdoms in autumn of 1517. His regent Jiménez de Cisneros came to meet him, but fell ill along the way, not without a suspicion of poison, and died before meeting the King.[17]

Due to the irregularity of Charles assuming the royal title while his mother, the legitimate queen, was alive, the negotiations with the Castilian Cortes in Valladolid (1518) proved difficult,[18] and in the end Charles was accepted under the following conditions: he would learn to speak Castilian; he would not appoint foreigners; he was prohibited from taking precious metals from Castile; and he would respect the rights of his mother, Queen Joanna. The Cortes paid homage to him in Valladolid in February 1518. After this, Charles departed to the crown of Aragon. He managed to overcome the resistance of the Aragonese Cortes and Catalan Corts,[19] and he was finally recognized as king of Aragon and count of Barcelona jointly with his mother.[20] The Kingdom of Navarre had been invaded by Ferdinand of Aragon jointly with Castile in 1512, but he pledged a formal oath to respect the kingdom. On Charles's accession to the Spanish throne, the Parliament of Navarre (Cortes) required him to attend the coronation ceremony, but this demand fell on deaf ears, and the Parliament kept piling up grievances.

Charles was accepted as sovereign, even though the Spanish felt uneasy with the Imperial style. Spanish kingdoms varied in their traditions. Castile was an authoritarian kingdom, where the monarch's own will easily overrode law and the Cortes. By contrast, in the kingdoms of the crown of Aragon, and especially in the Pyrenean kingdom of Navarre, law prevailed, and the monarchy was a contract with the people. This became an inconvenience and a matter of dispute for Charles V and later kings, since realm-specific traditions limited their absolute power. With Charles, government became more absolute, even though until his mother's death in 1555 Charles did not hold the full kingship of the country.

Soon resistance to the Emperor arose because of heavy taxation to support foreign wars in which Castilians had little interest, and because Charles tended to select Flemings for high offices in Spain and America, ignoring Castilian candidates. The resistance culminated in the Revolt of the Comuneros, which Charles suppressed. Immediately after crushing the Castilian revolt, Charles was confronted again with the hot issue of Navarre when King Henry II attempted to reconquer the kingdom. Main military operations lasted up to 1524, when Hondarribia surrendered to Charles's forces, but frequent cross-border clashes in the western Pyrenees only stopped in 1528 (Treaties of Madrid and Cambrai).

After these events, Navarre remained a matter of domestic and international litigation still for a century (a French dynastic claim to the throne did not end up to the French Revolution in 1789). Castile became integrated into the Habsburg empire, and provided the bulk of the empire's military and financial resources. The enormous budget deficit accumulated during Charles's reign resulted in Spain declaring bankruptcy during the reign of Philip II.[21]

Italy[edit]

Portrait of Charles V on Horseback by Anthony van Dyck, 1620. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy

The Crown of Aragon inherited by Charles included the Kingdom of Naples, the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Sardinia. Aragon also previously controlled the Duchy of Milan, but a year before Charles ascended to the throne, it was annexed by France after the Battle of Marignano in 1515. Charles succeeded in re-capturing Milan in 1522 when Imperial troops defeated the Franco-Swiss army at Bicocca. Yet in 1524 Francis I of France retook the initiative, crossing into Lombardy where Milan, along with a number of other cities, once again fell to his attack. Pavia alone held out and it was here that on 24 February 1525 (Charles's twenty-fifth birthday), Charles's Imperial forces captured Francis and crushed his army, yet again retaking Milan and Lombardy. Spain successfully held on to all of its Italian territories, though they were invaded again on multiple occasions during the Italian Wars. In addition to this, Habsburg trade in the Mediterranean was consistently disrupted by the Ottoman Empire. A Holy League, which consisted of all the Italian states and Spain, was formed in 1538 to drive the Ottomans back, but was defeated at the Battle of Preveza. Decisive naval victory eluded Charles; it would not be achieved until after Charles's death, at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.

