|Enclave de Treviño|
|Exclave / Enclave|
Location of the exclave of Treviño (in red) within Spain.
|Autonomous community||Castile and León|
|Enclave||Exclave of Treviño|
|• Total||279.58 km2 (107.95 sq mi)|
|Elevation||552 m (1,811 ft)|
|• Density||6.77/km2 (17.5/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
The Exclave of Treviño (Spanish: Exclave de Treviño) in northern Spain is part of the territory of the province of Burgos (part of Castile and León), but is completely surrounded by the territory of the Basque Country province of Álava. Thus, it is an enclave of the Basque Country and an exclave of Castile and León. It consists of two municipalities—Condado de Treviño and La Puebla de Arganzón—and is part of the legal district (partido judicial) of Miranda de Ebro in the province of Burgos.
The exclave consists of the municipalities of Condado de Treviño, with an area of 260.71 square kilometres (100.66 sq mi) and a 2009 population of 1,432, giving it a population density of 5.49 per square kilometre (14.2 /sq mi) and La Puebla de Arganzón, with an area of 18.87 square kilometres (7.29 sq mi) and a 2009 population of 529, giving it a population density of 28.03 per square kilometre (72.6 /sq mi). This gives the exclave as a whole an area of 279.58 square kilometres (107.95 sq mi) and a 2009 population of 1,961, for a population density of 6.77 per square kilometre (17.5 /sq mi).
La Puebla de Arganzón obtained its founding fueros from Sancho VI of Navarre ("Sancho el Sabio", "Sancho the Wise") in 1191. The original fuero of Condado de Treviño is lost, but is believed to have been granted by the same king in 1161. In 1200 it was conquered by Alfonso VIII of Castile.
After Castile conquered Álava, most of the region was left under the relatively egalitarian fueros typical of the Basque Country. Treviño was not. First a royal seigneury, Treviño de Uda and its outlying villages were granted in 1366 to the noble Manrique[disambiguation needed] family. In 1453 Gómez Manrique became a count, hence the Condado [County] de Treviño. His son Pedro Manrique de Lara became Duke of Nájera in 1482, a title that continues in the family down to the present day. In the 16th century these Counts of Treviño, Dukes de Nájera since 1593, would build a palace at Treviño, which is now the ayuntamiento (town hall) of the municipality.
As a result, Treviño remained closely tied to Castile. The exclave of Treviño was one of the few exclaves preserved in the 1833 territorial division of Spain, an island of Old Castile in the midst of Álava. That arrangement of the territory of Spain remains largely in effect today, although the province of Burgos is now part of Castile-León rather than the historic region of Old Castile.
Current status of the exclave
The status of the exclave of Treviño has long been the subject of bitter contention between the autonomous government of Castile and León and the governments of the Basque Country, especially the provincial government of Álava. Present-day Basque nationalist parties wish to integrate the exclave into Álava, while all significant parties in the province of Burgos defend the burgalesidad ("Burgaleseness") of the exclave. The impulse to integrate the exclave into Álava extends to just about the whole political spectrum in Álava, such as the regional branch of the right-of-center PP, who differ with their co-partisans in Burgos on the matter. Inmaculada Ranedo of the PP, the mayor of Condado de Treviño, as of July 2008 leans toward at least cooperation with Álava, but has chosen to let the governments at higher levels sort out the issues of formal status.
During the last 100 years of litigation the population in the exclave has inclined either by votes or demanded by local agencies towards the annexation of Treviño to Álava. In 1940, just after the start of the Franco regime, a plebiscite in the exclave, conducted by the Civil Government of Burgos showed 98 percent support for the integration of Treviño into Álava. However, that was not acted upon, The last 1998 popular vote supported by majority the celebration of a referendum on the issue, but so far the regional council of Castile and León has repeatedly rejected local claims.
In 1979, deputies (congressmen) Xabier Arzalluz of the Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) and José María Bandrés of Euskadiko Ezkerra, affirmed that Article 8 of the then-new Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country was intended to integrate Treviño into Álava and the similar exclave of Villaverde de Trucíos (Cantabria) into Biscay. Nonetheless, Treviño remained part of the province of Burgos. The Statute of Autonomy of Castile and León (which, like all Statutes of Autonomy in Spain was approved as Organic Law by the Cortes Generales ) requires that for Treviño to be incorporated into Álava would require the consent of the province of Burgos and the autonomous community of Castile and León.
