Enderun School

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The Neo-classical Enderun library

The Enderun School (Turkish: Enderun, Ottoman Turkish: اندرون مکتب, Enderûn, "inner most") was a palace school and boarding school mostly for the Christian millet of the Ottoman Empire, which primarily recruited students via devşirme, a system of the Islamization of Christian children for serving the Ottoman government in bureaucratic, managerial, and Janissary military positions.[1] Enderun was fairly successful in creating the multicultural bureaucracy, which was reflected in the multicultural nature of Ottoman statesmen over the centuries. The Enderun School functioned for academic and military purposes as well.[2] Ideally the graduates were permanently devoted to government service and had no interest in forming relations with lower social groups.[3]

Enderun's gifted education program has been called the world's first institutionalized education for the gifted.[4][5][6]

History[edit]

The growth of Ottoman Empire is attributed and was dependent on the selection and education of statesmen. A vital component of Mehmet II's goal to revive the Roman Empire was to establish a special school to select the best youngsters within the Empire and to mold them for government. Mehmet II improved the existing palace school founded by his father, Murat II and established the Enderun Academy (Enderun) in Istanbul.[7]

Enderun pyramid

Curriculum[edit]

The Enderun system consisted of three preparatory schools located outside of the palace in addition to the one within the palace walls itself. According to Miller,[8] there were 1,000-2,000 students in three Enderun Colleges, and about 300 students in the top school in the Palace. The curriculum was divided into five main divisions:[9][10][11]

  • Islamic sciences; including Arabic, Turkish and Persian language education
  • Positive sciences; mathematics, geography
  • History, law, and administration: the customs of the Palace and government issues
  • Vocational studies, including art and music education
  • Physical training, including weaponry

The successful graduates were assigned according to their abilities into two mainstream positions: governmental or science,[12] and those who failed to advance were assigned to military.[citation needed] One of the most distinctive properties of the school was its merit system consisting of carefully graded rewards and corresponding punishments.[13] At the end of the Enderun school system, the graduates would be able to speak, read, and write at least three languages, able to understand the latest developments in science, have at least a craft or art, and excel in army command as well as in close combat skills.

Buildings[edit]

The third courtyard of the Topkapı Palace was surrounded by the Imperial Treasury, the Pavilion of the Holy Mantle, and the buildings of the Palace School, which educated the top tier of students from Enderun as well as princes of the House of Osman. There were seven halls or grades within the Palace School, and within each hall there were 12 teachers responsible for the students' mental and academic development. Students wore special uniforms designated by their achievement level,[14] and Miller indicated that additional buildings included the library, mosque, music conservatories, dormitories, and baths.[15]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Kemal H Karpat "Social Change and Politics in Turkey: A Structural-Historical Analysis" page 204
  2. ^ http://tamu.academia.edu/SencerCorlu/Papers/471488/The_Ottoman_Palace_School_Enderun_and_the_Man_with_Multiple_Talents_Matrakci_Nasuh
  3. ^ Kemal H Karpat "Social Change and Politics in Turkey: A Structural-Historical Analysis" page 204
  4. ^ Senel, H. G. (1998). Special education in Turkey. European Journal of Special Needs Education 13, 254–261.
  5. ^ Cakin, N. (2005). Bilim ve sanat merkezine zihinsel alandan devam eden ogrencilerin akranlari ile okul basarilari acisindan karsilastirilmasi. Unpublished masters thesis, Afyon Kocatepe Universitesi, Afyon, Turkey.
  6. ^ Melekoglu, M. A., Cakiroglu, O. & Malmgren, K. W. (2009). Special education in Turkey. International Journal of Inclusive Education 13(3), 287–298. ERIC EJ857857
  7. ^ Corlu, M. S., Burlbaw, L.M., Capraro, R. M., Han, S., & Corlu, M. A. (2010). The Ottoman palace school and the man with multiple talents, Matrakçı Nasuh. Journal of the Korea Society of Mathematical Education Series D: Research in Mathematical Education, 14(1), p. 19-31.
  8. ^ Miller, B. (1973). The palace school of Muhammad the Conqueror (Reprint ed.). NY: Arno Press.
  9. ^ Ipsirli, M. (1995). Enderun. In Diyanet Islam ansiklopedisi (Vol. XI, pp. 185–187). Istanbul, Turkey: Turkiye Diyanet Vakfi.
  10. ^ Akkutay, U. (1984). Enderun mektebi. Ankara, Turkey: Gazi Üniversitesi Eğitim Fak. Yay.
  11. ^ Basgoz, I. & Wilson, H. E. (1989). The educational tradition of the Ottoman Empire and the development of the Turkish educational system of the republican era. Turkish Review 3(16), 15.
  12. ^ Armagan, A. (2006). Osmanlı’da ustün yetenekliler fabrikası: Enderun Mektebi. Yeni Dünya Dergisi 10, 32.
  13. ^ Akkutay, U. (1984). Enderun mektebi. Ankara, Turkey: Gazi Üniversitesi Eğitim Fak. Yay.
  14. ^ Deri, M. (2009). Osmanlı Devletini cihan devleti yapan kurum: Enderun Mektebi. Populer Tarih. Retrieved from http://www.populertarih.com/osmanli-devletini-cihan-devleti-yapan-kurum-enderun-mektebi/
  15. ^ Miller, B. (1973). The palace school of Muhammad the Conqueror (Reprint ed.). NY: Arno Press.

External links[edit]