America[edit]

During Charles's reign, the Spanish territories in the Americas were considerably extended by conquistadores like Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro, who conquered the large Aztec and Inca empires and incorporated them into the Empire as the Viceroyalties of New Spain and Peru between 1519 and 1542. Combined with the Magellan expedition's circumnavigation of the globe in 1522, these successes convinced Charles of his divine mission to become the leader of Christendom that still perceived a significant threat from Islam. The conquests also helped solidify Charles's rule by providing the state treasury with enormous amounts of bullion. As the conquistador Bernal Díaz del Castillo observed, "We came to serve God and his Majesty, to give light to those in darkness, and also to acquire that wealth which most men covet."[22]

In 1528 Charles assigned a concession in Venezuela Province to Bartholomeus V. Welser, in compensation for his inability to repay debts owed. The concession, known as Klein-Venedig (little Venice), was revoked in 1546. In 1550, Charles convened a conference at Valladolid in order to consider the morality of the force used against the indigenous populations of the New World, which included figures such as Bartolomé de las Casas.

Charles V is credited with the first idea of constructing an American Isthmus canal in Panama as early as 1520.[23]

Holy Roman Empire[edit]

After the death of his paternal grandfather, Maximilian, in 1519, he inherited the Habsburg Monarchy. He was also the natural candidate of the electors to succeed his grandfather as Holy Roman Emperor. He defeated the candidacies of Frederick III, Elector of Saxony, Francis I of France, and Henry VIII of England. The unanimous[contradictory] decision of the electors gave Charles the crown on 28 June 1519. In 1530, he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement VII in Bologna, the last emperor to receive a papal coronation.[24][25]

Despite holding the imperial throne, Charles's real authority was limited by the German princes. They gained a strong foothold in the Empire's territories, and Charles was determined not to let this happen in the Netherlands. An inquisition was established as early as 1522. In 1550, the death penalty was introduced for all cases of unrepentant heresy. Political dissent was also firmly controlled, most notably in his place of birth, where Charles, assisted by the Duke of Alba, personally suppressed the Revolt of Ghent in mid-February 1540.[10]

Charles abdicated as emperor in 1556 in favor of his brother Ferdinand; however, due to lengthy debate and bureaucratic procedure, the Imperial Diet did not accept the abdication (and thus make it legally valid) until 24 February 1558. Up to that date, Charles continued to use the title of emperor.

France[edit]

Charles V's territories (red, purple, orange, yellow and buff) surrounding France (Spanish colonial empire not shown).

Much of Charles's reign was taken up by conflicts with France, which found itself encircled by Charles's empire while it still maintained ambitions in Italy. In 1520, Charles visited England, where his aunt, Catherine of Aragon, urged her husband, Henry VIII, to ally himself with the emperor. In 1508 Charles was nominated by Henry to the Order of the Garter[26] His Garter stall plate survives in Saint George's Chapel.

The first war with Charles's great nemesis Francis I of France began in 1521. Charles allied with England and Pope Leo X against the French and the Venetians, and was highly successful, driving the French out of Milan and defeating and capturing Francis at the Battle of Pavia in 1525. To gain his freedom, the French king was forced to cede Burgundy to Charles in the Treaty of Madrid, as well as renouncing to support Henry II on his claim over Navarre.

When he was released, however, Francis had the Parliament of Paris denounce the treaty because it had been signed under duress. France then joined the League of Cognac that Pope Clement VII had formed with Henry VIII of England, the Venetians, the Florentines, and the Milanese to resist imperial domination of Italy. In the ensuing war, Charles's sack of Rome (1527) and virtual imprisonment of Pope Clement VII in 1527 prevented the Pope from annulling the marriage of Henry VIII of England and Charles's aunt Catherine of Aragon, so Henry eventually broke with Rome, thus leading to the English Reformation.[27][28] In other respects, the war was inconclusive. In the Treaty of Cambrai (1529), called the "Ladies' Peace" because it was negotiated between Charles's aunt and Francis' mother, Francis renounced his claims in Italy but retained control of Burgundy.

A third war erupted in 1535, when, following the death of the last Sforza Duke of Milan, Charles installed his own son, Philip, in the duchy, despite Francis's claims on it. This war too was inconclusive. Francis failed to conquer Milan, but succeeded in conquering most of the lands of Charles's ally the Duke of Savoy, including his capital, Turin. A truce at Nice in 1538 on the basis of uti possidetis ended the war, but lasted only a short time. War resumed in 1542, with Francis now allied with Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I and Charles once again allied with Henry VIII. Despite the conquest of Nice by a Franco-Ottoman fleet, the French remained unable to advance into Juarez, while a joint Anglo-Imperial invasion of northern France, led by Charles himself, won some successes but was ultimately abandoned, leading to another peace and restoration of the status quo ante in 1544.

