Enema of the State
|Enema of the State|
|Studio album by Blink-182|
|Released||June 1, 1999|
Signature Sound, Studio West
(San Diego, California)
Mad Hatter Studios, The Bomb Factory
(Los Angeles, California)
Conway Recording Studios
Big Fish Studios
|Singles from Enema of the State|
Enema of the State is the third studio album by American rock band Blink-182. Produced by Jerry Finn, the album was released on June 1, 1999, in the United States by MCA Records. After an endless series of performances at various clubs and festivals and several indie recordings throughout the 1990s, Blink-182 first achieved popularity on the Warped Tour and in Australia following the release of their sophomore effort Dude Ranch (1997) and its rock radio hit "Dammit". In 1998, the band fired former drummer Scott Raynor during an exhaustive touring schedule and he was replaced by Travis Barker, drummer of The Aquabats. To record their third record, Blink-182 turned to veteran punk rock producer Jerry Finn, who previously worked on Green Day's breakthrough album, Dookie (1994).
The group recorded with Finn over a period of three months at numerous locations in their hometown of San Diego and Los Angeles. Finn was key in producing the fast-paced, melodic mixes, creating pop punk with a more radio-friendly, accessible polish. Lyrically, the album is inspired by adolescent frustration and relationships. Guitarist Tom DeLonge and bassist Mark Hoppus primarily culled stories from friends and autobiographical situations to craft summery tracks revolving around breakups, suburban parties and maturity, as well as more offbeat subject matter such as UFO conspiracy theories. The cover artwork for Enema of the State features porn star Janine Lindemulder famously clad in a nurse uniform, and the title is a pun on the term enemy of the state.
Although the band were criticized as synthesized, manufactured pop only remotely resembling punk and pigeonholed as a joke act due to the puerile slant of its singles and associating music videos, Enema of the State was an enormous commercial success. The album sold 15 million copies worldwide, catapulting the band to become one of the biggest rock bands of the turn of the century. "What's My Age Again?", "All the Small Things" and "Adam's Song" became hit singles and MTV staples, generating heavy radio airplay. Enema of the State had a pervasive impact on contemporary pop punk, reinventing it for a new generation and spawning countless tributes and acolytes. Recent accolades rank the record among the most important and popular modern recordings.
By 1997, Blink-182, consisting of Mark Hoppus, Tom DeLonge, and Scott Raynor, began to receive mainstream exposure as their sophomore record, Dude Ranch, shipped gold and the lead single "Dammit" began to be added to rock radio playlists across the country. The band entered an extended period of touring beginning that summer, which included each date of the worldwide 1997 Vans Warped Tour, a lifestyle tour promoting skateboarding and punk rock music. The trio would only return to their home of San Diego, California for days at a time before striking out the next tour. "When we did our longest tour stretch, it was right when I started dating my fiancee," recalled guitarist Tom DeLonge in 2001. "We were all new and in love, and I had to leave. It was just, 'Hey, I'll see you in nine months.' It was really hard." Hoppus felt increasingly lonely; while the other members had longtime girlfriends to return home to, Hoppus was single. In addition to the hefty touring schedule, the trio grew tired of other commitments, including interviews and TV appearances due to the success of "Dammit".
