|Emperor of Japan|
|Reign||9 May 1611 – 22 December 1629|
|Meishō (1624–1696, r. 1629–1643)
Go-Kōmyō (1633–1654, r. 1643–1654)
Go-Sai (1638–1685, r. 1655–1663)
Reigen (1654–1732, r. 1663–1687)
|Born||29 June 1596|
|Died||11 September 1680(aged 84)|
|Burial||Tsukinowa no misasagi (Kyoto)|
Go-Mizunoo's reign spanned the years from 1611 through 1629.
This 17th-century sovereign was named after the 9th-century Emperor Seiwa and go- (後), translates literally as "later;" and thus, he could be called the "Later Emperor Mizunoo". The Japanese word go has also been translated to mean the "second one", and in some older sources, this emperor may be identified as "Mizunoo II".
- Chūgo: Tokugawa Masako (daughter of Tokugawa Hidetada), later known as Tōfuku-mon'in.
- Consort: Sono (Fujiwara) Mitsuko, Daughter of the Sadaijin (the Minister of the Left)
- Lady-in-waiting: Kushige (Fujiwara) Takako, Daughter of Sa Konoe Chūjō(左近衛中将,Vice-Secretary of left Imperial Guard).
- Lady-in-waiting: Sono (Fujiwara) Kuniko, Daughter of the Nadaijin (later known as the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal)
- Imperial Prince Ate-no-miya Satohito (高貴宮識仁親王): became Emperor Reigen
Events of Go-Mizunoo's life
Masahito-shinnō became emperor following the abdication of his emperor-father. The succession (the senso) was considered to have been received by the new monarch; and shortly thereafter, Emperor Go-Mizunoo is said to have acceded (the sokui). The events during his lifetime shed some light on his reign. The years of Go-Mizunoo's reign correspond with a period in which Tokugawa Hidetada and Tokugawa Iemitsu were leaders at the pinnacle of the Tokugawa shogunate.
- 29 June 1596: The birth of an Imperial prince who will become known by the posthumous name of Go-Mizunoo.
- 20 May 1610 (Keichō 15, 27th day of the 3rd month): Toyotomi Hideyori came to Miyako to visit the former-Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu; and the same day, Go-Yōzei announced his intention to renounce the throne.
- 9 May 1611 (Keichō 16): In the 26th year of Go-Yōzei-tennō 's reign (後陽成天皇26年), he abdicated; and the reign of Emperor Go-Mizunoo is considered to have begun. The young emperor was aged 16.
- 1614 (Keichō 19): Siege of Osaka. Shogun Tokugawa Hidetada vanquished Toyotomi Hideyori and set fire to Osaka Castle, and then he returned for the winter to Edo.
- 26 November 1614 (Keichō 19, 25th day of the 10th month): A strong earthquake shook Miyako[disambiguation needed]; and a great bell for the Daibutsu Temple in Miyako was cast.
- 1615 (Keichō 20): Osaka Summer Battle begins
- 1615 (Genna 1): Tokugawa Ieyasu and his son, Shogun Hidetada, marched again to Osaka Castle, which was captured and burned; but Hideyori managed to flee to Satsuma where he had prepared a refuge in advance.
- 6 January 1616 (Genna 2, 17th day of the 4th month): Ieyasu died at Suruga[disambiguation needed].
- 25 September 1617 (Genna 3, 26th day of the 8th month): Former-Emperor Go-Yōzei died. He is buried at the North Fukakusa Burial Mound (深草北陵 Fukakusa no Kita no Misasagi ).
- 1620 (Genna 6): Tokugawa Masako, the daughter of Shogun Hidetada, entered the palace as a consort of the emperor; and the marriage was celebrated with great pomp.
- 2 April 1620 (Genna 6, 30th day of the 2nd month): Severe fire in Kyoto.
- 6 April 1620 (Genna 6, 4th day of the 3rd month): Severe fires in Kyoto.