A final war erupted with Francis' son and successor, Henry II, in 1551. This war saw early successes by Henry in Lorraine, where he captured Metz, but continued failure of French offensives in Italy. Charles abdicated midway through this conflict, leaving further conduct of the war to his son, Philip II and his brother, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor.

Conflicts with the Ottoman Empire[edit]

Charles fought continually with the Ottoman Empire and its sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent. The great Hungarian defeat at the 1526 Battle of Mohács "sent a wave of terror over Europe."[29][30]

The Muslim advance in Central Europe was halted at Vienna in 1529.

Charles V on Horseback in Mühlberg. Titian. 1548. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain

However, the contest between Charles and Suleiman for the mastery of the Mediterranean was decided in favor of the Sultan, in spite of Spanish victories such as the conquest of Tunis in 1535. The regular Ottoman fleet came to dominate the Eastern Mediterranean after its victory at Preveza in 1538 and the loss of Djerba in 1560 (shortly after Charles's death), which severely decimated the Spanish marine arm. At the same time, the Muslim Barbary corsairs, acting under the general authority and supervision of the Sultan, regularly devastated the Spanish and Italian coasts, crippling Spanish trade and chipping at the foundations of Habsburg power.

In 1536 Francis I of France allied himself with Suleiman against Charles. While Francis was persuaded to sign a peace treaty in 1538, he again allied himself with the Ottomans in 1542 in a Franco-Ottoman alliance. In 1543 Charles allied himself with Henry VIII and forced Francis to sign the Truce of Crépy-en-Laonnois. Later, in 1547, Charles signed a humiliating[31] treaty with the Ottomans to gain himself some respite from the huge expenses of their war.[32] – and was referred to as only the King of Spain since there could only be one Emperor in the world and it was Suleiman. However, the Protestant powers in the Imperial Diet often voted against money for his Turkish wars, as many Protestants saw the Muslim advance as a counterweight to the Catholic powers.

Charles V made overtures to the Safavid Empire to open a second front against the Ottomans, in an attempt at creating a Habsburg-Persian alliance. Contacts were positive, but rendered difficult by enormous distances. In effect, however, the Safavids did enter in conflict with the Ottoman Empire in the Ottoman-Safavid War, forcing it to split its military resources.[33]

Protestant Reformation[edit]

An elderly Charles V

As Holy Roman Emperor, Charles called Martin Luther to the Diet of Worms in 1521, promising him safe conduct if he would appear. Initially dismissing Luther's theses as "an argument between monks", he later outlawed Luther and his followers in that same year but was tied up with other concerns and unable to take action against Protestantism.

1524 to 1526 saw the Peasants' Revolt in Germany and in 1531 the formation of the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League. Charles delegated increasing responsibility for Germany to his brother Ferdinand while he concentrated on problems elsewhere.

In 1545, the opening of the Council of Trent began the Counter-Reformation, and Charles won to the Catholic cause some of the princes of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1546 (the year of Luther's natural death), he outlawed the Schmalkaldic League (which had occupied the territory of another prince). He drove the League's troops out of southern Germany and at the Battle of Mühlberg defeated John Frederick, Elector of Saxony and imprisoned Philip of Hesse in 1547. At the Augsburg Interim in 1548 he created an interim solution giving certain allowances to Protestants until the Council of Trent would restore unity. However, Protestants mostly resented the Interim and some actively opposed it. Protestant princes, in alliance with Henry II of France, rebelled against Charles in 1552, which caused Charles to retreat to the Netherlands.