Desperate for a break, the overworked band began to argue and tensions formed. Raynor, who was at the center of this drama, had been commenting of his desire to attend college for years, and had been taking homework out with him on tour to try and complete his high school diploma. The tension came to a head in February 1998 as the band embarked on SnoCore, described as "a winter version of the Warped Tour." Sharing the stage with Primus, the band was enjoying more success than ever before, but the drama between the musicians had grown substantially. The band reached a low point when the band engaged in a fight on a Nebraska date after SnoCore's conclusion. Raynor would depart following SnoCore, and the ensemble recruited Travis Barker, drummer for the opening ska punk group The Aquabats, to fill in for Raynor. Barker, who had not had time to prepare or practice with the duo, learned the drum tracks for the 20-song setlist in only 45 minutes before the first show and performed them flawlessly thereafter. "I remember Travis rehearsing backstage for an hour or two, then playing with them during sound-check," said Adam Deibert of the Aquabats. "A few of us were standing behind the stage and vividly remember the feeling of this is the new Blink. We should have looked for a new drummer right then because it was obvious what band he belonged in." Shortly thereafter, the band embarked on a short minitour along the western coast, most notably Southern California, the band's favorite place to play. The tour ended with the band headlining a sold-out show at the Palladium in Hollywood, California, where the band had dreamed of performing at for years. Raynor returned for the band's Palladium performance, but the band became increasingly uneasy and arguments grew worse. To offset personal issues and a "tragic loss," Raynor began to drink heavily and it began to affect the band's performances.
Following a largely successful Australian tour in the spring, Hoppus and DeLonge presented an ultimatum: quit drinking or go to an in-patient rehab. Raynor agreed to both and informed the band of his decision after taking the weekend to mull options. According to Raynor, he was fired through a phone call despite his agreement to rehab. Despite this, he felt no malice toward his former bandmates and later conceded they were "right" to fire him. The band would minimize the impact of the situation in future interviews and remained vague regarding his departure. Initial news reports explained that Raynor had "reportedly returned to school." DeLonge would later explain the drinking problem that led to his expulsion: "One show he dropped his sticks 10 times. It was so disturbing to see someone ruining himself." The addition of Barker inspired DeLonge and Hoppus to "play better" and keep up with their new member, whom DeLonge called "perfect."
Recording and production
MCA gave the band its first professional recording budget, and Blink-182 began work on Enema of the State in October 1998. The trio had not been in a studio in two years and were anxious to record new material. Blink-182 returned to DML Studios to write new songs, where the band had previously spent time writing songs for their second record, Dude Ranch. The three spent much more time in the studio than on previous records, allowing them to try many different things. Hoppus and DeLonge wrote the lyrics for the album, and Barker contributed to the music, co-writing the compositions. Barker would drive down each day from Riverside to take part in the writing process. Very satisfied with the results, the band completed writing in two weeks. Don Lithgow, owner and operator of DML Studios, recalled that the trio's celebrity has increased considerably during the recording process: "[It] was different than their other sessions — girls hanging around outside, calling their friends on cell phones. All the kids wanted autographs. ... They'd unlock the doors and let kids into the studio, which most bands would never do."
When the band completed writing and recording demos for the songs, the three headed to Los Angeles to record drum tracks at Chick Corea's Mad Hatter Studios in January 1999, and Barker completed the tracks in only a few days. The recording process for the album was completed over a period of four months, and production was handled at several production facilities in southern California, including Signature Sound and Studio West in San Diego, Big Fish Studios in Encinitas, and Conway Recording Studios and The Bomb Factory in Los Angeles. Hoppus recalled that pressure was on the band to record a follow-up to Dude Ranch, which had at that time just gone gold. To record Enema of the State, Blink-182 turned to punk rock producer Jerry Finn, who previously worked on Green Day's breakthrough album, Dookie (1994). Hoppus and DeLonge were impressed with his work when they recorded "Mutt" for its placement on the American Pie soundtrack. Finn was harder on the trio to record better takes, and Hoppus credited Finn with knowing a great deal about punk rock music, but also helping the band establish a more pop-inspired sound. Finn came with an array of amps, effects and equipments; previously the band were forced to rent such equipment. In addition, the band had so much fun with Finn that there were days when very little work was accomplished: "Recording can get pretty monotonous, but at least we could laugh with Jerry," recalled Hoppus. "A pretty typical day would involve multiple takes for one part of one song, and then everyone would get naked and jump on Jerry." The band chose "never to work with anyone else again," and Finn would produce their next three releases.
