List of enacting clauses

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An enacting clause, or enacting formula, is a short phrase that introduces the main provisions of a law enacted by a legislature. It usually declares the source from which the law claims to derive its authority. In many countries, an enacting formula is not considered necessary and is simply omitted.

The simplest enacting clauses merely cite the legislature by which the law has been adopted; for example the enacting clause used in Australia since 1990 is "The Parliament of Australia enacts".[1] Alternatively an enacting clause may invoke the ultimate sovereign. For example, California, based on the principle of popular sovereignty, has the following enacting clause: "The People of the State of California do enact as follows."[1]

National legislatures[edit]

Antigua and Barbuda[edit]

Parliament of Antigua and Barbuda:

"ENACTED by the Parliament of Antigua and Barbuda as follows:"

[2]

Argentina[edit]

Congress of Argentina:

"The Senate and House of Deputies of the Argentine Nation, in Congress assembled, ... enact or approve with the force of law:"

Spanish: "El Senado y Cámara de Diputados de la Nación Argentina, reunidos en Congreso,... decretan o sancionan con fuerza de ley."

Australia[edit]

Parliament of Australia:

"The Parliament of Australia enacts:"

[1]

For constitutional amendments passed at a referendum:[3]

"The Parliament of Australia, with the approval of the electors, as required by the Constitution, enacts:"

Before October 1990:

"BE IT ENACTED by the Queen [King], and the Senate and the House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Australia, as follows:"

[4]

1901–?:

"BE IT ENACTED by the King's [Queen's] Most Excellent Majesty, the Senate and the House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Australia, as follows:"

Barbados[edit]

Parliament of Barbados:

1969:

"BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Assembly of Barbados and by the authority of the same as follows:-"

[5]

Bahamas[edit]

Parliament of the Bahamas:

"Enacted by the Parliament of The Bahamas."

[6]

Belize[edit]

Parliament of Belize:

"BE IT ENACTED, by and with the advice and consent of the House of Representatives and the Senate of Belize and by the authority of the same, as follows:-"

Brazil[edit]

National Congress of Brazil:

"THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC: I make it known that the National Congress decrees and I sanction the following Law:"

Portuguese: "O PRESIDENTE DA REPÚBLICA: Faço saber que o Congresso Nacional decreta e eu sanciono a seguinte Lei:"'

In Brazil the presidential assent to a bill is called "sanction". After passing both Houses of Congress (the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate), the final version of the bill, duly signed by the presiding officers of both Houses, is sent to the President of the Republic. The document is still called a "proposed law", with a bill number, and with the header "The National Congress decrees:" (In Portuguese: "O Congresso Nacional decreta:"). If the President approves the bill, a different copy of the act is prepared by the Presidency of the Republic, with the official number of the Law and the date of enactment of the law, and also with the replacement of the clause "The National Congress decrees:" with the above mentioned formula "THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC: I make it known that the National Congress decrees and I sanction the following Law:". The signatures of the presiding officers of Congress are therefore not present in this version of the act. This is the version of the statute that is published in the Official Journal and that is included in the statute books. When granting his approval to a bill, the President signs both the bill sent to him by Congress and the final version of the statute with the presidential enacting formula. The signed Bill is returned to Congress by means of a presidential message; the signed statute with the presidential enacting formula is printed in the Official Journal, and the original is thereafter sent to the National Archive. Thus, in Brazil, the President is always seen signing two different documents at bill signing document (the two documents are called the "autographs"): one is the text of the proposed law, the other is the final text of the statute. Technically, the first signature (on the Bill) is the "sanction to the proposed law", that is, the approval of the bill, that transforms it in a Law, and the second signature (on the statute with the presidential enacting formula) is the promulgation, the announcement to the people that the Law has been adopted. While the signature of the President on the bill includes the addition of the formula "I sanction it" (in Portuguese: "Sanciono") above the signature, this is not seen in the final "promulgation" version of the statute. On the other hand, the promulgated statute contains not only the signature of the president, but also the countersignatures of his ministers principally charged with applying the law.

When the president vetoes a bill, and the veto is overridden, the Bill is returned by Congress to the President not for sanction (approval), but merely for promulgation. In that case, the president is expected to promulgate the bill in 48 hours. In that situation, the enacting formula that appears in the final text of the adopted statute is as follows:

"THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC: I make it known that the National Congress maintained and I promulgate the following Law:"

Portuguese: "O PRESIDENTE DA REPÚBLICA: Faço saber que o Congresso Nacional manteve e eu promulgo a seguinte Lei:"

Tacit sanction (i.e. implicit approval) is deemed to take place if the president fails to sign or veto a bill within the constitutionally mandated timeframe of fifteen working days from receiving the bill. Once the bill is considered implicitlly sanctioned , the president is expected to promulgate the new law and the same 48 hour timeframe applies. The formula in this case is:

"THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC: I make it known that the National Congress decrees and I promulgate the following Law:"

Portuguese: "O PRESIDENTE DA REPÚBLICA: Faço saber que o Congresso Nacional decreta e eu promulgo a seguinte Lei:"

