|Empress of Japan|
From Ogura Hyakunin Isshu
|Titles||Empress Dowager Jitō (697–703)
Empress of Japan (686–697)
|Died||703 (aged 57–58)|
|Place of death||Fujiwara-kyō, Japan|
|Buried||Hinokuma-no-Ōuchi no misasagi (Nara)|
|Mother||Soga no Ochi-no-iratsume|
Jitō's reign spanned the years from 686 through 697.
In the history of Japan, Jitō was the third of eight women to take on the role of empress regnant. The two female monarchs before Jitō were (a) Suiko and (b) Kōgyoku/Saimei. The five women sovereigns reigning after Jitō were (c) Gemmei, (d) Genshō, (e) Kōken/Shōtoku, (f) Meishō, and (g) Go-Sakuramachi.
Empress Jitō was the daughter of Emperor Tenji. Her mother was Ochi-no-Iratsume, the daughter of Minister Ō-omi Soga no Yamada-no Ishikawa Maro. She was the wife of Emperor Temmu, who was Tenji's half brother by another woman, and she succeeded him on the throne.
Events of Jitō's reign
Jitō took responsibility for court administration after the death of her husband, Emperor Temmu, who was also her uncle. She acceded to the throne in 687 in order to ensure the eventual succession of her son, Kusakabe-shinnō. Throughout this period, Empress Jitō ruled from the Fujiwara Palace in Yamato.
Prince Kusabake was named as crown prince to succeed Jitō, but he died at a young age. Kusabake's son, Karu-no-o, was then named as Jitō's successor. He eventually would become known as Emperor Mommu.
Empress Jitō reigned for eleven years. Although there were seven other reigning empresses, their successors were most often selected from amongst the males of the paternal Imperial bloodline, which is why some conservative scholars argue that the women's reigns were temporary and that male-only succession tradition must be maintained in the 21st century. Empress Gemmei, who was followed on the throne by her daughter, Empress Genshō, remains the sole exception to this conventional argument.
In 697, Jitō abdicated in Mommu's favor; and as a retired sovereign, she took the post-reign title daijō-tennō. After this, her imperial successors who retired took the same title after abdication.
Jitō continued to hold power as a cloistered ruler, which became a persistent trend in Japanese politics.
In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Jitō's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included:
Jitō's reign is not linked by scholars to any era or nengō. The Taika era innovation of naming time periods – nengō – languished until Mommu reasserted an imperial right by proclaiming the commencement of Taihō in 701.
However, Brown and Ishida's translation of Gukanshō offers an explanation which muddies a sense of easy clarity:
- "The eras that fell in this reign were: (1) the remaining seven years of Shuchō [(686+7=692?)]; and (2) Taika, which was four years long [695–698]. (The first year of this era was kinoto-hitsuji .) ...In the third year of the Taka era , Empress Jitō yielded the throne to the Crown Prince."
The Man'yōshū includes a poem said to have been composed by Jitō
- After the death of the Emperor Temmu
- Oh, the autumn foliage
- Of the hill of Kamioka!
- My good Lord and Sovereign
- Would see it in the evening
- And ask of it in the morning.
- On that very hill from afar
- I gaze, wondering
- If he sees it to-day,
- Or asks of it to-morrow.
- Sadness I feel at eve,
- And heart-rending grief at morn –
- The sleeves of my coarse-cloth robe
- Are never for a moment dry.
- Composed when the Empress climbed the Thunder Hill
- Lo, our great Sovereign, a goddess,
- Tarries on the Thunder
- In the clouds of heaven!
Hyakunin Isshu poetry
- Poem number 2
- Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): 持統天皇 (41)
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 54.
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, p. 59., p. 59, at Google Books
- Varley, H. Paul. Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 137.
- Brown, D. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 270.
- "Life in the Cloudy Imperial Fishbowl," Japan Times. March 27, 2007.
- Ponsonby-Fane, p. 420.
- Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkōkai, p.18. This waka is here numbered 42; in the Kokka Taikan (1901), Book II, numbered 159.
- Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkōkai, p. 18 n1; n.b., This would be the so-called Thunder Hill in the village of Asuka near Nara.
- Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkōkai, p. 47; n.b., This waka is here numbered 118; in the Kokka Taikan (1901), Book III, numbered 235.
- Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkōkai, p. 47 n4; n.b., This poem is based on the idea that the Sovereigns are the offspring of Amaterasu-omikami, and that their proper sphere is heaven. There the Thunder Hill is regarded as the actual embodiment of Thunder.
- "University of Virginia, ''Hyakunin Isshu'' on-line". Etext.lib.virginia.edu. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
- Aston, William George. (1896). Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner. OCLC 448337491
- Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds. (1979). Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. 10-ISBN 0-520-03460-0; 13-ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; OCLC 251325323
- MacCauley, Clay. (1900). "Hyakunin-Isshu: Single Songs of a Hundred Poets" in Transactions of the Asia Society of Japan. Tokyo: Asia Society of Japan. ...Click link for digitized, full-text copy (in English)
- __________. (1901). Kokka taikan. Tokyo: Teikoku Toshokan, Meiji 30–34 [1897–1901]. [reprinted Shinten kokka taikan (新編国歌大観), 10 vols. + 10 index vols., Kadokawa Shoten, Tokyo, 1983–1992. 10-ISBN 4-04-020142-6; 13-ISBN 978-4-04-020142-9]
- Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkōkai. (1940). Man'yōshū. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten. [reprinted by Columbia University Press, New York, 1965. 10-ISBN 0-231-08620-2]. Rprinted by Dover Publications, New York, 2005. 10-ISBN 0-486-43959-3; 13-ISBN 978-0-486-43959-4
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
- Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. 10-ISBN 0-231-04940-4; 13-ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5; OCLC 59145842
- Asuka Historical National Government Park: image of Mausoleum Emperor Temmu and Empress Jitō, exterior view
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