Recording completed in March 1999 and all parties involved were enormously proud of the record. "When it was done, we were so stoked. It was like a masterpiece for our band," remembered DeLonge. "We knew this was going to be the best thing we ever did." Hoppus felt the band achieved the purest, cleanest sound on the record that they had been striving for. Finn felt similarly, proud of his work on the record and believing in retrospect that the album would appeal to the masses. As the album was recorded on analog tape, the trio put enormous trust into Finn to give the record the polished pop sound they wanted, recalled DeLonge in 2012. "The Party Song" was the final song to be completed, and the three were mixing the song coincidentally when lead single "What's My Age Again?" premiered on Los Angeles-based radio station KROQ. Roger Joseph Manning, Jr., best known for his work with Beck, played keyboards for several songs on the album. After production completed, the album was mastered by Brian Gardner at Bernie Grundman Mastering in Hollywood. In 2013, Hoppus referred to Enema of the State as "the heart of Blink-182's musical sensibilities," singling out "its simplicity, its purity, its singularity of purpose between the three of us." The band decided to emphasize arrangements, harmonies and melodic ideas rather than the fast-paced nature of Dude Ranch; the change was brought about by the band, rather than the label.
Music and lyrics
The songs on Enema of the State are fast-paced songs regarding "adolescent aimlessness, broken hearts and general confusion over the care and feeding of girls." Summarizing the album's content, The New York Times called Enema of the State a sampling of "ecstatic, goofy numbers about teenage uselessness, with a smattering of tender introspection." The songs are mainly autobiographical, or are inspired by stories from friends' experiences. Enema of the State largely revolves around age and maturity—"more specifically, their lack of it, their attitude toward their lack of it, or their eventual wide-eyed exploration of it." "Dumpweed" kicks off the record, and explores sexual frustration. The song is based around the hook "I need a girl that I can train," as in dog training. DeLonge, the song's primarily lyricist, explains the song in a 2000 tour booklet: "Girls are so much smarter than guys and can see the future as well as never forget the past. So that leaves the dog as the only thing men are smarter than." The song is a "callow complaint about girls not always doing exactly what you wish they would," and is followed by Hoppus' "Don't Leave Me," a song about a relationship breakups to provide irony. The guitar swell preceding the second verse is actually a digital reversal of the delaying guitar preceding it.
"Aliens Exist" originates from DeLonge's interest in UFOs and conspiracy theories. "Going Away to College" was written in ten minutes by Hoppus while at home sick on Valentine's Day 1999. While watching the movie Can't Hardly Wait, Hoppus began to think about "how much it sucks when people are in love in high school" and are forced to be separated after graduation by different colleges in different cities. Since it was recorded late in production, the band had to go back to Los Angeles to record Barker's drum track. The track segues directly into "What's My Age Again?", also penned by Hoppus. Described as the song that truly launched the album, it was originally titled "Peter Pan Complex", referencing the subject matter: one who refuses to grow up. The song went through numerous changes during recording, and the final refrain of "Please stay with me" was written on the final day of recording. "Dysentery Gary" leads off the second half of the album, and was written by DeLonge about a crush that instead chooses someone else. Left with "nothing better to do," the devastated friend chooses to mock her boyfriend. "Adam's Song," the piano-laced seventh track of the record, was written primarily based on the loneliness that Hoppus experienced during the unending days of touring the previous year. In addition, it was inspired by an article about a teenager's suicide and the note he left for his parents. When Hoppus brought the song to the band, the trio reacted positively but showed reluctance to add it to the record, believing the dark subject matter might off-put listeners. Although usually vocals would take many alternate takes to complete, Hoppus completed the vocal track for "Adam's Song" in a single take.