Should the president refuse to promulgate, or fail to promulgate in the period of 48 hours, a bill, after his veto has been overriden by Congress, then the authority to promulgate the bill passes to the President of the Senate. In that case, the formula of promulgation is:

"The President of the FEDERAL SENATE promulgates, in accordance with art. 66 §7, of the Federal Constitution, the following Law, that results from bill vetoed by the President of the Republic and maintained by the National Congress:"

Portuguese: "O Presidente do SENADO FEDERAL promulga, nos termos do art. 66, § 7, da Constituição Federal, a seguinte Lei, resultante de Projeto vetado pelo Presidente da República e mantido pelo Congresso Nacional:"

Should the president of the Republic refuse to promulgate, or fail to promulgate in the period of 48 hours, a bill, after the bill has been implicitly sanctioned due to his failure to sign or veto it within the constitutionally mandated timeframe, then the authority to promulgate the bill passes to the President of the Senate. In that case, the formula of promulgation is:

"I make it known that the NATIONAL CONGRESS enacted, the President of the Republic, in accordance with the provisions of §3 of the art. 66 of the Constitution, sanctioned, and I, (NAME IN CAPITAL LETTERS), President of the Federal Senate, in accordance with the §7 of the same article, do promulgate the following Law:"

Portuguese: "Faço saber que o CONGRESSO NACIONAL aprovou, o Presidente da República, nos termos do § 3o do art. 66 da Constituição, sancionou, e eu, NOME, Presidente do Senado Federal, nos termos do § 7o do mesmo artigo promulgo a seguinte Lei:"

Whenever the president adopts a provisional measure and the provisional measure is approved by Congress with changes, a normal bill is sent to the president for approval or veto, and the same formulas used for other bills are employed; once enacted, the new statute replaces the provisional measure. However, if the provisional measure adopted by the president is approved by Congress without changes, the bill does not need to be presented for approval or veto; in that case, the law that both corresponds fully to the provisional measure and replaces it is promulgated directly by the President of the Senate, with the following words:

"I make it known that the President of the Republic adopted the Provisional Measure number NNN of YYYY, that the National Congress approved, and I, NAME IN CAPITAL LETTERS, President of the Federal Senate, for the effects of the provision of the sole paragraph of art. 62 of the Federal Constitution, do promulgate the following Law:"

Portuguese: "Faço saber que o Presidente da República adotou a Medida Provisória no NN, de YYYY, que o Congresso Nacional aprovou e eu, NOME, Presidente do Senado Federal, para os efeitos do disposto no parágrafo único do art. 62 da Constituição Federal, promulgo a seguinte Lei:"

General Assembly of the Empire of Brazil (1822-1889)

Whenever the General Assembly of the Empire (made up of a Senate and of a Chamber of Deputies) passed a bill, a decree of the General Assembly containing the articles of the approved bill was sent to the Emperor for sanction or veto. The Decree of the General Assembly began with the following formula (that did not appear in the final version of the statute, after the imperial sanction): "The General Assembly decrees:" (in Portuguese: "A Assembleia Geral decreta:"). The decree was still only a proposed law, that would become an actual law if sanctioned by the Emperor. The General Assembly sent its decree to the Emperor for sanction or veto by means of a message with the words following: "The General Assembly sends to the Emperor the enclosed decree, that it considers advantageous, and useful to the Empire, and it asks that His Imperial Majesty may be pleased to grant it His sanction" (in Portuguese: "A Assembleia Geral dirige ao Imperador o decreto incluso, que julga vantajoso e útil ao Império, e pede a Sua Majestade Imperial, se digne dar a Sua sanção"). If the Emperor decided to sanction the decree, then he sent the message of the General Assembly back to the Legislature, adding after the text of the Decree of the General Assembly the following words, together with the date and his signature: ""The Emperor consents" (in Portuguese: "O Imperador consente"). Then, the Executive branch prepared a formal document to promulgate the new law, and this document was known in the imperial period as a Charter of Law (in Portuguese: Carta de Lei). It was the chartered version of the law that was included in the statute books and that was printed and published for the knowledge of the people. Thus, the Charter of Law was the final version of the statute as adopted. It was signed by the Emperor and countersigned by his responsible Ministers, and contained an enacting formula as follows:

NAME OF THE EMPEROR PRECEDED BY THE TITLE "DOM" (e.g. "DOM PETER THE SECOND"), by the grace of God and unanimous acclamation of the peoples, Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil: We make it known to all Our subjects that the General Assembly has decreed and We will the following law:

(the provisions of the Law then followed, and after the last article of the Law the text of the statute finished with a continuation of the enacting formula, as follows). We command, therefore, all the authorities whom the knowledge and execution of this present Law may concern, that they comply with it and that they make it be complied with and kept, as faithfully and as fully as provided herein. The Secretary of State of the Affairs of... (title of the responsible Minister of the Crown who countersigns the Act with the Emperor and who heads the Department principally charged with applying the Law) is to make this Law be printed, published and circulated. Given at the Palace of... on (day) of (month) of (year), in the (year) of the Independence and of the Empire.