In the 1980s, the government and parliament of the Basque Country brought a case challenging the constitutionality of that provision, but in 1986 it was rejected by the Constitutional Court of Spain. By 2014, initiatives by Basque and Treviño's local authorities to assert their will for at least a cooperation with Álava have been met on the other hand with refusal, as well as high-toned and defiant replies on the part of the highest authorities in Burgos (Spanish Conservatives, with the collusion of the Socialists in this respect).
There is no formal recognition of Basque (Basque: Euskara) (official in all of Alava and spoken in a few northern towns of that province, but not in Treviño or in most of Alava) as a language of the autonomous community. This contrasts to the status of Galician and Leonese, recognized in the Castilian-Leonese Statute of Autonomy as minority languages in Castile and León, but nowadays Basque is not a native language, except for younger generations who may understand and speak it—the extinction of Basque language in the area is dated in late 18th century. At any rate, local councils have agreed to promote Basque in their towns.
- This article incorporates information from the
- (Spanish) Visitando La Puebla de Arganzón, El Correo (Bilbao), 2009-12-14. Accessed online 2010-01-01.
- (Spanish) Miranda de Ebro, partido judicial nº4 de Burgos, Consejo General de los Procuradores de los Tribunales, 2003. Fecha de acceso 2010-01-01.
- 2009 statistics from the online database of the INE, accessed 2010-01-04.
- Calculated from the INE statistics for the two municipalities
- (Spanish) Juan Antonio Quirós Castillo, Informe de la primera campaña de excavación del castillo de Treviño, Grupo de Investigación en Arqueología Medieval y Postmedieval, Área de Arqueología de la Universidad del País Vasco, p. 4. According to this, the original fuero is lost, but is attested by a surviving document from 1256. Accessed online 2010-01-13.
- (Spanish) Juan Antonio Quirós Castillo, Informe de la primera campaña de excavación del castillo de Treviño, Grupo de Investigación en Arqueología Medieval y Postmedieval, Área de Arqueología de la Universidad del País Vasco, p. 10. Accessed online 2010-01-13.
- Juan Antonio Quirós Castillo, Informe de la primera campaña de excavación del castillo de Treviño, Grupo de Investigación en Arqueología Medieval y Postmedieval, Área de Arqueología de la Universidad del País Vasco, p. 13. Accessed online 2010-01-13.
- Nicolas Hobbs, Duque de NÁJERA, grandesp.org.uk. Accessed online 2010-01-13.
- (Spanish) Eduardo Barrenechea, Los 'gibraltares' de unas regiones en otras: Treviño, Llivia, Rincón de Ademuz..., El País, 1983-02-08. Accessed online 2000-12-30. This article comments on the persistence of the 1833 territorial division, in the context of a discussion of the remaining exclaves of various provinces.
- La Junta confía en que un gobierno no nacionalista 'aparque' Treviño, El Mundo (Spain), 2009-03-03. Accessed online 2010-01-04.
- Inmaculada Ranedo entrevistada en Punto Radio, lapuebladearganzon.net, 2008-07-01. Accessed online 2010-01-04.
- (Spanish) Mariano González Clavero "Partidos políticos en el proceso autonómico de Castilla y León. 1975 - 1983", 2002 doctoral thesis at the University of Valladolid, Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. p. 501. This is page 517 of the PDF. Accessed online 2010-01-04.
- Constitution of Spain (1978), Article 147
- Cesar Aguado Renedo, Acerca de la Naturaleza Jurídica del Estatuto de Autonomía, Revista Española de Derecho Constitucional, Número 49. January–April 1997. p. 184 (p. 16 of PDF), note 55. Accessed online 2010-01-13.
- Eva Pons Parera, International Legislation and the Basque Language, in Eusko Ikaskuntza, Donostia-San Sebastián (2008) 73:91, ISBN 978-84-8419-159-9. p. 88 (p. 16 of PDF), including footnote. Accessed online 2010-01-13.