Health[edit]

Charles suffered from an enlarged lower jaw, a deformity that became considerably worse in later Habsburg generations, giving rise to the term Habsburg jaw. This deformity was caused by the family's long history of inbreeding, which was commonly practiced in royal families of that era to maintain dynastic control of territory. He struggled to chew his food properly and consequently experienced bad indigestion for much of his life. As a result, he usually ate alone.[34] He suffered from epilepsy[35] and was seriously afflicted with gout, presumably caused by a diet consisting mainly of red meat.[36] As he aged, his gout progressed from painful to crippling. In his retirement, he was carried around the monastery of St. Yuste in a sedan chair. A ramp was specially constructed to allow him easy access to his rooms.[34]

Abdications and later life[edit]

Charles abdicated the parts of his empire piecemeal. First he abdicated the thrones of Sicily and Naples, both fiefs of the Papacy, and the Duchy of Milan to his son Philip in 1554. Upon Charles's abdication of Naples to Philip on 25 July, he was invested with the kingdom (officially "Naples and Sicily") on 2 October by Pope Julius III. The abdication of the throne of Sicily, sometimes dated to 16 January 1556, must have taken place before Joanna's death in 1555. There is a record of Philip being invested with this kingdom (officially "Sicily and Jerusalem") on 18 November 1554 by Julius. These resignations are confirmed in Charles's will from the same year.[37] The most famous—and public—abdication of Charles took place a year later, on 25 October 1555, when he announced to the States General of the Netherlands his abdication of those territories and the county of Charolais and his intention to retire to a monastery.[37] He abdicated from his Spanish Empire in January 1556, with no fanfare, and gave it to Philip.[37]

Charles retired to the monastery of Yuste in Extremadura, but continued to correspond widely and kept an interest in the situation of the empire. He suffered from severe gout. Some scholars think Charles decided to abdicate after a gout attack in 1552 forced him to postpone an attempt to recapture the city of Metz, where he was later defeated. He lived alone in a secluded monastery, with clocks lining every wall, which some historians believe were symbols of his reign and his lack of time.[38] Charles's brother Ferdinand, already in possession of the dynastic Habsburg lands, succeeded as Holy Roman Emperor on Charles's final abdication of that title in 1558, shortly before his death.[37]

Charles died on 21 September 1558 from malaria.[39] Twenty-six years later, his remains were transferred to the Royal Pantheon of the Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial.

Marriage and children[edit]

On 10 March 1526, Charles married his first cousin Isabella of Portugal, sister of John III of Portugal, in Seville.

Their children included:

Isabella often administered Spain while Charles was in other lands. Due to Philip II being a grandson of Manuel I of Portugal through his mother Isabella, Philip was in the line of succession to the throne of Portugal, and claimed it after his uncle's death (Henry, the Cardinal-King, in 1580), thus establishing the Iberian Union.

Charles also had several mistresses. Two of them gave birth to two future Governors of the Habsburg Netherlands:

Titles[edit]

Charles V, enthroned over his defeated enemies (from left): Suleiman, Pope Clement VII, Francis I, the Duke of Cleves, the Duke of Saxony and the Landgrave of Hesse. Giulio Clovio, mid-16th century.
Title Date from Date to Regnal name
Blason fr Bourgogne.svg Titular Duke of Burgundy 25 September 1506 16 January 1556 Charles II
Coat of arms of Brabant.svg Duke of Brabant 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles II
Limburg New Arms.svg Duke of Limburg 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles II
Austria coat of arms simple.svg Duke of Lothier 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles II
Armoiries Comtes de Luxembourg.svg Duke of Luxemburg 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles III
Namur Arms.svg Margrave of Namur 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles II
Blason comte fr Nevers.svg [40] Count Palatine of Burgundy 25 September 1506 5 February 1556 Charles II
Artois Arms.svg Count of Artois 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles II
Blason Charolais.svg [41] Count of Charolais 25 September 1506 21 September 1558 Charles II
Arms of Flanders.svg Count of Flanders 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles III
Hainaut Modern Arms.svg Count of Hainault 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles II
Counts of Holland Arms.svg Count of Holland 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles II
Coatofarmszeeland.PNG Count of Zeeland 25 September 1506 25 October 1555 Charles II
Guelders-Jülich Arms.svg Duke of Guelders 12 September 1543 25 October 1555 Charles III
Escudo de Zutphen 1581.png Count of Zutphen 12 September 1543 25 October 1555 Charles II
Escudo Corona de Castilla.png King of Castile and León 14 March 1516 16 January 1556 Charles I (with Joanna, 14 March 1516 – 12 April 1555)
Escudo Corona de Aragon y Sicilia.png King of Aragon and Sicily 14 March 1516 16 January 1556 Charles I (with Joanna, 14 March 1516 – 12 April 1555)
Coat of Arms of Catalonia.svg Count of Barcelona 14 March 1516 16 January 1556 Charles I
Armas del reino de Nápoles - Casa de Austria.svg King of Naples 14 March 1516 25 July 1554 Charles IV (with Joanna III, 14 March 1516 – 25 July 1554)
Holy Roman Empire Arms-single head.svg King of the Romans 28 June 1519 24 February 1530 Charles V
Holy Roman Empire Arms-double head.svg Holy Roman Emperor 24 February 1530 24 February 1558 Charles V
Austria coat of arms simple.svg Archduke of Austria 12 January 1519 12 January 1521 Charles I

