Empress Wang Zhi
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|Empress Wang of Jing 孝景王皇后|
|Empress of Western Han Dynasty|
|Tenure||150 BC – 126 BC|
Emperor Jing of Han
Liu Che, Emperor Wu
Princess Yangxin the Eldest, Marchioness of Pingyang and Changping
Empress Wang of Jing (孝景王皇后, died 126 BC), also known by her birth name Wang Zhi (王娡) and by her title Lady Wang (王夫人), was an empress during the Han Dynasty. She was the second wife of Emperor Jing and the mother of Emperor Wu.
Family background and first marriage
Wang Zhi was born to Wang Zhong (王仲) and Zang Er (臧兒), who was a granddaughter of Zang Tu, the one-time King of Yan under Emperor Gaozu. Her parents also had, in addition to her, an older son Wang Xin (王信) and a younger daughter Wang Xixu (王息姁). They lived in Huaili (槐里, in modern Xianyang, Shaanxi). After her father died, her mother remarried a man named Tian (田), and had two more sons, Tian Fen (田蚡) and Tian Sheng (田勝).
When Wang Zhi was young, she was married to a local man named Jin Wangsun (金王孫), and had a daughter named Jin Su (金俗). However, her mother was told by a soothsayer that both of her daughters would become extremely honored. Zang Er got the idea to offer her daughters to the crown prince, Liu Qi, and forcibly divorced Wang Zhi from her husband. Wang Zhi was then sent along with her sister to Crown Prince's palace to join his concubinage.
As consort to the crown prince and then emperor
After being offered to the Crown Prince, both Wang Zhi and her sister became favored. She then bore him three daughters, Princess Yangxin (陽信公主), Princess Nangong (南宮公主) and Princess Longlü (隆慮公主), and later a son named Liu Che (劉徹) in 156 BC, on the day Liu Qi ascended to the throne as Emperor Jing of Han. When she was pregnant, she claimed that she dreamed a sun falling into her womb. Emperor Jing was ecstatic over the divine implication, and made Liu Che (his 10th son) the Prince of Jiaodong (膠東王) in 153 BC. Wang Zhi was also promoted to a consort for giving birth to a royal prince.
Emperor Jing's formal wife, Empress Bo, was childless. As a result, Emperor Jing's oldest son Liu Rong (劉榮), born of his other favorite concubine Lady Li (栗姬), was created crown prince in 153 BC. Lady Li, feeling certain that her son would become the emperor, grew arrogant and intolerant, and frequently threw tantrum at Emperor Jing out of jealousy over his favor towards other concubines. Her lack of tact would prove to be Consort Wang's chance.
When Emperor Jing's older sister, Eldest Princess Guantao (館陶長公主) Liu Piao (劉嫖), offered to marry her daughter Chen Jiao (陳嬌) to Liu Rong, Lady Li rudely rejected the proposal out of grudge that Princess Guantao often pimped new concubines and siphoning away her favor from Emperor Jing. Consort Wang, who had been observing quietly and waiting for her chance, took the opportunity and secured a marriage alliance by offering to marry her 5-year-old son Liu Che. Now sided with Consort Wang, Princess Guantan then began incessantly bad-mouthing Lady Li in front of Emperor Jing. Gradually buying into his sister's words, Emperor Jing decided to test out Lady Li. One day he asked Lady Li that whether she would happily foster-care the rest of his children if he was to pass away, only to have Lady Li rudely (and foolishly) refusing to comply. This made Emperor Jing angry and worried that if Liu Rong was to inherit the throne and Lady Li to become empress dowager, many of his concubines might suffer the fate of Consort Qi.
Seizing the opportunity, Consort Wang laid in the final straw for Lady Li. She hinted a minister to advise Emperor Jing to make Lady Li empress as Liu Rong was already the crown princes. Emperor Jing, already concluding that Lady Li must not be made empress, was enraged and believed that Lady Li had conspired with government officials. He executed that minister who forwarded that proposal, and deposed Liu Rong to the Prince of Linjiang (臨江王) in 150 BC and exiled him out of the capital city Chang'an. Lady Li was stripped off her titles and placed under house arrest, and died of frustration and depression not long after.
Since Empress Bo's deposition one year earlier, the position of empress was open. Emperor Wu, who had always considered Liu Che to be his favorite son, soon made Consort Wang empress. Liu Che, now legally the oldest son of the Empress, was later made crown prince.
Remembering the lesson of Empress Bo's and Lady Li's fate, despite her honored position as empress, Empress Wang did not try to assert as much influence on her husband as her mother-in-law, Empress Dowager Dou, had asserted over her father-in-law, Emperor Wen. She had good relations with her mother-in-law, and both she and her brother Wang Xin were key in calming Emperor Jing from his anger against his brother Liu Wu (劉武), the Prince of Liang and the favored young son of Empress Dowager Dou, when Liu Wu assassinated a number of court officials in 148 BC for opposing the proposal to have him appointed the heir apparent. It was because of this that Empress Dowager Dou wanted to create Wang Xin a marquess, a move initially blocked by his prime minister Zhou Yafu (周亞夫), although Emperor Jing eventually carried out the creation anyway. She was probably pleased when Zhou committed suicide in 143 BC after being falsely accused of treason and arrested. When Emperor Jing died in 141 BC, Crown Prince Che succeeded to the throne as Emperor Wu, and Empress Wang became empress dowager.
As empress dowager
After Empress Wang became empress dowager, her son carried out several immediate acts to honor her family members. Her mother was created the Lady of Pingyuan, and her half-brothers were created marquesses. Her daughter Jin Su, from her previous marriage, was tracked down and personally visited by Emperor Wu, and he created her the Lady of Xiucheng.
Empress Dowager Wang exerted significant influence on her son, as can be seen from how, with her approval, her half-brother Tian Fen became the commander of the armed forces and exerted power even beyond the military affairs. Initially, her influence was balanced and outweighed by that of her mother-in-law, Grand Empress Dowager Dou. After Grand Empress Dowager Dou's death in 135 BC, however, she would become the paramount figure at court, and it was in 135 BC that Tian Fen was made prime minister, although her son gradually asserted his position as he grew in age. For example, in 133 BC, in the aftermaths of the failed attempt to capture the Xiongnu chanyu at the Battle of Mayi, Emperor Wu wanted to execute the key strategist, Wang Hui (王恢, unrelated to her), who bribed Tian, who in turn persuaded her to speak on Wang Hui's behalf. Emperor Wu refused to accept her intercession, and forced Wang Hui to commit suicide. However, it was at her behest that Emperor Wu executed his grand uncle Dou Ying (竇嬰) (Empress Dou's cousin) in 132 BC for having insulted Tian.
Empress Dowager Wang died in 126 BC, and was buried with her second husband Emperor Jing.
|Empress of Western Han Dynasty
150 BC–141 BC
Empress Chen Jiao