Portuguese: NOME DO IMPERADOR PRECEDIDO DO TÍTULO "DOM" (e.g. "DOM PEDRO SEGUNDO"), por graça de Deus e unânime aclamação dos povos, Imperador Constitucional e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil: Fazemos saber a todos os Nossos súditos que a Assembleia Geral decretou e Nós queremos a seguinte lei:

(segue-se o texto das disposições da lei, e após o último artigo o texto do diploma legal continuava da forma seguinte) Mandamos, portanto, a todas as autoridades a quem o conhecimento e execução da referida lei pertencer, que a cumpram, e façam cumprir e guardar tão fiel e inteiramente como nela se contém. O Secretário de Estado dos Negócios... (título da pasta do Ministro responsável, que assina a Lei com o Imperador e que chefia o principal Ministério encarregado da sua aplicação) a faça imprimir, publicar e correr. Dada no palácio... no (dia) de (mês) de (ano), no (ano) da Independência e do Império.

When the powers of the Emperor were discharged by Regents on behalf of the monarch the formula was as follows:

The Regency (or "The Regent"; or "The Princess Imperial Regent"), in the Name of His Majesty the Emperor, the Lord (name of the Emperor preceded by the title "Dom", e.g., "Dom Pedro II"), makes it known to all the subjects of the Empire that the General Assembly has decreed and it (or "He" or "She") sanctioned the following law:

(the provisions of the Law then followed, and after the last article of the Law the text of the statute finished with a continuation of the enacting formula, as follows). (He, She, It) commands, therefore, all the authorities whom the knowledge and execution of this present Law may concern, that they comply with it and that they make it be complied with and kept, as faithfully and as fully as provided herein. The Secretary of State of the Affairs of... (title of the responsible Minister of the Crown who countersigns the Act with the Regent and who heads the Department principally charged with applying the Law) is to make this Law be printed, published and circulated. Given at the Palace of... on (day) of (month) of (year), in the (year) of the Independence and of the Empire.

Portuguese: A Regência (ou "O Regente; ou "A Princesa Imperial Regente), em Nome de Sua Majestade o Imperador, o Senhor (nome do Imperador, precedido pelo título "Dom", e.g., "Dom Pedro II"), faz saber a todos os súditos do Império que a Assembleia Geral decretou e ela (ou ele) sancionou a seguinte lei:

(segue-se o texto das disposições da lei, e após o último artigo o texto do diploma legal continuava da forma seguinte) Manda, portanto, a todas as autoridades a quem o conhecimento e execução da referida lei pertencer, que a cumpram, e façam cumprir e guardar tão fiel e inteiramente como nela se contém. O Secretário de Estado dos Negócios... (título da pasta do Ministro responsável, que assina a Lei com o Regente e que chefia o principal Ministério encarregado da sua aplicação) a faça imprimir, publicar e correr. Dada no palácio... no (dia) de (mês) de (ano), no (ano) da Independência e do Império.

Canada[edit]

Parliament of Canada:

"Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows:"

French: "Sa Majesté, sur l'avis et avec le consentement du Sénat et de la Chambre des communes du Canada, édicte:"

[7]

Chile[edit]

National Congress of Chile:

THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC: "Bearing in mind that the Hon. National Congress has given its approval to the next Bill ... And because I have seen fit to approve and sanction it; therefore it enacted and take effect as a law of the Republic"

Spanish: EL PRESIDENTE DE LA REPÚBLICA: "Teniendo presente que el H. Congreso Nacional ha dado su aprobación al siguiente proyecto de ley ... Y por cuanto he tenido a bien aprobarlo y sancionarlo; por tanto promúlguese y llévese a efecto como Ley de la República.

"

Denmark[edit]

The Danish Folketing:

"WE MARGRETHE THE SECOND, by the Grace of God Queen of Denmark, hereby proclaim: The Folketing has passed and We by Our consent have assented the following act:"

Danish: "VI MARGRETHE DEN ANDEN, af Guds Nåde Danmarks Dronning, gør vitterligt: Folketinget har vedtaget og Vi ved Vort samtykke stadfæstet følgende lov:"

"

Finland[edit]

Parliament of Finland:

"Be it enacted in accordance with the resolution of the Parliament:"

Finnish: "Eduskunnan päätöksen mukaisesti säädetään:"[8]

Swedish: "I enlighet med riksdagens beslut föreskrivs:"[9]

Before 1917 (examples):

"His Majesty the Emperor has, in accordance with the humble submission by the Estates of Finland, while in Petergof, on 7 (20) of July, 1906, been pleased to Graciously ratify the following Election Act for the Grand Duchy of Finland:"

—(1906)

Finnish: "Hänen Majesteettinsa Keisari on, Suomenmaan Valtiosäätyjen alamaisesta esityksestä, Pietarhovissa ollessaan 7 (20) p:nä heinäkuuta 1906 suvainnut Armossa vahvistaa seuraavan vaalilain Suomen Suuriruhtinaanmaalle::—"[10]

"We Alexander the Third, by Grace of God the Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, Czar of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland, etc., etc., etc., make it known: it is our will to hereby promulgate, in accordance with the humble submission of the Estates of Finland, the following Criminal Code for the Grand Duchy of Finland, on execution of which, as well as on enforcement of punishments, a special decree will be given"

