Empire of China (1915–16)
|Empire of China|
Zhōngguó xióng lì yǔzhòujiān
"China Heroically Stands in the Universe"
|Secretary of State|
|Historical era||World War I|
|-||Established||12 December 1915|
|-||National Protection War||25 December 1915|
|-||Disestablished||22 March 1916|
|Today part of|| China
The Empire of China (simplified Chinese: 中华帝国; traditional Chinese: 中華帝國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Dìguó) was a short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai from late 1915 to early 1916 to reinstate monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor (simplified Chinese: 洪宪皇帝; traditional Chinese: 洪憲皇帝; pinyin: Hóngxiàn Huángdì). The attempt was ultimately a failure, but it set back the Chinese republican cause by many years and fractured China into a period of conflict between various local warlords.
- 1 Preparations for formation
- 2 Backlash
- 3 National symbols
- 4 List of people given peerage by Yuan
- 4.1 Prince
- 4.2 Prince of the First Rank Wuyi (武義親王 Wǔyì qīn wáng)
- 4.3 Dukes of the First Rank (一等公 Yī děng gōng)
- 4.4 Marquesses of the First Rank (一等侯 Yī děng hóu)
- 4.5 Counts of the First Rank (一等伯 Yī děng bó)
- 4.6 Viscounts of the First Rank (一等子 Yī děng zǐ)
- 4.7 Barons of the First Rank (一等男 Yī děng nán)
- 4.8 Baron of the Third Rank (三等男 Sān děng nán)
- 5 See also
- 6 References
Preparations for formation
After Yuan Shikai was installed as the second Provisional Great President of the Republic of China, he took various steps to consolidate his power and remove opposition leaders from office. To secure his own power he collaborated with various European powers as well as Japan. Around August 1915, he instructed Yang Du (楊度) et al. to canvass support for a return of a monarchy. On 11 December 1915, an assembly unanimously elected him as Emperor. Yuan ceremonially declined, but "relented" and immediately agreed when the National Assembly petitioned again that day. On 12 December, Yuan, supported by his son Yuan Keding, declared the Empire of China with himself as the "Great Emperor of the Chinese Empire" (simplified Chinese: 中华帝国大皇帝; traditional Chinese: 中華帝國大皇帝; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Dìguó Dà Huángdì), taking the era name Hongxian (simplified Chinese: 洪宪; traditional Chinese: 洪憲; pinyin: Hóngxiàn, "Constitutional Abundance"). However, Yuan delayed the accession rites until 1 January 1916. A dress rehearsal was sabotaged by his Korean concubine. Soon after, Yuan started handing out titles of peerage to his closest relatives and friends, as well as those whom he thought he could buy with titles.
The Aisin Gioro family, then living within the Forbidden City but as foreign monarchs rather than Chinese ones, "approved" of Yuan's accession, and even proposed a "royal marriage" of Yuan's daughter to Puyi.
1916 was to be "Hongxian Year 1" (洪憲元年) rather than "Republic Year 5" (民國五年), but Yuan was opposed by not only the revolutionaries, but far more importantly by his subordinate military commanders, who believed that Yuan's assumption of the monarchy would allow him to rule without depending on the support of the military.
Province after province rebelled after his inauguration, starting with Yunnan, led by Yuan's governor Cai E and general Tang Jiyao and Jiangxi, led by governor Li Liejun (李烈鈞). The revolters formed the National Protection Army (護國軍) and thus began the National Protection War. This was followed by other provinces declaring independence from the Empire. Yuan's Beiyang generals, whose soldiers had not received pay once from the imperial government, did not put up an aggressive campaign against the National Protection Army and the Beiyang Army suffered numerous defeats despite being better trained and equipped than the National Protection Army.
Seeing Yuan's weakness and unpopularity, foreign powers withdrew their support (but did not choose sides in the war). The Empire of Japan first threatened to invade, then committed to overthrowing Yuan Shikai and recognised both sides of the conflict to be "in a state of war" and allowed Japanese citizens to help the Republicans. Faced with universal opposition, Yuan repeatedly delayed the accession rites to appease his foes. Funding for the ceremony was cut on 1 March. Yuan deliberated abandoning the monarchy with Liang Shiyi on 17 March and abandoned it on 22 March. The "Hongxian" year was abolished on 23 March and the "Republic" calendrical system restored. Yuan reigned a total of 83 days.
