Empetrum nigrum

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For other shrubs sometimes called "crowberry", see Bearberry.
Black crowberry
Empetrum nigrum by Maseltov 2.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Empetrum
Species: E. nigrum
Binomial name
Empetrum nigrum
L.[1]

Empetrum nigrum, crowberry or black crowberry, is a species of Empetrum with a circumboreal distribution.[2][3] It is usually dioecious, but there is a bisexual tetraploid subspecies, Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum, that occurs in more northerly locations and at higher altitude.[4][5]

The metabolism and photosynthetic parameters of Empretrum can be altered in winter-warming experiments.[6]

Description[edit]

The leaves are 3–6 mm (0.12–0.24 in) long, arranged alternately along the stem. The fruits are drupes, 4–6 mm (0.16–0.24 in) wide, usually black or purplish-black but occasionally red.[7]

The fruits contain mostly water. Their vitamin content is low, as is the concentration of volatile liquids, the lack of which makes them almost odorless. The acidity is lower than is typically encountered in forest berries, and benzene acids are almost absent.[citation needed]

The yellow-leaved cultivar Empetrum nigrum 'Lucia'

Cultivation and uses[edit]

E. nigrum can be grown in acidic soils in shady, moist areas. It can be grown for the edible fruit, as a ground cover,[8] or as an ornamental plant in rock gardens, notably the yellow-foliaged cultivar 'Lucia'. The fruit is high in anthocyanin pigment, and can be used to make a natural food dye.[8]

After waning popularity, E. nigrum is regaining its reputation as an edible fruit. It provides a steady crop and the gathering is relatively easy. Cooking enhances the flavor. The fruits make good pie and jam.[citation needed]

In subarctic areas, E. nigrum has been a vital addition to the diet of the Inuit and the Sami. The Dena'ina (Tanaina) harvest it for food, sometimes storing in quantity for winter, and like it mixed with lard or oil. The fruits are usually collected in fall, but if not picked they may persist on the plant and can be picked in the spring. They keep well in a cool place without any special preparation. The Inuit and Native Americans mix them with other berries, especially blueberries.

The leaves and stems are used in Dena'ina medicine for diarrhea and stomach problems; they are boiled or soaked in hot water, and the strained liquid drunk. Some claim the fruit juice is good for kidney trouble.[who?] In Dena'ina plantlore in the Outer and Upper Inlet area of Lake Clark, the root is also used as a medicine, being used to remove a growth on an eye and to heal sore eyes. The roots are boiled and the eyes are washed with the strained, cooled tea, to which a little sugar may be added.

In Labrador, where the name "blackberry" is used, the smoke of the burning stems and leaves is used to smoke fish, notably Salmon, Sea Trout and Arctic Char.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sp. Pl. 2: 1022. 1753 [1 May 1753] "Plant Name Details for Empetrum nigrum". IPNI. Retrieved December 1, 2009. 
  2. ^ "Empetrum nigrum L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). United States Department of Agriculture. 
  3. ^ "Empetrum nigrum L.". PLANTS. 
  4. ^ Stace, CA (2010) New Flora of the British Isles, 3rd edition. Cambridge University press. ISBN978-0-521-70772-5. pp. 525
  5. ^ http://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/di/erica/empet/empenig.html (Swedish)
  6. ^ Bokhorst S, Bjerke JW, Davey MP, Taulavuori K, Taulavuori E, Laine K, Callaghan TV, Phoenix GK. 2010. Impacts of extreme winter warming events on plant physiology in a sub-Arctic heath community. Physiologia Plantarum. 140(2): 128-140.
  7. ^ Jepson eFlora: Empetrum nigrum
  8. ^ a b "Empetrum nigrum - L.". Plants for a Future.