Finnish: "Me Aleksander Kolmas, Jumalan Armosta, koko Venäjänmaan Keisari ja Itsevaltias, Puolanmaan Zsaari, Suomen Suuriruhtinas, y. m., y. m., y. m. Teemme tiettäväksi: Suomenmaan Valtiosäätyjen alamaisesta esityksestä tahdomme Me täten armosta vahvistaa seuraavan rikoslain Suomen Suuriruhtinaanmaalle, jonka voimaanpanemisesta, niinkuin myöskin rangaistusten täytäntöönpanosta erityinen asetus annetaan:"[11]

France[edit]

Parliament of France:

"The National Assembly and the Senate have adopted,
The President of the Republic promulgates the law of which content follows:"

French: "L'Assemblée nationale et le Sénat ont adopté,
Le Président de la République promulgue la loi dont la teneur suit:"

Germany[edit]

Bundestag of Germany:

For acts which do not need the consent of the Bundesrat:

"The Bundestag has enacted as follows. The constitutional rights of the Bundesrat have been observed"

German: "Der Bundestag hat folgendes Gesetz beschlossen. Die verfassungsmäßigen Rechte des Bundesrates sind gewahrt"

For acts which need the consent of the Bundesrat:

"The Bundestag, with the consent of the Bundesrat, has enacted as follows"

German: "Der Bundestag hat mit Zustimmung des Bundesrates folgendes Gesetz beschlossen"

Grenada[edit]

Parliament of Grenada:

"Be it enacted by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Representatives of Grenada, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—"

India[edit]

Parliament of India:

"BE it enacted by Parliament in the [number of years since 1950] Year of the Republic of India as follows:—"

[12]

Ireland[edit]

Standard:

Since 1937:

"Be it enacted by the Oireachtas as follows:—"

Irish: "Achtaitear ag an Oireachtas mar a leanas:—"

[13]

1922-1937:

"Be it enacted by the Oireachtas of Saorstát Éireann as follows:—"

Irish: "Achtuigheadh Oireachtas Shaorstáit Éireann mar leanas:—"

[14]

For an act with a preamble:

Since 1937:

"Be it therefore enacted by the Oireachtas as follows:—"

Irish: "Achtuigheadh an tOireachtas ar an ábhar san mar leanas:—"

1922-1937:

"Be it therefore enacted by the Oireachtas of Saorstát Éireann as follows:—"

Irish: "Achtuigheadh Oireachtas Shaorstáit Éireann ar an ábhar san mar leanas:—"

Jamaica[edit]

Parliament of Jamaica:

"BE IT ENACTED by The Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Representatives of Jamaica, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-

[15]

Malaysia[edit]

Parliament of Malaysia:

"BE IT ENACTED by the Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong with the advice and consent of the Dewan Negara and Dewan Rakyat in Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:–"

Malay: "MAKA INILAH DIPERBUAT UNDANG-UNDANG oleh Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong dengan nasihat dan persetujuan Dewan Negara dan Dewan Rakyat yang bersidang dalam Parlimen, dan dengan kuasa daripadanya, seperti berikut:–"

Lebanon[edit]

Parliament of Lebanon:

"The Chamber of deputies has adopted,
The President of the Republic enacts the law of which content follows:"

Malta[edit]

Parliament of Malta:

Since 1974:

"BE IT ENACTED by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the House of Representatives, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:"

Mexico[edit]

Congress of Mexico:

"The Congress of the United Mexican States decrees ..."[2]

Moldova[edit]

Parliament of the Republic of Moldova:

"The Parliament adopts the present law"

Romanian: "Parlamentul adoptă prezenta lege"

Netherlands[edit]

Estates-General of the Netherlands:

"We Willem-Alexander [name of sovereign], by the grace of God, King [Queen] of the Netherlands, Prince [Princess] of Orange-Nassau, etc. etc. etc.


To all who shall see this or hear it read, greetings! be it known:
Whereas we have considered that: [here follows a short recital of the Act's purpose];
Thus it is, that We, by the advice of the Council of State, and with the consent of the States General, have assented and understood as We hereby assent and understand:

[...text of law...]

[We] Require and command that these will be placed in the Official Bulletin of Acts and Decrees and that all ministries, authorities, governmental institutions and civil servants, whom it concerns, will diligently implement it.

Given at [location, be it in the Netherlands or abroad, and the date] [signed Willem-Alexander]"

The text in Dutch is:

"Wij Willem-Alexander [name of sovereign], bij de gratie Gods, Koning [Koningin] der Nederlanden, Prins [Prinses] van Oranje-Nassau, enz. enz. enz.


Allen, die deze zullen zien of horen lezen, saluut! doen te weten:
Alzo Wij in overweging genomen hebben, [here follows a short recital of the Act's purpose];
Zo is het, dat Wij, de Raad van State gehoord, en met gemeen overleg der Staten-Generaal, hebben goedgevonden en verstaan, gelijk Wij goedvinden en verstaan bij deze:

[...text of law...]

Lasten en bevelen dat deze in het Staatsblad zal worden geplaatst en dat alle ministeries, autoriteiten, colleges en ambtenaren wie zulks aangaat, aan de nauwkeurige uitvoering de hand zullen houden.

