Ragibagh Khan, Emperor Tianshun of Yuan

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Ragibagh
Emperor Tianshun of Yuan
Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty
Khagan of the Mongols
Emperor of China
Emperor of Yuan Dynasty
Reign October 1328 – 14 November 1328
Coronation October, 1328
Predecessor Emperor Jingzong
Successor Emperor Wenzong
Full name
Mongolian: ᠠᠰᠣᠴᠢᠪᠢ
Chinese: 阿速吉八
Ragibagh
Era dates
Tianshun (天順) 1328
Posthumous name
Emperor De Xiao (德孝皇帝)
Temple name
Xingzong (興宗)
Dynasty Borjigin
Dynasty Yuan
Father Yesün Temür
Mother Babukhan
Born 1320
Died 14 November 1328
(aged c. 7–8)

Ragibagh (Arigabag), also known as Emperor Tianshun of Yuan (Chinese: 元天順帝), was a son of Yesün Temür who was briefly installed to the throne of the Yuan Dynasty in Shangdu in 1328. Although he should have been the seventh ruler of the Yuan Dynasty in succession to his father Yesün Temür Khan, or Emperor Taiding, he was dethroned by his rival who was installed by coup before Ragibagh's succession. He is regarded as the 11th Great Khan of the Mongols in Mongolia.[1]

Life[edit]

Ragibagh was the eldest son of Yesün Temür. His mother Babukhan Khatun came from the Khunggirad clan, who had held power through marriage to the imperial family. He became Crown Prince at infancy in 1324. In June 1328 when Yesün Temür suddenly died in Shangdu, he was installed by the powerful Muslim officer Dawlat Shah there in the next month.

However, Yesün Temür's sudden death triggered an uprising of an anti-mainstream faction who had been dissatisfied with monopolization of power by Yesün Temür's aides including Dawlat Shah who had served him since he was stationed in Mongolia as Jinong. In the eighth month, the Mongolized Qipchaq commander El Temür, who was stationed in Dadu, launched a coup and called for installation of Khayishan's son. Tugh Temür was welcomed into Dadu in the same month in which Ragibagh ascended to the throne.[2]

Ragibagh's army broke through the Great Wall at several points and advanced on Dadu; but was severely defeated by El Temür's troops. In October or 14 November, Hasar's descendant Örüg Temür, who controlled eastern Mongolia, and Bukha Temur besieged Shangdu, taking the side of El Temür. At the time, most of Ragibagh's army were involved on the Great Wall front, and the Shangdu court was compelled to surrender on the very next day.[3] Dawlat Shah and most of the leading loyalists were taken prisoner and later executed by the Dadu faction after surrender; but Ragibagh is said to have disappeared after that, evidently murdered.[4] However, Yesün Temür's loyalists elsewhere carried on fighting for much longer. The last of them gave up their cause in 1332.[5]

Note on his name[edit]

Due to scarcity of historical sources and their multilinguality, Ragibagh's name has a lot of variants. The Tibetan Red Annals (Hu lān deb ther) calls him "Ra khyi phag." The later Mongolian chronicles such as the Erdeni-yin tobchi and the Altan tobchi spell him Radzibaγ or Raǰibaγ. The History of the Yuan refers to him as A-su-ji-ba (阿速吉八), but it is apparently a misspelling of A-la-ji-ba (阿剌吉八). The initial "a" prevents the word from starting with "r" in Mongolian. It looks like a modern Mongolian painter Ts.Mandir interpreted his name as "Asidkebe" (Ашидхэв)[1]. In Chinese he is also known as the Tianshun Emperor for era name.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Их хаадын хураангуй-http://library.thinkquest.org/04apr/01341/monkingstext.htm
  2. ^ The Empire of the Steppes By Rene Grousset, Naomi Walford, p.321
  3. ^ Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank-The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907–1368, p.544
  4. ^ Frederick W. Mote- Imperial China 900–1800, p.471
  5. ^ Yuan shi, 33-6
Ragibagh Khan, Emperor Tianshun of Yuan
Born: 1320?
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Yesün Temür Khan, Emperor Taiding of Yuan
Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty
1328
Succeeded by
Jayaatu Khan, Emperor Wenzong
Preceded by
Yesün Temür Khan
Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
1328
Succeeded by
Jayaatu Khan
Preceded by
Emperor Taiding
Emperor of China
1328
Succeeded by
Emperor Wenzong