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Escarole endive
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Cichorium
Species: C. endivia
Binomial name
Cichorium endivia
Endive, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 71 kJ (17 kcal)
Carbohydrates 3.35 g
- Dietary fiber 3.1 g
Fat 0.2 g
Protein 1.25 g
Vitamin A equiv. 108 μg (14%)
- beta-carotene 1300 μg (12%)
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.08 mg (7%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.075 mg (6%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 0.4 mg (3%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.9 mg (18%)
Folate (vit. B9) 142 μg (36%)
Vitamin C 6.5 mg (8%)
Vitamin E 0.44 mg (3%)
Vitamin K 231 μg (220%)
Calcium 52 mg (5%)
Iron 0.83 mg (6%)
Magnesium 15 mg (4%)
Manganese 0.42 mg (20%)
Phosphorus 28 mg (4%)
Potassium 314 mg (7%)
Zinc 0.79 mg (8%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Frisée (withered)

Endive (/ˈɛndv/ or /ˈɑːndiv/[1]; Cichorium endivia) is a leaf vegetable belonging to the daisy family. Endive can be cooked or used raw in salads.


Endive belongs to the chicory genus, which includes several similar bitter leafed vegetables. Species include endive (Cichorium endivia), Cichorium pumilum, and common chicory (Cichorium intybus). Common chicory includes chicory types such as radicchio, puntarelle, and Belgian endive. There is considerable confusion between Cichorium endivia and Cichorium intybus.[2][3] Because of the name, endive is wrongly associated with Belgian endive which is a cultivated variety of common chicory.

Endive is rich in many vitamins and minerals, especially in folate and vitamins A and K, and is high in fiber. Endive is also a common name for some types of chicory (Cichorium intybus).

There are two main varieties of cultivated endive:

  • Curly endive, or frisée (var crispum). This type has narrow, green, curly outer leaves. It is sometimes called chicory in the United States and is called chicorée frisée in French. Further confusion results from the fact that frisée also refers to a technique in which greens are lightly wilted with oil.
  • Escarole, or broad-leaved endive (var latifolia) has broad, pale green leaves and is less bitter than the other varieties. Varieties or names include broad-leaved endive, Bavarian endive, Batavian endive, grumolo, scarola, and scarole. It is eaten like other greens, sauteed, chopped into soups and stews, or as part of a green salad.


  1. ^ "Endive | Define Endive at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  2. ^ "Chicory and Endive". Innvista. 2013-07-31. Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  3. ^ "Endive | Archives | Aggie Horticulture". Plantanswers.tamu.edu. Retrieved 2013-08-18. 

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