|Emperor of Japan|
|Reign||158 BC – 98 BC (traditional)|
|Buried||Kasuga no Izakawa no sak no e no misasagi (Nara)|
Modern scholars have come to question the existence of at least the first nine emperors; and Kaika's son Emperor Sujin is the first many agree might have actually existed, in the third or fourth century. The name Kaika-tennō was assigned to him posthumously by later generations.
Kaika is regarded by historians as a "legendary emperor," and there is a paucity of information about him. There is insufficient material for further verification and study. The reign of Emperor Kimmei (509?–571 AD), the 29th emperor, is the first for which contemporary historiography is able to assign verifiable dates; however, the conventionally accepted names and dates of the early emperors were not to be confirmed as "traditional" until the reign of Emperor Kammu (737–806), the 50th sovereign of the Yamato dynasty.
In Kojiki and Nihonshoki, only his name and genealogy were recorded. The Japanese have traditionally accepted this sovereign's historical existence, and an Imperial misasagi or tomb for Kaika is maintained; however, no extant contemporary records have been discovered which confirm a view that this historical figure reigned. He was the eighth of eight emperors without specific legends associated with them, also known as the "eight undocumented monarchs" (欠史八代, Kesshi-hachidai?).
Kaika is a posthumous name. It is undisputed that this identification is Chinese in form and Buddhist in implication, which suggests that the name must have been regularized centuries after the lifetime ascribed to Kaika, possibly during the time in which legends about the origins of the Yamato dynasty were compiled as the chronicles known today as the Kojiki.
The site of Kaika's grave is not known. This emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine (misasagi) at Nara. The Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Kaika's mausoleum. It is formally named Kasuga no Izakawa no sak no e no misasagi.
Consorts and children
Empress: Ikagashikome (伊香色謎命), daughter of Oohesoki (大綜麻杵)
- Prince Mimakiirihikoinie (御間城入彦五十瓊殖尊) (Emperor Sujin)
- Princess Mimatsuhime (御真津比売命)
Taniwa no Takanohime (丹波竹野媛), daughter of Taniwa no Ooagatanushi Yugori (丹波大県主由碁理)
- Prince Hikoyumusu (彦湯産隅命)
Hahatsuhime (姥津媛), younger sister of Washihime
Washihime (鸇比売), daughter of katsuragi no Tarumi no Sukune (葛城垂見宿禰)
- Prince Taketoyohazurawake (建豊波豆羅和気王)
- "Genealogy of the Emperors of Japan" at Kunaicho.go.jp; retrieved 2013-8-28.
- Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): 開化天皇 (9); retrieved 2013-8-28.
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 6-7, p. 6, at Google Books; Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 252; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 93
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 30.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Kaika Tennō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 451, p. 451, at Google Books.
- Yoshida, Reiji. "Life in the Cloudy Imperial Fishbowl," Japan Times. March 27, 2007; retrieved 2013-8-22.
- Brinkley, Frank. (1915). A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the end of the Meiji Era, p. 21, p. 21, at Google Books; excerpt, "Posthumous names for the earthly Mikados were invented in the reign of Emperor Kammu (782-805), i.e., after the date of the compilation of the Records and the Chronicles."
- Kelly, Charles F. "Kofun Culture," Japanese Archaeology. April 27, 2009.
- Titsingh, pp. 34–36; Brown, pp. 261–262; Varley, pp. 123–124.
- Hoye, Timothy. (1999). Japanese Politics: Fixed and Floating Worlds, p. 78; excerpt, "According to legend, the first Japanese emperor was Jimmu. Along with the next 13 emperors, Jimmu is not considered an actual, historical figure. Historically verifiable Emperors of Japan date from the early sixth century with Kimmei.
- Aston, William. (1896). Nihongi, pp. 109.
- Aston, William. (1998). Nihongi, Vol. 1, pp. 148-149.
- Brown, p. 252.
- Ponsonby-Fane, p. 418.
- Aston, William George. (1896). Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner. OCLC 448337491
- Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. 10-ISBN 0-520-03460-0; 13-ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; OCLC 251325323
- Chamberlain, Basil Hall. (1920). The Kojiki. Read before the Asiatic Society of Japan on April 12, May 10, and June 21, 1882; reprinted, May, 1919. OCLC 1882339
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 10-ISBN 0-674-01753-6; 13-ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
- Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. 10-ISBN 0-231-04940-4; 13-ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5; OCLC 59145842
|Legendary Emperor of Japan
158 BC–98 BC