Endolimax

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Endolimax
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryote
Kingdom: Amoebozoa
Phylum: Archamoebae
Genus: Endolimax

Endolimax is a genus of amoebozoa[1] that are found in the intestines of various animals, including the species E. nana found in humans. Originally thought to be non-pathogenic, studies suggest it can cause intermittent or chronic diarrhea.[2][3] Additionally, it is very significant in medicine because it can provide false positives for other tests, notably the similar species Entamoeba histolytica, the pathogen responsible for amoebic dysentery, and because its presence indicates the host has consumed fecal material. It forms cysts with four nuclei which excyst in the body and become trophozoites. Endolimax nana nuclei have a large endosome somewhat off-center and small amounts of visible chromatin or none at all.

Cyst[edit]

Cysts are small, with a spherical to ellipsoidal shape. Mature cysts contain four nuclei; immature cysts are rarely seen. These cysts measure 5-10 um, with a usual range of 6-8 um. In stained preparations, the nucleus has a distinct karysome that, while not as large as that seen in the trophozoite, is still larger than the karysome of the Entamoeba species. Peripheral chromatin is absent. Although the nuclei are not visible in unstained preparations, the karysomes are readily apparent in iodine-stained wet mounts. The cytoplasm may contain diffuse glycogen, and chromatid bodies are absent. Occasionally, small granules or inclusions may occur in the cytoplasm.

Trophozoite[edit]

This stage is small, measuring 6-12 µm, with an average range of 8-10 um. Living trophozoites are sluggish and generally non-progressive. The single nucleus sometimes is visible in unstained preparations. In stained organisms, the karyosome usually is large and irregularly shaped, but occasionally it may be fragmented or placed against one side of the nuclear membrane. There is no peripheral chromatin on the nuclear membrane. The cytoplasm, which is coarsely granular and often highly vacuolated, may contain bacteria. [4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Silberman JD, Clark CG, Diamond LS, Sogin ML (December 1999). "Phylogeny of the genera Entamoeba and Endolimax as deduced from small-subunit ribosomal RNA sequences". Mol. Biol. Evol. 16 (12): 1740–51. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026086. PMID 10605115. 
  2. ^ John Q. Stauffer MD & W. L. Levine (January 1974). "Chronic diarrhea related to Endolimax Nana". Parasitology Research 19 (1): 59–63. PMID 4809031. 
  3. ^ Thaddeus K. Graczyk, Clive K. Shiff, Leena Tamang, Fair Munsaka, Anna M. Beitin and William J. Moss (December 2005). "The association of Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana with diarrheal stools in Zambian school-age children". Digestive Diseases and Sciences 98 (1): 38–43. doi:10.1007/s00436-005-0003-0. PMID 16249910. 
  4. ^ Ash, Lawrence R. Atlas of Human Parasitology/Lawrence R. Ash, Thomas C. Orihel.-3rd ed. ISBN 0-89189-292-3