The power pop-inspired "All the Small Things" was composed by DeLonge as both an ode to his girlfriend and one of his favorite bands, The Ramones. During the recording process of Enema of the State, DeLonge came home to find roses at the top of the stairs from his girlfriend, which inspired the line: "She left me roses by the stairs; surprises let me know she cares." "The Party Song" was inspired by when Hoppus attended a "jock-infested" party at San Diego State University and met some students who thought highly of themselves. Hoppus felt otherwise, and the song was written about "people who try to act cool." "Mutt" was written by DeLonge for his friend Benji Weatherly and his appearance in the Taylor Steele surf video The Show. An early version of "Mutt", with Scott Raynor behind the drum kit, was recorded with producer Mark Trombino and appears on the film's 1998 soundtrack. The title of "Wendy Clear" comes from Hoppus' boat, named "Wendy," and how boaters end transmissions by letting other boaters know the channel is open for use, or "clear." Hoppus wrote the song while on tour with MxPx about having a crush on "someone that you are not supposed to like." Lastly, "Anthem," the final song on Enema of the State, is about being trapped in the suburbs, longing for freedom and the age of 21. It is based on when DeLonge was in high school and told his peers that his band would be playing at a friend's house. The party was later busted by the police and a "giant fight broke out."
The cover artwork features porn star Janine Lindemulder dressed in a nurse uniform, pulling on a rubber glove. The band—semi-nude—appear on the back cover with Lindemulder preparing for some sort of injection. The trio was oblivious to the fact that Lindemulder worked in the porn industry until informed by producer Jerry Finn. The record company had delivered a stack of photos of potential cover girls, and the band members happened to pick Lindemulder. "So it's kind of funny that they've been lumped in with Kid Rock and Limp Bizkit, who play up that kind of pimp lifestyle, because Blink is so not that," remarked Finn. David Goldman was the photographer behind the shoot, held March 12, 1999, and did not know the trio before shooting. In 2012, he stated the glove was inspired by the album's working title. "Up until the very last minute, the album was going to be called Turn Your Head and Cough," he said. "And that's why I came up with the idea of the glove. Obviously an enema is not really a glove type of thing. I thought it was a good visual." The album cover has since been called iconic by many publications. Lindemulder is also featured in the music videos for "What's My Age Again?" and "Man Overboard".
There are three different versions of the cover art. The first release has a red cross on the nurse's hat and a capital B in the Blink-182 logo. The band preferred the lower-case b in the band name, and the second version features the red cross and a lower-case b. The American Red Cross then told the band that they should remove the red cross from their artwork or they would be in violation of the Geneva Convention, and thus, the third iteration of the album cover features a plain white nurse's hat. Art direction for the album was headed by Tim Stedman, with Stedman and graphic designer Keith Tamashiro designing the package.
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
To promote Enema of the State, MCA Records released three singles in support: "What's My Age Again?", "All the Small Things", and "Adam's Song". The singles were bigger than anyone in the band expected, crossing over into Top 40 radio format and experiencing major commercial success. "What's My Age Again?" became an "airplay phenomenon," achieving mass success on radio and television, becoming an MTV staple. It achieved the highest success on Billboard's Modern Rock Tracks chart, where it peaked at number two. It registered within the top 20 on UK Singles Chart as well, peaking at number 17. The music video for "What's My Age Again?", directed by Marcos Siega, famously depicted the band running naked through the streets of Los Angeles. A clip of the band streaking opened the 1999 Billboard Awards and the band's affinity for nudity would be referenced in interviews for years to come.
"All the Small Things", released in early 2000, became an even bigger success — it crossed over from alt-rock radio to contemporary hit radio, peaking at number six on Billboard Hot 100 and number one on the Modern Rock Tracks chart. It also peaked at number two on the official UK charts, and within the top ten in Italy, Ireland, Austria, Sweden and Australia. The music video for "All the Small Things" parodies boy bands and contemporary pop videos, and features the trio participating in choreographed dancing and dressing up as members of Backstreet Boys, 98 Degrees, and 'N Sync. "I was a little surprised it went over so well," recalled Marcos Siega, director of the clip, commenting that he felt it would offend viewers of TRL and boy band fans. "I think we had the opposite effect. In some ways, I think that video put Blink at that sort of pop level with those other bands. We were making fun of them, but it kind of became [what it was making fun of]." At the 2000 MTV Video Music Awards, it was nominated for Video of the Year and Best Pop Video, and won Best Group Video.