The titles of King of Hungary, of Bohemia, and of Croatia, were incorporated into the imperial family during Charles's reign, but they were held, both nominally and substantively, by his brother Ferdinand, who initiated a four-century-long Habsburg rule over these eastern territories.

However, according Charles V testament, the titles of King of Hungary, of Dalmatia, and of Croatia and others were legated to his grandson, Philip II of Spain son, Infante Carlos, Prince of Asturias, deceased when young.

The full Charles's titulature went as follows:

Charles, by the grace of God, Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King of Germany, King of Italy, King of all Spains, of Castile, Aragon, León, of Hungary, of Dalmatia, of Croatia, Navarra, Grenada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Sevilla, Cordova, Murcia, Jaén, Algarves, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, King of Two Sicilies, of Sardinia, Corsica, King of Jerusalem, King of the Western and Eastern Indies, of the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Lorraine, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland, Neopatria, Württemberg, Landgrave of Alsace, Prince of Swabia, Asturia and Catalonia, Count of Flanders, Habsburg, Tyrol, Gorizia, Barcelona, Artois, Burgundy Palatine, Hainaut, Holland, Seeland, Ferrette, Kyburg, Namur, Roussillon, Cerdagne, Drenthe, Zutphen, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgau, Oristano and Gociano, Lord of Frisia, the Wendish March, Pordenone, Biscay, Molin, Salins, Tripoli and Mechelen.

References in literature[edit]

Eschutcheon of Charles V, watercolor, John Singer Sargent, 1912. Metropolitan Museum of Art

References to Charles V include a large number of legends and folk tales; literary renderings of historical events connected to Charles's life and romantic adventures, his relationship to Flanders, and his abdication; and products marketed in his name.[42]

  • Charles V appears as a character in the play Doctor Faustus by the Elizabethan playwright Christopher Marlowe. In Act 4 Scene 1 of the A Text, Faustus attends Court by the Emperor's request and with the assistance of Mephistopheles conjures up spirits representing Alexander the Great and his paramour as a demonstration of his magical powers.
  • In De heerelycke ende vrolycke daeden van Keyser Carel den V, published by Joan de Grieck in 1674, the short stories, anecdotes, citations attributed to the emperor, and legends about his encounters with famous and ordinary people, depict a noble Christian monarch with a perfect cosmopolitan personality and a strong sense of humour. Converesely, in Charles De Coster's masterpiece Thyl Ulenspiegel (1867), after his death Charles V is consigned to Hell as punishment for the acts of the Inquisition under his rule, his punishment being that he would feel the pain of anyone tortured by the Inquisition. De Coster's book also mentions the story on the spectacles in the coat of arms of Oudenaarde, the one about a paysant of Berchem in Het geuzenboek (1979) by Louis Paul Boon, while Abraham Hans (1882–1939) included both tales in De liefdesavonturen van keizer Karel in Vlaanderen.
  • Lord Byron's Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte refers to Charles as "The Spaniard".
  • Ernst Krenek's opera Karl V (opus 73, 1930) examines the title character's career via flashbacks.
  • In the third act of Giuseppe Verdi's opera Ernani, the election of Charles as Holy Roman Emperor is presented. Charles (Don Carlo in the opera) prays before the tomb of Charlemagne. With the announcement that he is elected as Carlo Quinto he declares an amnesty including the eponymous bandit Ernani who had followed him there to murder him as a rival for the love of Elvira. The opera, based on the Victor Hugo play Hernani, portrays Charles as a callous and cynical adventurer whose character is transformed by the election into a responsible and clement ruler.
  • In another Verdi opera, Don Carlo, the final scene implies that it is Charles V, now living the last years of his life as a hermit, who rescues his grandson, Don Carlo, from his father Philip II and the Inquisition, by taking Carlo with him to his hermitage at the monastery in Yuste.
  • In The Maltese Falcon, the title object is said to have been an intended gift to Charles V.
  • A Flemish legend about Charles being served a beer at the village of Olen, as well as the emperor's lifelong preference of beer above wine, led to the naming of several beer varieties in his honor. The Haacht Brewery of Boortmeerbeek produces Charles Quint, while Het Anker Brewery in Mechelen produces Gouden Carolus, including a Grand Cru of the Emperor, brewed once a year on Charles V's birthday.[43][44][45][46] Grupo Cruzcampo brews Legado De Yuste in honor of Charles and attributes the inspiration to his Flemish origin and his last days at the monastery of Yuste.[citation needed]
  • Carlos V is the name of a popular chocolate bar in Mexico. Its tagline is "El Rey de los Chocolates" or "The King of Chocolates" and "Carlos V, El Emperador del Chocolate" or "Charles V, the Emperor of Chocolates."
  • Charles V is a notable character in Simone de Beauvoir's All Men Are Mortal.
  • Charles V is portrayed by Torben Liebrecht and is figured prominently in the 2003 film Luther covering the life of Martin Luther up until the Diet of Augsburg.
  • Charles V is portrayed by Sebastian Armesto on Showtime series The Tudors.

