Enchodus

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Enchodus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous–Eocene
Enchodus Swimming Down.png
E. petrosus mounted skeleton cast in the Rocky Mountain Dinosaur Resource Center in Woodland Park, Colorado
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Subclass: Neopterygii
Order: Salmoniformes
Suborder: †Enchodontoidei
Family: Enchodontidae
Genus: Enchodus
Agassiz, 1835
Species

Enchodus is an extinct genus of bony fish. It flourished during the Upper Cretaceous and was small to medium in size. One of the genus' most notable attributes are the large "fangs" at the front of the upper and lower jaws and on the palatine bones, leading to its misleading nickname among fossil hunters and paleoichthyologists, "the saber-toothed herring". These fangs, along with a long sleek body and large eyes, suggest Enchodus was a predatory species.

Restoration of E. petrosus
Enchodus lewesiensis skull

The largest-known species of Enchodus is E. petrosus, remains of which are common from the Niobrara Chalk, the Mooreville Chalk Formation, the Pierre Shale, and other geological formations deposited within the Western Interior Seaway and the Mississippi Embayment. Large individuals of this species had fangs measuring over 6 centimetres (2.4 in) in length, though the total body length was only about 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in), giving its skull an appearance somewhat reminiscent of modern deep-sea fishes, such as anglerfish and viperfish. Other species were smaller, some like E. parvus were only some cm (a few inches) long.

Despite being a formidable predator, remains of Enchodus are commonly found among the stomach contents of larger predators, including sharks, other bony fish, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs and seabirds such as Baptornis advenus.

In North America, Enchodus remains have been recovered from most states with fossiliferous Late Cretaceous rocks, including Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Tennessee, Wyoming, Texas, California, and New Jersey. The taxon is also known from coeval strata in Africa, Europe, and southwest Asia. Enchodus survived the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event and persisted at least into the Eocene. It was found all over the world.

References[edit]

  • Cope, Edward Drinker (1874): Review of the Vertebrata of the Cretaceous period found west of the Mississippi River. U. S. Geological Survey of the Territories, Bulletin 1(2): 3-48.
  • Everhart, Mike (2007): Oceans of Kansas: Enchodus sp. - The Sabre-Toothed Fish of the Cretaceous. Version of 2007-MAY-29. Retrieved 2007-AUG-23.
  • Russell, D. A. (1988): A check list of North American Marine Cretaceous vertebrates including fresh water fishes. Occasional Paper of the Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology #4.

External links[edit]