The third and final single, "Adam's Song", performed less substantially than the first two but still managed to peak at number two on Billboard's Alternative Songs chart. The band was engulfed in controversy when Greg Barnes, a survivor of the Columbine High School massacre, set "Adam's Song" on repeat on his stereo and committed suicide in May 2000. Hoppus was very upset when he got the call from band manager Rick DeVoe explaining what happened, as he intended the track as an anti-suicide song. Rolling Stone later compared the controversy to that of Ozzy Osbourne's "Suicide Solution". Despite that controversy, it managed to connect deeply with fans of the band, who wrote letters to the band remarking the track saved their lives during difficult situations. The constant airplay of the three videos on MTV and Total Request Live cemented the band's image as video stars, amid teen pop and boy bands.
By May 1999, the group was nearing platinum status for Dude Ranch and sales targets were higher for Enema of the State. The Los Angeles Times ran a Sunday feature on the band two days prior to release, noting that "The musicians are sanguine about chances to repeat or exceed the sales of Dude Ranch, noting the always-shifting sands of pop culture and that they've already done better than they'd ever anticipated." Momentum began to build when US radio stations received advance copies of Enema of the State, and MCA issued Enema of the State on June 1, and the release peaked at number nine on the U.S. Billboard 200. The album chart was gripped by the Backstreet Boys' Millennium, but Enema of the State still managed to move 109,000 units that week. The band was supporting Lagwagon in Europe when MCA executives phoned the trio about rising record sales. Joey Cape, frontman of Lagwagon, remarked that "They were selling, like, 90,000 records a day [...] I was saying things like, 'What are you doing here? Go home! Why do you want to be on tour with Lagwagon right now?" At a show shortly following the release of the album, DeLonge was approached by Noodles from The Offspring to congratulate him. "He looks at me right in the eyes and he goes, 'You're next,'" remembered DeLonge, who blushed and shook off the compliment.
The major-label debut sold strongly and nearly four times as fast as Dude Ranch, and shipped gold to stores, unlike its predecessor, which took seven months to achieve that certification. Enema of the State went platinum by August and went triple platinum by the end of 1999; by the following summer, it was certified over five times platinum in the United States by the Recording Industry Association of America. Its current sales in the United States have reached seven million, and combined sales from international markets estimate the album has sold over 15 million copies worldwide. The record performed well in international markets as well. Enema of the State went quadruple platinum in Canada and triple platinum in Australia. It peaked at number seven on the Canadian Albums Chart, but peaked the highest worldwide on the New Zealand Albums Chart (number two), where it was certified double platinum. It was also certified double platinum in Italy, platinum in the United Kingdom, and gold in six other territories (Austria, Germany, Indonesia, Mexico, the Philippines, and Switzerland). To further promote Enema of the State, the trio made a cameo appearance in American Pie, a teen comedy released several weeks following the album release. Hoppus, DeLonge and Barker appear in a scene in which they are interrupted rehearsing to see a webcast on a computer. Music from Enema of the State was also used in the film and on its soundtrack. The cameo appearance was well-received, with New York commending the common sensibility and humor between the two: "green grass, sun, swimming pools, teen boys obsessed with and mildly terrified by sex, jokes about having sex with things that are not other humans, and a healthy side of toilet-oriented gags."
