Broadly speaking, endocrine disorders may be subdivided into three groups:
Endocrine gland hyposecretion (leading to hormone deficiency)
Endocrine gland hypersecretion (leading to hormone excess)
Tumours (benign or malignant) of endocrine glands
Endocrine disorders are often quite complex, involving a mixed picture of hyposecretion and hypersecretion because of the feedback mechanisms involved in the endocrine system. For example, most forms of hyperthyroidism are associated with an excess of thyroid hormone and a low level of thyroid stimulating hormone.
Emergencies arising from decompensated pheochromocytomas or parathyroid adenomas are sometimes referred for emergency resection when aggressive medical therapies fail to control the patient's state, however the surgical risks are significant, especially blood pressure lability and the possibility of cardiovascular collapse after resection (due to a brutal drop in respectively catecholamines and calcium, which must be compensated with gradual normalization). It remains debated when emergency surgery is appropriate as opposed to urgent or elective surgery after continued attempts to stabilize the patient, notably in view of newer and more efficient medications and protocols.
^Savage, M W; P Mah, A Weetman, and J Newell-Price (1 September 2004). "Endocrine emergencies". Postgraduate Medical Journal80 (947): 506–515. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2003.013474.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
^Newell, KA; Prinz, RA; Pickleman, J; Braithwaite, S; Brooks, M; Karson, TH; Glisson, S (August 1988). "Pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis. A surgical emergency.". Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)123 (8): 956–9. PMID2899426.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help);|accessdate= requires |url= (help)
^Scholten, A.; Cisco, R. M.; Vriens, M. R.; Cohen, J. K.; Mitmaker, E. J.; Liu, C.; Tyrrell, J. B.; Shen, W. T.; Duh, Q.-Y. (2 January 2013). "Pheochromocytoma Crisis Is Not a Surgical Emergency". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism98 (2): 581–591. doi:10.1210/jc.2012-3020. PMID23284003.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help);|accessdate= requires |url= (help)
^Phitayakorn, R; McHenry, CR (June 2008). "Hyperparathyroid crisis: use of bisphosphonates as a bridge to parathyroidectomy.". Journal of the American College of Surgeons206 (3): 1106–15. PMID18501807.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help);|accessdate= requires |url= (help)