Gegeven te [location and date] [signed Willem-Alexander]"

New Zealand[edit]

Parliament of New Zealand:

"The Parliament of New Zealand enacts as follows:-"

[16]

1986–1999:

"BE IT ENACTED by the Parliament of New Zealand as follows:-"

[17]

Before 1986:

"BE IT ENACTED by the General Assembly of New Zealand in Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-"

[18]

Nigeria[edit]

Nigerian National Assembly:

"Be it Enacted by the National Assembly of the Federal Republic of Nigeria as follows -"

[19]

Philippines[edit]

Congress of the Philippines

1987 Constitution:

"We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of the Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society, and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity, the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution."

Bills:

"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:-"

Joint Resolutions:

"Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:-"

Peru[edit]

Congress of Peru:

"The Congress of the Republic has given the following Law"

Spanish: "El Congreso de la Republica ha dado la Ley siguiente"

Portugal[edit]

Assembly of the Republic:

"The Assembly of the Republic decrees, in accordance with ...(citation of the provision or provisions of the Constitution empowering the Assembly to legislate regarding the subject matter of the Law)... of the Constitution, as follows: "

Portuguese: A Assembleia da República decreta, nos termos da ... (citação do dispositivo ou dos dispositivos da Constituição que atribuem à Assembleia competência para legislar sobre o assunto da Lei) ... da Constituição, o seguinte:

Romania[edit]

Parliament of Romania:

"The Parliament of Romania adopts the present law"

Romanian: "Parlamentul României adoptă prezenta lege"

1965–1989:

"The Great National Assembly of the Romanian Socialist Republic adopts the present law"

Romanian: "Marea Adunare Naţională a Republicii Socialiste România adoptă prezenta lege"

1948–1965:

"The Great National Assembly of the Romanian People's Republic adopts"

Romanian: "Marea Adunare Naţională a Republicii Populare Române adoptă"

1881–1947:

"[King's name],
By the grace of God and the nation's will, King of Romania,
To all present and future, good health:
The lawmaking assemblies have voted and adopted, and We approve what follows:"

Romanian: "[Numele regelui],
Prin graţia lui Dumnezeu şi voinţa naţională, Rege al Romaniei,
La toţi de faţă şi viitori, sănătate:
Adunările legiuitoare au votat şi adoptat, iar Noi, sancţionăm ce urmează:"

South Africa[edit]

Parliament of South Africa: Since 27 April 1994:

"BE IT [THEREFORE] ENACTED by the Parliament of the Republic of South Africa, as follows:—"

or

"PARLIAMENT of the Republic of South Africa [therefore] enacts as follows:—

[20] The Constitution of South Africa, not being a conventional Act of Parliament, does not contain an enacting formula per se. Its preamble does, however, contain the words

"We therefore, through our freely elected representatives, adopt this Constitution as the supreme law of the Republic".

In the context, "we" refers to the people of South Africa.

3 September 1984 to 27 April 1994:

For "general affairs" acts:

"BE IT [THEREFORE] ENACTED by the State President and the Parliament of the Republic of South Africa, as follows:—"

For "own affairs" acts:

"BE IT [THEREFORE] ENACTED by the State President and the House of [Assembly/Representatives/Delegates] of the Republic of South Africa, as follows:—"

1 January 1981 to 3 September 1984:

"BE IT [THEREFORE] ENACTED by the State President and the House of Assembly of the Republic of South Africa, as follows:―"

31 May 1961 to 1 January 1981:

"BE IT [THEREFORE] ENACTED by the State President, the Senate and the House of Assembly of the Republic of South Africa, as follows:―"

For acts amending the entrenched clauses of the Constitution of 1961:

"BE IT ENACTED by the State President, the Senate and the House of Assembly of the Republic of South Africa in accordance with the requirements of section 118 of the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act, 1961, as follows:―

31 May 1910 to 31 May 1961:

"BE IT [THEREFORE] ENACTED by the Queen's [King's] Most Excellent Majesty, the Senate and House of Assembly of the Parliament of the Union of South Africa, as follows:—"

For acts amending the entrenched clauses of the South Africa Act 1909:

"BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's [King's] Most Excellent Majesty, the Senate and the House of Assembly of the Union of South Africa, in accordance with the requirements of section one hundred and fifty-two of the South Africa Act, 1909, as follows:―"

Spain[edit]

Cortes Generales of Spain:

"Felipe VI [Name of the king/queen], King [Queen] of Spain, to all whom these presents shall be seen or understood, BE IT KNOWN: That the Cortes Generales have approved and I do enact this Act as follows"

Spanish: "Felipe VI [Name of the king/queen], Rey [Reina] de España, a todos los que la presente vieren y entendieren, sabed: Que las Cortes Generales han aprobado y Yo vengo en sancionar la siguiente Ley"

For Constitutions:

"Felipe VI [Name of the king/queen], King [Queen] of Spain, to all whom these presents shall be seen or understood, BE IT KNOWN: That the Cortes Generales have approved and the people of Spain have ratified the following Constitution"

Spanish: "Felipe VI [Name of the king/queen], Rey [Reina] de España, a todos los que la presente vieren y entendieren, sabed: Que las Cortes Generales han aprobado y el pueblo español ratificado la siguiente Constitución"