- 1623 (Genna 9): Tokugawa Iemitsu, son of Hidetada, came to the court of the emperor where he was created Shogun.
- 25 October 1623 (Kan'ei 3, 6th day of the 9th month): Go-Mizunoo visits Nijō Castle, which was built in 1586 by Toyotomi Hideyoshi
- 1627 (Kan'ei 6): The "Purple Clothes Incident" (紫衣事件 shi-e jiken ): The Emperor was accused of having bestowed honorific purple garments to more than ten priests despite the shogun's edict which banned them for two years (probably in order to break the bond between the Emperor and religious circles). The shogunate intervened making the bestowing of the garments invalid. The priests which had been honored by the emperor were send into exile by the bakufu.
- 22 December 1629 (Kan'ei 6, 8th day of the 11th month): Go-Mizunoo abdicated. The emperor renounced the throne in favor of his daughter, Okiko, on the same day that the priests of the "Purple Clothes Incident" went into exile. Okiko became the Empress Meishō.
For the rest of his long life, Go-Mizuno-in concentrated on various aesthetic projects and interests, of which perhaps the best-known are the magnificent Japanese gardens of the Shugaku-in Imperial Villa.
Go-Mizunoo's memory is honored at Sennyū-ji in Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto where a designated Imperial mausoleum (misasagi) is located. It is named Tsukinowa no misasagi. Also enshrined are this emperor's immediate Imperial successors – Meishō, Go-Kōmyō, Go-Sai, Reigen, Higashiyama, Nakamikado, Sakuramachi, Momozono, Go-Sakuramachi and Go-Momozono.
Kugyō (公卿) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. Even during those years in which the court's actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal, the hierarchic organization persisted.
In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Go-Mizunoo's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included:
- Kampaku, Kujō Yukiie, 1608–1612
- Kampaku, Takatsukasa Nobuhisa, 1612–1615
- Kampaku, Nijō Akizane, 1615–1619
- Kampaku, Kujō Yukiie, 1619–1623
- Kampaku, Konoe Nobuhiro, 1623–1629.
- Kampaku, Ichijō Akiyoshi, 1629
- Udaijin, Konoe Nobuhiro, 1619.
Eras of Go-Mizunoo's reign
- Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): 後水尾天皇 (108)
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, pp. 113–115.
- Titsingh, Isaac (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 410–411.
- Emperor Seiwa, after his death, was sometimes referred to as Mizunoo (水尾) because this is the location of his tomb.
- Ponsonby-Fane, p. 9.
- Titsingh, p. 410.
- Ponsonby-Fane, p. 114.
- Ponsonby-Fane, p. 115.
- Ponsonby-Fane, pp. 114–115; Satow, Ernest Mason. (1881). A Handbook for Travellers in Central & Northern Japan, p. 408.
- Ponsonby-Fane, p. 115
- Titsingh, p. 410; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 44; n.b., a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami.
- Meyer, Eva-Maria. (1999). Japans Kaiserhof in der Edo-Zeit, p. 186.
- Titsingh, p. 409.
- Ponsonby-Fane, p. 113.
- Ponsonby-Fane, p. 113; Titsingh, p. 410.
- Ponsonby-Fane, p. 114; Titsingh, p. 411.
- Titsingh, p. 414; Meyer, p. 186.
- Ponsonby-Fane, p. 423.
- Meyer, Eva-Maria. (1999). Japans Kaiserhof in der Edo-Zeit: unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Jahre 1846 bis 1867. Münster: LIT Verlag. 10-ISBN 3-8258-3939-7, 13-ISBN 978-3-8258-3939-0; OCLC 42041594
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887
- Satow, Ernest Maston. and A.G.S. Hawes. (1881). A Handbook for Travellers in Central & Northern Japan: Being a guide to Tōkiō, Kiōto, Ōzaka and Other Cities .... Yokohama: Kelly & Co. OCLC 16846380
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
- Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. 10-ISBN 0-231-04940-4; 13-ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5; OCLC 59145842
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