Widely distributed in the body, receptors for endothelin are present in blood vessels and cells of the brain, choroid plexus and peripheral nerves. When applied directly to the brain of rats in picomolar quantities as an experimental model of stroke, endothelin-1 caused severe metabolic stimulation and seizures with substantial decreases in blood flow to the same brain regions, both effects mediated by calcium channels.
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^Gross PM, Zochodne DW, Wainman DS, Ho LT, Espinosa FJ, Weaver DF (July 1992). "Intraventricular endothelin-1 uncouples the blood flow: metabolism relationship in periventricular structures of the rat brain: involvement of L-type calcium channels". Neuropeptides22 (3): 155–65. doi:10.1016/0143-4179(92)90158-S. PMID1331845.
^Verheij JB, Kunze J, Osinga J, van Essen AJ, Hofstra RM (2002). "ABCD syndrome is caused by a homozygous mutation in the EDNRB gene". Am. J. Med. Genet.108 (3): 223–5. doi:10.1002/ajmg.10172. PMID11891690.