For organic acts:

"Felipe VI [Name of the king/queen], King [Queen] of Spain, to all whom these presents shall be seen or understood, BE IT KNOWN: That the Cortes Generales have approved and I do enact this Organic Act as follows"

Spanish: "Felipe VI [Name of the king/queen], Rey [Reina] de España, a todos los que la presente vieren y entendieren, sabed: Que las Cortes Generales han aprobado y Yo vengo en sancionar la siguiente Ley Orgánica"

Saint Kitts and Nevis[edit]

Parliament of Saint Kitts and Nevis:

"BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty by and with the advice and consent of the National Assembly of Saint Christopher and Nevis, and by the authority of the same as follows:-"

Saint Lucia[edit]

Parliament of Saint Lucia:

"BE IT ENACTED by the Queen’s Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the House of Assembly and the Senate of Saint Lucia, and by the authority of the same, as follows:"

[21]

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[edit]

House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:

"BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty by and with the advice and consent of the House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-"

[22]

Solomon Islands[edit]

National Parliament of the Solomon Islands:

"ENACTED by the National Parliament of Solomon Islands."

[23]

Switzerland[edit]

Swiss Federal Assembly:

"The Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation, pursuant to the articles ... of the Federal Constitution, having taken notice of the message of the Federal Council of ..., resolves:"[24]

German: "Die Bundesversammlung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft, gestützt auf die Artikel ... der Bundesverfassung, nach Einsicht in die Botschaft des Bundesrates vom ..., beschliesst:"

French: "L’Assemblée fédérale de la Confédération suisse, vu les art. ... de la Constitution, vu le message du Conseil fédéral du ..., arrête:"

Italian: "L’Assemblea federale della Confederazione Svizzera, visti gli articoli ... della Costituzione federale; visto il parere del Consiglio federale del ..., decreta:"

Thailand[edit]

National Assembly of Thailand:[25]

Constitution:

"May there be virtue. Today is the [e.g. eleventh] day of the [e.g. ninth] month of the year of the [e.g. pig] under the lunar calendar, being [e.g. Friday], the [e.g. twenty fourth] day of [e.g. August] under the solar calendar, in the [e.g. 2550th] Year of the Buddhist Era.

Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramin Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej Mahitalathibet Ramathibodi Chakkrinaruebodin Sayaminthrathirat Borommanatbophit [Name of the King in full title] is graciously pleased to proclaim that..............[e.g. the President of the National Legislative Assembly has made submission to the King that...] ................................................................................................................................ .............[e.g. The President of the National Legislative Assembly], therefor, submitted the draft charter to His Majesty to affix the royal signature to henceforth promulgate it as the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand. Having throughly considered by the King, the expedience to grant the royal permission in accordance with the public opinion. Be it, therefor, commanded by the King the enactment of this Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand replaces the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand which enacted on [e.g. 1 October B.E. 2549 (2006)] as of the date of its publication, henceforth onwards. May the Thai People unite in observing, protecting and upholding this Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand in order to maintain the democratic regime and the sovereignty of the Thai people, and bring about happiness, prosperity and dignity to His Majesty’s subjects throughout the Kingdom according to the will of His Majesty in every respect."

Act:

"Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramin Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej [Name of the King in brief title] is graciously pleased to proclaim that:

Whereas it is expedient to have/amend/abrogate a/the law on............ Be it, therefor, enacted by the King, by and with the advice and consent of the National Assembly, as follows:"

Royal Degree & Emergency Decree:

"Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramin Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej [Name of the King in brief title] is graciously pleased to proclaim that:

Whereas it is expedient to have/amend/abrogate a/the law on............ Be it, therefor, by the virtue of.........., enacted by the King the Royal Decree/Emergency Decree as follows:"

Royal Command:

"Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramin Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej [Name of the King in brief title] is graciously pleased to proclaim that..............

Announced on the [e.g. 31st] Day of [e.g. January] BE [e.g. 2551] (... [e.g.] 2008), being the [e.g. 63rd] Year of the Present Reign."

Tuvalu[edit]

Parliament of Tuvalu:

"ENACTED by the Parliament of Tuvalu-

United Kingdom[edit]

Parliament of the United Kingdom:

"BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—"

[26]

For money bills:

"Most Gracious Sovereign

WE, Your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the Commons of the United Kingdom in Parliament assembled, towards raising the necessary supplies to defray Your Majesty's public expenses, and making an addition to the public revenue, have freely and voluntarily resolved to give and grant unto Your Majesty the several duties hereinafter mentioned; and do therefore most humbly beseech Your Majesty that it may be enacted, and be it enacted by the Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—"

[27]

Under the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949:

"BE IT ENACTED by The Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Commons in this present Parliament assembled, in accordance with the provisions of the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—"

[28]

There are also other miscellaneous enacting clauses, e.g. for the Chequers Estate Act 1917.[29]

United States[edit]

Congress of the United States

Bills:

"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,"

[30]

Joint Resolutions (have the same effect as bills):

"Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,"

[31]

Venezuela[edit]

National Assembly of Venezuela:

"The National Assembly of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela hereby Decrees"

Zimbabwe[edit]

Parliament of Zimbabwe:

"ENACTED by the President and the Parliament of Zimbabwe."