|The Rolling Stone Album Guide|||
In an early review, Billboard called the record "short, to the point, and bristling with attitude," and predicted it would poise the band for commercial breakthrough. In a less enthusiastic review, Rolling Stone magazine's Neva Chonin wrote, "It's all harmless but still gnarly enough to foment the kind of anti-everything rebellion that spawned rock & roll way back in the day." Stephen Thomas Erlewine of Allmusic called Enema of the State a "fun record that's better than the average neo-punk release." Kerrang! wrote that the album includes "enough energy, attitude and cracking songs here to ensure that blink will be remembered for more than just onstage nudity." The catchy, pop sensibility of the album was praised by Stephen Thompson of The A.V. Club, describing the band as finding success within a "well-worn genre" (punk rock). The New York Times also designated the record its 'Album of the Week'. The record did have its detractors: British music publication New Musical Express (NME) gave the record a very poor review, calling the record despicable, "wholly toothless and soulless" and deriding the band as "as bad, as meaningless, as the cock-rockers and hippy wankers punk originally sought to destroy."
The multiple platinum certifications caused many longtime fans to accuse the band of "selling out". Many commentators stated that the band's polished pop sound only remotely resembled punk music. Although the video for "All the Small Things" was filmed as a mockery of boy bands and teen pop, fame did not discriminate on origin: soon, the band was as famous as those they spoofed. "Blink now had the backing of a major record company ... just like the synthesized pop acts they were spoofing," said British journalist Tim Footman. "In what way were they less 'pop' than Sugar Ray and 98 Degrees?" Matt Diehl, author of the book My So-Called Punk, called the basis for satire thin: "To seasoned ears, Blink-182 sounded and looked just as manufactured as the pop idols they were poking fun at." The band faced a backlash shortly after Enema of the State was released from several punk and emo acts who wished to not be associated with their music. Tristin Laughter, employee of Bay Area record label Lookout! Records, wrote in an issue of the influential zine Punk Planet that the band would have a genuinely negative impact and accused the band of misogyny. "I love all those criticisms, because fuck all those magazines! I hate with a passion Maximum-rockandroll and all those zines that think why know punk is supposed to be. I think it's so much more punk to piss people off than to conform to all those veganistic views," said DeLonge. While ska veterans Blue Meanies tried to empathize ("I think they [Blink] are just trying to get in the mindset of a teenager, which means a lot of curiosity about sex,") others, such as John Lydon, frontman of the Sex Pistols, dismissed the band as a "bunch of silly boys ... an imitation of a comedy act."
Jon Blisten of Beats Per Minute wrote a retrospective review of the album in 2011, calling Enema of the State a seminal album of Generation Y and "one of those rare records that allows you to relive [adolescence], a record where every song conjures up a specific memory or emotion that you could have only felt when you were a teenager."
Despite the "punk" controversy, the record proved very influential on the pop punk genre. With the release of the record, Blink-182 was catapulted to stardom and became the biggest pop punk act of the era. The glossy production instantly set Blink-182 apart from the other crossover punk acts of the era, such as Green Day. Scott Russo of Unwritten Law remarked that he would receive CDs from fans that mimicked the "pop punk" sound the album made famous. "It was revolutionary, it was equally as revolutionary as Green Day when it hit, they just didn't get the credit," Russo remarked in 2009. Matt Diehl, author of My So-Called Punk, writes that "the fact that Enema of the State sold four million copies didn't go unnoticed by endless amounts of ambitious garage bands [...] Suddenly, MTV's TRL was filled with videos from those kids in predictably adorable "wacky" pop punk bands; personal ads on Web sites like craigslist.org advertising for "cute punk guys" became the norm." Diehl points to bands such as Sum 41 and Good Charlotte as acolytes of the sound and key in the diversification of the "pop punk" genre and deracination of regional scene identity. Jon Blisten of Beats Per Minute writes that "Enema's success perpetuated pop-punk’s viability on mainstream radio, which is where Blink’s progeny — bands like Fall Out Boy, Simple Plan, and New Found Glory — would receive a decent amount of airplay."