Ancestors[edit]

Notes[edit]

a. ^ Name in other languages:

  1. ^ Date of Charles's abdication; on 24 February 1558, the college of electors assembled at Frankfort accepted the instrument of Charles V's imperial resignation and declared the election of Ferdinand as emperor [1] [2]
  2. ^ Abdication of Brussels. Books.google.es. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  3. ^ Michael de Ferdinandy. Charles V. Encyclopedia Brittanica.
  4. ^ Hermann Wiesflecker. Maximilian I. Encyclopedia Brittanica
  5. ^ Blockmans, Emperor Charles V, 60, 68; Guicciardini, History of Italy, 363–364; Oman, Art of War, 211.
  6. ^ Dennis Bratcher (ed.). The Edict of Worms (1521).
  7. ^ Henry Kamen, "Toleration and Dissent in Sixteenth-Century Spain: The Alternative Tradition." The Sixteenth Century Journal, Vol. 19, No. 1 (Spring, 1988), pp. 3–23.
  8. ^ "Charles V, Luminarium.org. Excerpted from Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th Ed. 1910 Vol XV. p 141". 
  9. ^ Burke, "Languages and communities in early modern Europe" p. 28; Holzberger, "The letters of George Santayana" p. 299
  10. ^ a b Kamen, Henry (2005). Spain, 1469–1714: a society of conflict (3rd ed.). Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson Education. ISBN 0-582-78464-6. 
  11. ^ Template:Author=Díez Jorge María Elena
  12. ^ Cortes de los antiguos reinos de León y de Castilla; Manuel Colmeiro (1883) at the Wayback Machine (archived June 10, 2008), chapter XXIII at the Wayback Machine (archived June 10, 2008)
  13. ^ Estudio documental de la moneda castellana de Carlos I fabricada en los Países Bajos (1517); José María de Francisco Olmos, Revista General de Información y Documentación 2003, vol 13, núm.2 (Universidad complutense de Madrid), page 137
  14. ^ Estudio documental de la moneda castellana de Juana la Loca fabricada en los Países Bajos (1505–1506); José María de Francisco Olmos, Revista General de Información y Documentación 2002, vol 12, núm.2 (Universidad complutense de Madrid), page 299
  15. ^ Estudio documental de la moneda castellana de Carlos I fabricada en los Países Bajos (1517); José María de Francisco Olmos, page 138
  16. ^ Estudio documental de la moneda castellana de Carlos I fabricada en los Países Bajos (1517); José María de Francisco Olmos, pp. 139–140
  17. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 edition.
  18. ^ Cortes de los antiguos reinos de León y de Castilla at the Wayback Machine (archived June 10, 2008); Manuel Colmeiro (1883), chapter XXIV
  19. ^ Historia general de España; Modesto Lafuente (1861), pp. 51–52.
  20. ^ Fueros, observancias y actos de corte del Reino de Aragón; Santiago Penén y Debesa, Pascual Savall y Dronda, Miguel Clemente (1866), page 64
  21. ^ Elliot, J.H. Imperial Spain 1469–1716. Penguin Books (New York: 2002), pg. 208.
  22. ^ Prescott, William Hickling (1873). History of the Conquest of Mexico, with a Preliminary View of Ancient Mexican Civilization, and the Life of the Conqueror, Hernando Cortes (3rd ed.). Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library. ISBN 1-152-29570-5. 
  23. ^ Haskin, Frederic (1913). The Panama Canal. Doubleday, Page & Company. 
  24. ^ William Maltby, The Reign of Charles V (St. Martin's Press, 2002)
  25. ^ Claims that he gained the imperial crown through bribery have been refuted. H.J. Cohn, "Did Bribes Induce the German Electors to Choose Charles V as Emperor in 1519?" German History (2001) 19#1 pp 1–27
  26. ^ http://www.royalcollection.org.uk/microsites/knightsofthegarter/MicroObject.asp?row=21&themeid=455&item=22
  27. ^ Holmes (1993), p192
  28. ^ Froude (1891), p35, pp90-91, pp96-97 Note: the link goes to page 480, then click the View All option
  29. ^ Quoted from: Bryan W. Ball. A Great Expectation. Brill Publishers, 1975. ISBN 90-04-04315-2. Page 142.
  30. ^ Sandra Arlinghaus. "Life Span of Suleiman The Magnificent, 1494–1566". Personal.umich.edu. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  31. ^ In particular, in this Truce of Adrianople (1547) Charles was only referred to as "King of Spain" instead of by his extensive titulature. (see Crowley, p. 89)