[32]

Former legislatures[edit]

"The Congress of the Confederate States of America do enact,"[3]

"It is hereby enacted as follows:—"

Territorial legislatures[edit]

Guam[edit]

Hong Kong[edit]

  • Legislative Council of Hong Kong
    • 1843–1887: "BE IT ENACTED by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:-"
    • 1888–1997: "BE IT ENACTED by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:-"(Chinese: "茲由香港總督參照立法局意見並得該局同意後,制定本條例,各條文如下─"
    • 1997–1998: "Enacted by the Provisional Legislative Council." (Chinese: "由臨時立法會制定。"
    • After 1998: "Enacted by the Legislative Council." (Chinese: "由立法會制定。"[33]

British crown dependencies[edit]

  • Tynwald of the Isle of Man: "BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Council and Keys in Tynwald assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:–"[34]
  • States of Jersey: "THE STATES, subject to the sanction of Her Most Excellent Majesty in Council, have adopted the following Law –" (French: "LES ETATS, moyennant la sanction de Sa Très Excellente Majesté en Conseil, ont adopté la Loi suivante –")[35]
  • States of Guernsey: "THE STATES, in pursuance of their Resolution of DATE, have approved the following provisions which, subject to the Sanction of Her Most Excellent Majesty in Council, shall have force of law in the Bailiwick [or Island] of Guernsey."[36]

British overseas territories[edit]

Subnational legislatures[edit]

Australia[edit]

Canada[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

Provincial councils (abolished in 1876)[edit]

  • Canterbury Provincial Council: "Be it enacted by the Superintendent of the Province of Canterbury, by and with the advice and consent of the Provincial Council thereof, as follows:—"

United Kingdom[edit]

Devolved institutions[edit]

  • Northern Ireland Assembly: "BE IT ENACTED by being passed by the Northern Ireland Assembly and assented to by Her [His] Majesty as follows:"[60]
  • Scottish Parliament: Acts of the Scottish Parliament do not begin with a conventional enacting clause. Instead they begin with a phrase that reads: "The Bill for this Act of the Scottish Parliament was passed by the Parliament on [Date] and received Royal Assent on [Date]"[61]
  • National Assembly for Wales:
Acts in the English Language: "Having been passed by the National Assembly for Wales and having received the assent of Her Majesty, it is enacted as follows:—"[62]
Acts in the Welsh Language: "Gan ei fod wedi ei basio gan Gynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru a chael cysyniad Ei Mawrhydi, deddfir fel a ganlyn:—"
Measures in the English Language: "This Measure, passed by the National Assembly for Wales on [Date] and approved by Her Majesty in Council on [Date], enacts the following provisions:—"[63]
Measures in the Welsh Language: "Mae'r Mesur hwn, a basiwyd gan Gynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru ar [Dyddiad] ac a gymeradwywyd gan Ei Mawrhydi yn Ei Chyngor ar [Dyddiad], yn deddfu'r darpariaethau a ganlyn:—"
Former legislatures[edit]
  • Parliament of Northern Ireland (1921–1972): "BE it enacted by the Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, and the Senate and the House of Commons of Northern Ireland in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-"

United States[edit]

