Inor language

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Inor
Ennemor
Native to Ethiopia
Native speakers
unknown (undated figure of 280,000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 ior
Glottolog inor1238[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Inor (pronounced [inoːr]), sometimes called Ennemor, is a Gurage language spoken in central Ethiopia, mainly within the Gurage Zone in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region, and by speakers of the language who have settled in Ethiopian cities, especially Addis Ababa. In addition to the morphological complexity that is common to all Semitic languages, Inor exhibits the very complex morphophonology characteristic of West Gurage languages.

Endegegn, Enner, Gyeto, and the extinct dialect Mesmes are all sometimes considered dialects of Inor.

Inor possesses nasal vowels, unusual for a Gurage language, and many of these may be the result of historical rhinoglottophilia.

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Inor consonants[3]
labial alveolar alveo-
palatal
palatal velar glottal
plain labialized plain palatalized lab. plain lab.
Stops and
affricates
ejective t’ tʃ’ k’ kʲ’ kʷ’
voiceless p t k ʔ ʔʷ
voiced b d ɡ ɡʲ ɡʷ
Fricatives voiceless f s ʃ x
voiced z ʒ
Nasals m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Approximants plain β̞ (l) j w
nasalized β̞̃
Rhotics plain r
nasalized

Vowels[edit]

Inor vowels[4]
front central back
high i ɨ u
mid e ə o
low æ a

[ɨ] may be regarded as largely epenthetic and only marginally phonemic.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Inor at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Inor". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Chamora & Hetzron (2000:10)
  4. ^ Chamora & Hetzron (2000:13–16)
  5. ^ Chamora & Hetzron (2000:13)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Berhanu Chamora. "Consonant distribution in Inor", in: G. Hudson (ed.), Essays on Gurage Language and Culture (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag), pp. 53–67.
  • Chamora, Berhanu; Hetzron, Robert (2000), Inor, Munich: Lincom Europa, ISBN 3-89586-977-5 
  • Bustorf, Dirk. (2005). "Ennämor Ethnography”, in: Siegbert Uhlig (ed.): Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, vol. 2: D-Ha, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, p. 307-08.
  • Boivin, Robert (1996). "Spontaneous Nasalization in Inor", in: G. Hudson (ed.), Essays on Gurage Language and Culture (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag), pp. 21–33.
  • Hetzron, R. (1977). The Gunnän-Gurage Languages. Napoli: Istituto Orientale di Napoli.
  • Leslau, W. (1979). Etymological Dictionary of Gurage (Ethiopic). 3 vols. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-02041-5
  • Leslau, W. (1983). Ethiopians Speak: Studies in Cultural Background. Part V : Chaha - Ennemor. Äthiopistische Forschungen, Band 16. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 3-515-03965-1
  • Leslau, W. (1996). "Inor Lullabies", in: Africa 66/2, pp. 280–287.
  • Voigt, Rainer.(2005). "Ennämor Language”, in: Siegbert Uhlig (ed.): Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, vol. 2: D-Ha, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, p. 307.