End-systolic volume

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End-systolic volume (ESV) is the volume of blood in a ventricle at the end of contraction, or systole, and the beginning of filling, or diastole.

ESV is the lowest volume of blood in the ventricle at any point in the cardiac cycle. The main factors that affect the end-systolic volume are afterload and the contractility of the heart.

Uses[edit]

End systolic volume can be used clinically as a measurement of the adequacy of cardiac emptying, related to systolic function. On an electrocardiogram, or ECG, the end-systolic volume will be seen at the end of the T wave. Clinically, ESV can be measured using two-dimensional echocardiography, MRI (magnetic resonance tomography) or cardiac CT (computed tomography).

Sample values[edit]

Along with end-diastolic volume, ESV determines the stroke volume, or output of blood by the heart during a single phase of the cardiac cycle.[1] The stroke volume is the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume. The end-systolic values in the table below are for the left ventricle:

Measure Typical value Normal range
end-diastolic volume (EDV) 120 mL[2][non-primary source needed] 65–240 mL[2][non-primary source needed]
end-systolic volume (ESV) 50 mL[2][non-primary source needed] 16–143 mL[2][non-primary source needed]
stroke volume (SV) 70 mL 55–100 mL
ejection fraction (Ef) 58% 55–70%[3]
heart rate (HR) 75 bpm 60–100 bpm[4]
cardiac output (CO)oo 5.25 L/minute 4.0–8.0 L/min[5]

The right ventricular end-systolic volume (RVESV) normally ranges between 50 and 100 mL.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Boron and Boulpaep 2005 Medical Physiology Updated Edition p. 521 ISBN 0-7216-3256-4
  2. ^ a b c d Schlosser, Thomas; Pagonidis, Konstantin; Herborn, Christoph U.; Hunold, Peter; Waltering, Kai-Uwe; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Barkhausen, Jörg (2005). "Assessment of Left Ventricular Parameters Using 16-MDCT and New Software for Endocardial and Epicardial Border Delineation". Am J Roentgenol 184 (3): 765–73. doi:10.2214/ajr.184.3.01840765. PMID 15728595.  Values:
    • End-diastolic volume (left ventricular) – average 118 and a range of 68 – 239mL and
    • End-systolic volume (left ventricular) – average 50.1 and range, 16 – 143 mL:
    • Also, ejection fraction was estimated in this study to be average 59.9% ± 14.4%; range, 18 – 76%, but secondary source (see above) is used in this article instead.
  3. ^ O'Connor, Simon (2009). Examination Medicine (The Examination). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. p. 41. ISBN 0-7295-3911-3. 
  4. ^ Normal ranges for heart rate are among the narrowest limits between bradycardia and tachycardia. See the Bradycardia and Tachycardia articles for more detailed limits.
  5. ^ a b Edwards Lifesciences LLC > Normal Hemodynamic Parameters – Adult 2009