District of Columbia[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Parliament of Australia (2012-05-26). "Family Assistance and Other Legislation Amendment (Schoolkids Bonus Budget Measures) Bill 2012" (PDF). 
  2. ^ Parliament of Antigua and Barbuda (2011). "The Procurement and Contract Administration Act, 2011" (PDF). 
  3. ^ CONSTITUTION ALTERATION (ESTABLISHMENT OF REPUBLIC) 1999 (Cth)
  4. ^ Air Navigation Amendment Act 1989 (Cth)
  5. ^ 1969 Companies Act., The Official Gazette of the Government of Barbados.
  6. ^ Parliament of the Bahamas (2012). "INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS (AMENDMENT) BILL, 2012" (PDF). 
  7. ^ Fair and Efficient Criminal Trials Act, S.C. 2011, c. 16
  8. ^ E.g. Postilaki Finlex. Retrieved: 2011-07-08.
  9. ^ E.g. Postlag Finlex. Retrieved: 2011-07-08.
  10. ^ Vaalilaki Finlex. Retrieved: 2011-07-08.
  11. ^ Rikoslaki Finlex. Retrieved: 2011-07-16.
  12. ^ Parliament of India (2012). "THE APPROPRIATION (RAILWAYS) No. 3 BILL, 2012" (PDF). 
  13. ^ ANGLO IRISH BANK CORPORATION ACT 2009 (Public Act No. 1 of 2009). Act of the Irish Parliament.
  14. ^ CENTRAL FUND ACT, 1933 (Public Act No. 1 of 1933). Act of the Irish Parliament.
  15. ^ Parliament of Jamaica (2010). "Agricultural Development Corporation (Change of Name) Act, 2010" (PDF). 
  16. ^ Parliament of New Zealand (2007). "Animal Products Amendment Act 2007" (PDF). New Zealand Legal Information Institute. 
  17. ^ Parliament of New Zealand (1990). "Area Health Boards Amendment Act 1990" (PDF). New Zealand Legal Information Institute. 
  18. ^ Parliament of New Zealand (1935). "Area Health Boards Amendment Act 1935" (PDF). New Zealand Legal Information Institute. 
  19. ^ Nigerian National Assembly (June 7, 2000). "National Minimum Wage (Amendment) Act 2000". Retrieved July 20, 2012. 
  20. ^ Parliament of South Africa (2012). "Division of Revenue Act" (PDF). Retrieved July 20, 2012. 
  21. ^ Parliament of Saint Lucia (2006). "Disaster Management Act 2006" (PDF). Retrieved July 20, 2012. 
  22. ^ House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2007). "Electronic Transactions Act, 2007" (PDF). Retrieved July 20, 2012. 
  23. ^ National Parliament of the Solomon Islands (2010). "National Parliament Electoral Provisions (Amendment) Act 2010" (PDF). Retrieved July 20, 2012. 
  24. ^ Gesetzestechnische Richtlinien des Bundes (GTR), 2003, p. 18(German)
  25. ^ ปวีณ ณ นคร. (2543). เทคนิคการร่างกฎหมาย. กรุงเทพฯ : สวัสดิการสำนักงาน ก.พ.
  26. ^ UK Parliament. Academies Act 2010 as amended (see also enacted form), from legislation.gov.uk.
  27. ^ UK Parliament. Finance Act 2010 as amended (see also enacted form), from legislation.gov.uk.
  28. ^ UK Parliament. War Crimes Act 1991 as amended (see also enacted form), from legislation.gov.uk.
  29. ^ UK Parliament. Chequers Estate Act 1917 as amended (see also enacted form), from legislation.gov.uk.
  30. ^ The Airport and Airway Extension Act of 2011 Pub.L. 112–7, 125 Stat. 31
  31. ^ H.J.Res. 1 (112th United States Congress)
  32. ^ Parliament of Zimbabwe (2008). "Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 19) Act, 2008" (PDF). Retrieved July 20, 2012. 
  33. ^ Legislative Council of Hong Kong (2010). "Arbitration Ordinance" (PDF). Retrieved July 21, 2012. 
  34. ^ Tynwald (2011). "Debt Recovery and Enforcement Act 2011" (PDF). Retrieved July 21, 2012. 
  35. ^ States of Jersey (June 15, 2012). "Gambling (Jersey) Law 2012". Retrieved July 21, 2012. 
  36. ^ States of Guernsey (May 31, 2000). "Appointments Board (Repeal) (Guernsey) Law, 2000". Retrieved July 21, 2012. 
  37. ^ http://www.sainthelena.gov.sh/data/files/consultation_document.pdf
  38. ^ The Montserrat Constitution Order 2010 (Statutory Instrument 2010/2474)
  39. ^ Crimes Legislation Amendment Bill 2010 (ACT)
  40. ^ Appropriation (Parliament) Act 2007 (NSW)
  41. ^ Appropriation Act 2005–2006 (NT)
  42. ^ Child Protection (International Measures) Act 2003 (Qld)
  43. ^ Correctional Services (Miscellaneous) Amendment Act 2007 (SA)
  44. ^ Daylight Saving Act 2007 (Tas)
  45. ^ Courts Legislation Amendment (Associate Judges) Bill 2008 (Vic)
  46. ^ Carers Recognition Act 2004 (WA)
  47. ^ Alberta Health Act, S.A. 2010, c. A-19.5
  48. ^ Access to Abortion Services Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c. 1 (Access to Abortion Services Act at Queen's Printer)
  49. ^ The Protecting Affordability for University Students Act (Council on Post-Secondary Education Act Amended), S.M. 2012, c. 4
  50. ^ An Act to Dissolve the Saint John Harbour Bridge Authority, S.N.B. 2011, c. 1
  51. ^ Commissioners for Oaths (Amendment) Act, S.N.L. 2010, c. 5
  52. ^ An Act to Amend the Student Financial Assistance Act, S.N.W.T. 2012, c. 7
  53. ^ Appropriations Act, 2012, S.N.S. 2012, c. 1
  54. ^ An Act to Amend the Integrity Act, S.Nu. 2012, c. 5
  55. ^ Taxation Amendment Act, 2012, S.O. 2012, c. 9
  56. ^ Police Act, RSPEI 1988, c. P-11.1
  57. ^ An Act respecting the sectoral parameters of certain fiscal measures, S.Q. 2012, c. 1
  58. ^ The Litter Control Amendment Act, 2010, S.S. 2011, c. 8
  59. ^ First Appropriation Act, 2011–12, S.Y. 2011, c. 1
  60. ^ Northern Ireland Assembly. "Charities Act (Northern Ireland) 2008". Retrieved July 22, 2012. 
  61. ^ Scottish Parliament (November 16, 2005). "Licensing (Scotland) Act 2005". Retrieved July 22, 2012. 
  62. ^ National Assembly for Wales. "Local Government Byelaws (Wales) Bill" (PDF). Retrieved July 22, 2012. 
  63. ^ National Assembly for Wales (May 10, 2011). "Education (Wales) Measure 2011". Retrieved July 22, 2012.