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- A general category of oratory
- A method within rhetorical pedagogy
- A figure of speech. As a figure, encomium means praising a person or thing, but occurring on a smaller scale than an entire speech.
- The eighth exercise in the progymnasmata series
- A literary genre that included five elements: prologue, birth and upbringing, acts of the person's life, comparisons used to praise the subject, and an epilogue.
- Gorgias's famous Encomium of Helen offers several justifications for excusing Helen of Troy's adultery—notably, that she was persuaded by speech, which is a "powerful lord" or "powerful drug" depending on the translation.
- In Erasmus's Praise of Folly, Folly composes an encomium to herself. It is an ironic encomium because being praised by Folly is backwards praise; therefore, Folly praising herself is an ironic conundrum.
- De Pippini regis Victoria Avarica, a medieval encomium of victory of Pepin of Italy over the Avars
- Encomium Emmae, a medieval encomium of Queen Emma of Normandy
- Versum de Mediolano civitate, a medieval encomium of Milan
- Versus de Verona, a medieval encomium of Verona
- Polychronion, chanted in the liturgy of Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite
- A kind of encomium is used by the Christian writer Paul in his praise of love in 1 Corinthians 13. The prologue is verses 1-3, acts are v. 4-7, comparison is v. 8-12, and epilogue is 13:13-14:1.