After Yuan's death on 5 June Vice President Li Yuanhong assumed the presidency, and appointed Beiyang general Duan Qirui as his Premier and restored the National Assembly and the provisional Constitution. However, the central authority of the Beijing government was significantly weakened and the demise of Yuan's Empire plunged China into a period of warlordism.
Yuan set up the Ritual Regulations Office (禮制館), which issued the new official anthem for the Republic of China "China heroically stands in the Universe" (中華雄立宇宙間) on June 1915. Its lyrics were written by Yin Chang (廕昌) and music by Wang Lu (王露). The lyrics was slightly modified on December 1915, with 共和五族 (Five Races Under One Union) replaced by 勳華揖讓 (Shanrang, the ancient system of Chinese emperor relinquishing seats to others in Yao and Shun's era. ) to be used during Yuan's imperial reign.
|Chinese lyrics||English translation|
China heroically stands in the Universe,
The national flag was changed from the original 5-stripe flag to one (with the symmetrical cross, pictured above) that emphasised Han (red) administration over the Manchu, Mongolian, Uighur and Tibetan minorities of the country. However, the flag with a saltire was the version commonly used.
The national emblem was remained as the national emblem of the Republic of China (1913 - 1928), National emblem of Twelve Symbols of Sovereignty (十二章國徽).
List of people given peerage by Yuan
Prince of the First Rank Wuyi (武義親王 Wǔyì qīn wáng)
Dukes of the First Rank (一等公 Yī děng gōng)
- Long Jiguang (龍濟光)
- Zhang Xun
- Feng Guozhang (馮國璋)
- Jiang Guiti (姜桂題)
- Duan Zhigui
- Ni Sichong
- Liu Guanxiong
Marquesses of the First Rank (一等侯 Yī děng hóu)
- Tang Xiangming (湯薌銘)
- Li Chun (李純)
- Zhu Rui (朱瑞)
- Lu Rongting
- Zhao Ti (趙倜)
- Chen Yi
- Tang Jiyao
- Yan Xishan
- Wang Zhanyuan (王占元)
Counts of the First Rank (一等伯 Yī děng bó)
- Zhang Xiluan (張錫鑾)
- Zhu Jiabao (朱家寶)
- Zhang Mingqi (張鳴岐)
- Tian Wenlie (田文烈)
- Jin Yunpeng
- Yang Zengxin (楊增新)
- Lu Jianzhang (陸建章)
- Meng Enyuan (孟恩遠)
- Qu Yinguang (屈映光)
- Qi Yaolin (齊耀琳)
- Cao Kun
- Yang Shande (楊善德)
Viscounts of the First Rank (一等子 Yī děng zǐ)
Barons of the First Rank (一等男 Yī děng nán)
- Xu Shiying (許世英)
- Qi Yang (戚揚)
- Ren Kecheng (任可澄)
- Wang Yitang (王揖唐)
- He Zonglian (何宗蓮)
- Zhang Huaizhi (張懷芝)
- Long Jinguang (龍覲光)
- Chen Bingkun
- Lu Yongxiang (盧永祥)
- Lü Diaoyuan (呂調元)
- Jin Yong (金永)
- Cai Rukai (蔡儒楷)
- Duan Shuyun (段書雲)
- Long Jianzhang (龍建章)
- Shen Jinjian (沈金鑑)
- Pan Juying (潘矩楹)
Baron of the Third Rank (三等男 Sān děng nán)
- Warlord era
- History of the Republic of China
- Self-proclaimed monarchy
- Military of the Republic of China
- Kuo T'ing-i et al. Historical Annals of the ROC (1911–1949). Vol 1. pp 207–41.
- 中國的旗幟 (Flags of China) (Chinese)
Republic of China
|Empire of China
Republic of China