  32. ^ Stanley Sandler (ed.). Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia, Volume 1. ISBN 1-57607-733-0. 
  33. ^ "A Habsburg-Persian alliance against the Ottomans finally brought a respite from the Turkish threat in the 1540s. This entanglement kept Suleiman tied down on his eastern border, relieving the pressure on Carlos V" in The Indian Ocean in world history? Milo Kearney – 2004 – p.112
  34. ^ a b Dr. Martyn Rady, University of London, lecture 2000.[citation needed]
  35. ^ H. Schneble. "German Epilepsy Museum Kork". Epilepsiemuseum.de. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  36. ^ "Tests confirm old emperor's gout diagnosis." His The Record. 4 August 2006, Nation.
  37. ^ a b c d Fernand Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, vol. 2 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 935–36 and notes.
  38. ^ Alonso, Jordi; J. de Zulueta and others (August 2006). "The severe gout of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (5): 516–20. doi:10.1056/NEJMon060780. PMID 16885558. 
  39. ^ de Zulueta, J. (June 2007). "The cause of death of Emperor Charles V". Parassitologia 49 (1–2): 107–109. PMID 18412053. 
  40. ^ Tazón, Juan E. (2003). The Life and Times of Thomas Stukeley, 1525–1578. Google Libros. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  41. ^ Conde de Charolais, título que llevó el emperador hasta su muerte (Miscelánea de artículos publicados en la revista "Hidalguía"). Books.google.es. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  42. ^ Heymans, Frans (4 June 2007). "Keizer Karel in de literatuur". Overzichten (in Dutch). Literair Gent, an initiative by the Municipal Public Library of Ghent and 'Gent Cultuurstad'. Retrieved 20 July 2007. 
  43. ^ "Charles V". Global Beer Network, Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A. Retrieved 18 July 2007. 
  44. ^ "Charles Quint Golden Blond". Haacht Brewery. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  45. ^ "Charles Quint Ruby Red". Haacht Brewery. Retrieved 19 July 2012. 
  46. ^ "Beers by Het Anker". Brewery Het Anker. Archived from the original on 2 July 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2007. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Atkins, Sinclair. "Charles V and the Turks," History Today (Dec 1980) 30#12 pp 13–18
  • Blockmans, W. P., and Nicolette Mout. The World of Emperor Charles V (2005)
  • Brandi, Karl. The emperor Charles V: The growth and destiny of a man and of a world-empire (1939)
  • Espinosa, Aurelio. "The Grand Strategy of Charles V (1500–1558): Castile, War, and Dynastic Priority in the Mediterranean," Journal of Early Modern History (2005) 9#3 pp 239–283.
  • Espinosa, Aurelio. "The Spanish Reformation: Institutional Reform, Taxation, and the Secularization of Ecclesiastical Properties under Charles V," Sixteenth Century Journal (2006) 37#1 pp 3–24. in JSTOR
  • Espinosa, Aurelio. The Empire of the Cities: Emperor Charles V, the Comunero Revolt, and the Transformation of the Spanish System (2008)
  • Ferer, Mary Tiffany. Music and Ceremony at the Court of Charles V: The Capilla Flamenca and the Art of Political Promotion. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2012. ISBN 9781843836995
  • Froude, James Anthony (1891). The Divorce of Catherine of Aragon. Kessinger Publishing, reprint 2005. ISBN 1417971096. 
  • Holmes, David L. (1993). A Brief History of the Episcopal Church. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 1563380609. 
  • Howell, Robert B. (2000), "The Low Countries: A Study in Sharply Contrasting Nationalisms", in Barbour, Stephen; Carmichael, Cathie, Language and nationalism in Europe, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 130–50, ISBN 0-19-823671-9 
  • Kleinschmidt, Harald. Charles V: The World Emperor excerpt and text search
  • Saint-Saëns, Alain, ed. Young Charles V. University Press of the South: New Orleans, 2000

