Emperor Go-Suzaku

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Go-Suzaku
Emperor of Japan
Reign 1036–1045
Coronation 1036
Predecessor Go-Ichijō
Successor Go-Rezei
Father Ichijō
Mother Fujiwara no Shōshi
Born December 14, 1009
Heian Kyō (Kyōto)
Died February 7, 1045 (aged 37)
Higashi-sanjō Tei (東三条第), Heian Kyō (Kyōto)
Burial Enjō-ji no misasagi (円乗寺陵) (Kyōto)

Emperor Go-Suzaku (後朱雀天皇 Go-Suzaku-tennō?, December 14, 1009 – February 7, 1045) was the 69th emperor of Japan,[1] according to the traditional order of succession.[2]

Go-Suzaku's reign spanned the years from 1036 through 1045.[3]

This 11th-century sovereign was named after the 10th-century Emperor Suzaku and go- (後), translates literally as "later;" and thus, he is sometimes called the "Later Emperor Suzaku". The Japanese word "go" has also been translated to mean the "second one;" and in some older sources, this emperor may be identified as "Suzaku, the second" or as "Suzaku II."

Traditional narrative[edit]

Before his ascension to the Chrysanthemum Throne, his personal name (his imina)[4] was Atsunaga-shinnō (敦良親王).[5][6]

His father was Emperor Ichijō. His mother was Fujiwara no Akiko/Shōshi (藤原彰子), the daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga (藤原道長). He was the younger brother and heir to Emperor Go-Ichijō.

Go-Suzaku had five Empresses and seven Imperial sons.[7]

Events of Go-Suzaku's life[edit]

  • May 15, 1036 (Chōgen 9, 17th day of the 4th month) : In the 9th year of Emperor Go-Ichijō's reign (後一条天皇9年), he died; and the succession (‘‘senso’’) was received by a his son.[8]
  • 1036 (Chōgen 9, 7th month): Emperor Go-Suzaku is said to have acceded to the throne (‘‘sokui’’).[9]
  • February 5, 1045 (Kantoku 2, 16th day of the 1st month): Emperor Go-Suzaku abdicated.[7]
  • February 7, 1045 (Kantoku 2, 18th day of the 1st month): The former-Emperor Go-Suzaku died at the age of 37.[10] His reign has lasted nine years—five in the nengō Chōryaku, four in Chōkyu, and 2 in Kantoku.
Decorative emblems (kiri) of the Hosokawa clan are found at Ryoan-ji. Go-Suzaku is amongst six other emperors entombed near what had been the residence of Hosokawa Katsumoto before the Ōnin War.

The actual site of Go-Suzaku's grave is known.[1] This emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine (misasagi) at Kyoto.

The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Go-Suzaku's mausoleum. It is formally named Enjō-ji no misasagi.[11]

Go-Suzaku is buried amongst the "Seven Imperial Tombs" at Ryoan-ji Temple in Kyoto.[12]

The specific mound which commemorates the Hosokawa Emperor Go-Suzaku is today named Shu-zan.[13]

The emperor's burial place would have been quite humble in the period after Go-Suzaku died.[13]

These tombs reached their present state as a result of the 19th century restoration of imperial sepulchers (misasagi) which were ordered by Emperor Meiji.[13]

The final resting place of Emperor Go-Suzaku's consort, Teishi Nai-shinnō (1013–1094), is here as well.[13]

Kugyō[edit]

Kugyō (公卿?) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. Even during those years in which the court's actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal, the hierarchic organization persisted.

In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Go-Suzaku's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included:

Eras of Go-Suzaku's reign[edit]

The years of Go-Suzaku's reign are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.[14]

Consorts and children[edit]

Crown Princess (died before Emperor's accession): Fujiwara no Yoshiko/Kishi (藤原嬉子), 4th daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga

Empress (kōgō): Imperial Princess Sadako/Teishi (禎子内親王) (1013–1094), 3rd daughter of Emperor Sanjō

  • Imperial Prince Takahito (尊仁親王) (Emperor Go-Sanjō) (1034–1073)
  • Imperial Princess Nagako/Ryōshi (良子内親王) (1029–1077) – Saiō at Ise Shrine 1036–1045 (Ippon-Jusangū, 一品准三宮)
  • Imperial Princess Yoshiko/Kenshi (娟子内親王) (1032–1103) – Saiin at Kamo Shrine 1036–1045, and later married to Minamoto no Toshifusa (源俊房)

Empress (chūgū): Fujiwara no Motoko/Genshi (藤原嫄子) (1016–1039), adopted daughter of Fujiwara no Yorimichi (biological daughter of Imperial Prince Atsuyasu (敦康親王))

  • Imperial Princess Sukeko/Yūshi (祐子内親王) (1038–1105) – (Sanpon-Jusangū, 三品准三宮)
  • Imperial Princess Miwako/Baishi (禖子内親王) (Rokujō Saiin, 六条斎院) (1039–1096) – Saiin at Kamo Shrine 1046–1058

Nyōgo: Fujiwara no Nariko/Seishi (藤原生子) (1014–1068), eldest daughter of Fujiwara no Norimichi (藤原教通)

Nyōgo: Fujiwara Nobuko/Enshi (藤原延子) (1016–1095), 2nd daughter of Fujiwara no Yorimune (藤原頼宗)

  • Imperial Princess Masako/Seishi (正子内親王) (Oshinokōji-Saiin, 押小路斎院) (1045–1114) – Saiin at Kamo Shrine 1058–1069

Notes[edit]

Japanese Imperial kamon — a stylized chrysanthemum blossom
  1. ^ a b Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): 後朱雀天皇 (69)
  2. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 75.
  3. ^ Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, pp. 310–311; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. p. 195-196; Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 160–162., p. 160, at Google Books
  4. ^ Brown, pp. 264; prior to Emperor Jomei, the personal names of the emperors were very long and people did not generally use them. The number of characters in each name diminished after Jomei's reign.
  5. ^ Brown, p. 310; Varley, p. 197.
  6. ^ Titsingh, p. 160.
  7. ^ a b c d e Brown, p. 311.
  8. ^ Brown, p. 310; Varley, p. 44; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami.
  9. ^ Titsingh, p. 160; Varley, p. 44.
  10. ^ Titsingh, p. 162; Brown, p. 311.
  11. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, p. 421.
  12. ^ The "Seven Imperial Tombs" at Ryoan-ji are the burial places of Uda, Kazan, Ichijō, Go-Suzaku, Go-Reizei, Go-Sanjō, and Horikawa.
  13. ^ a b c d Moscher, G. (1978). Kyoto: A Contemplative Guide, pp. 277–278.
  14. ^ Titsingh, p. 160-162.

References[edit]

See also[edit]

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Go-Ichijō
Emperor of Japan:
Go-Suzaku

1036–1045
Succeeded by
Emperor Go-Reizei