Other languages[edit]

  • (Italian) Salvatore Agati (2009). Carlo V e la Sicilia. Tra guerre, rivolte, fede e ragion di Stato, Giuseppe Maimone Editore, Catania 2009, ISBN 978-88-7751-287-1
  • (French) D'Amico, Juan Carlos. Charles Quint, Maître du Monde: Entre Mythe et Realite 2004, 290p.
  • (German) Norbert Conrads: Die Abdankung Kaiser Karls V. Abschiedsvorlesung, Universität Stuttgart, 2003 (text)
  • (German) Stephan Diller, Joachim Andraschke, Martin Brecht: Kaiser Karl V. und seine Zeit. Ausstellungskatalog. Universitäts-Verlag, Bamberg 2000, ISBN 3-933463-06-8
  • (German) Alfred Kohler: Karl V. 1500–1558. Eine Biographie. C. H. Beck, München 2001, ISBN 3-406-45359-7
  • (German) Alfred Kohler: Quellen zur Geschichte Karls V. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1990, ISBN 3-534-04820-2
  • (German) Alfred Kohler, Barbara Haider. Christine Ortner (Hrsg): Karl V. 1500–1558. Neue Perspektiven seiner Herrschaft in Europa und Übersee. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien 2002, ISBN 3-7001-3054-6
  • (German) Ernst Schulin: Kaiser Karl V. Geschichte eines übergroßen Wirkungsbereichs. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-17-015695-0
  • (German) Ferdinant Seibt: Karl V. Goldmann, München 1999, ISBN 3-442-75511-5
  • (German) Manuel Fernández Álvarez: Imperator mundi: Karl V. – Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches Deutscher Nation.. Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-7630-1178-1

External links[edit]

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Born: 24 February 1500 Died: 21 September 1558
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Philip the Handsome
Duke of Brabant, Limburg,
Lothier and Luxembourg;
Count of Artois, Flanders, Hainaut,
Holland, Namur and Zeeland;
Count Palatine of Burgundy

1506–1555
Succeeded by
Philip the Prudent
Preceded by
Joanna the Mad
King of Naples
1516–1554
with Joanna III (1516–1554)
King of Aragon, Majorca,
Valencia, and Sicily;
Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne

1516–1556
with Joanna (1516–1555)
King of Castile and León
1516–1556
with Joanna (1516–1555)
Preceded by
William the Rich
Duke of Guelders
Count of Zutphen

1543–1555
Preceded by
Maximilian I
Archduke of Austria
Duke of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola
Count of Tyrol

1519–1521
Succeeded by
Ferdinand I
King of Germany
1519–1530
Holy Roman Emperor
1530–1558
(Emperor-elect 1520–1530)
King of Italy
1530–1558
Vacant
Title next held by
Napoleon
Spanish royalty
Preceded by
Joanna
Prince of Asturias
1504–1516
Vacant
Title next held by
Philip (II)
Prince of Girona
1516