In 2013, MTV News credited the Enema of the State, alongside The Get Up Kids' Something to Write Home About (1999) as pioneering emo pop, calling them "some of the scene’s most influential records." Journalist Tim Footman opined that Enema of the State made the trio "spokesmen for a generation." Enema of the State has been called an accurate representation of middle-class teenage life, especially at the time of its release. Entertainment Weekly called it the "perfect encapsulation of the American adolescent male mind-set circa 1999." New York describes the immense popularity of the record with adolescents in an article measuring its influence: "After you figure in singles, videos, CD-R burns, copies on repeat in friends' cars and finished basements, this was apparently enough to create blanket immersion among America's twenty-some million teenagers." In 2009, Rolling Stone wrote, "For a new generation of emo fans and bands, Blink's irreverent, upbeat take on punk rock with hits like "What's My Age Again?" and "All the Small Things" was hugely influential." In 2011, The New York Times credited the record with "[taking] punk's already playful core and [giving] it a shiny, accessible polish," calling it "among the catchiest music of the time."
UK-based music magazine Rock Sound rated it number 2 on their list of "101 Modern Classics" in 2012, writing, "Enema didn't just bring pop-punk to the masses, it marked a complete shift in how music television, radio and the world at large viewed it." Alternative Press has ranked Enema of the State among Jerry Finn's top production work.
The following information regarding accolades attributed to Enema of the State is adapted from AcclaimedMusic.net.
|Blender||United States||500 CDs You Must Own Before You Die||2003||*|
|Guitar World||United States||100 Greatest Guitar Albums||2006||66|
|Kerrang!||United Kingdom||The Kerrang! 50 Greatest Punk Albums Ever||2006||14|
|100 Greatest Rock Albums||2006||85|
|Rock Sound||United Kingdom||Top 150 Albums of Our Lifetime (1992–2006)||2006||15|
|101 Modern Classic Albums||2012||2|
|The Stories Behind 50 Years of Great Recordings||United States||Great Recordings||2005||*|
|VH1||United States||Greatest Album Covers of All Time||2006||34|
* denotes an unordered list
Enema of the State tour
With massive radio and video play, Blink-182 played to larger crowds when they began touring in support of Enema of the State. The Loserkids Tour commenced in the autumn of 1999 and was the band's first arena tour. The band was forced to postpone remaining dates of a spring European tour in 2000 when both DeLonge and Barker came down with strep throat. The band played to sold-out audiences and performed worldwide during the summer of 2000 on The Mark, Tom and Travis Show Tour. The tour was staged as a drive-in movie, with a giant retro billboard suspended from the ceiling, and films were projected on the screen behind the band – including vintage gay porn as a joke. The tour was one of the most anticipated rock tours of the season and the band headed out on the road with Bad Religion and Fenix TX. Barker broke one of his fingers during an altercation with two men who kept flirting with his girlfriend in Ohio, and Damon Delapaz, guitarist of Fenix TX, stepped in on drums for Barker. Hoppus recalled an overwhelming emotional feeling when the band sold out the Great Western Forum in Los Angeles.
The band also performed at the Reading and Leeds Festivals in August 2000. To celebrate the success of the tour, the band released a limited edition live album titled The Mark, Tom and Travis Show (The Enema Strikes Back!), which featured snippets of the band's between-song dialogue. Released in November 2000, the band returned to the studio with Finn to complete a song left off the final tracklisting of Enema of the State: "Man Overboard." The final tour in support of Enema of the State was the 2001 Honda Civic Tour, for which the band designed a Honda Civic to promote the company.
|2.||"Don't Leave Me"||Hoppus||2:23|
|4.||"Going Away to College"||Hoppus||2:59|
|5.||"What's My Age Again?"||Hoppus||2:28|
|8.||"All the Small Things"||DeLonge||2:48|
|9.||"The Party Song"||Hoppus||2:19|
- Enema of the State (CD Promo) (liner notes). US: MCA Records. 1999. UMD-9991. "The CD promo, distributed to radio stations, includes a press kit and an info sheet that reads: "Enema of the State was recorded from January to March 1999 in the band's hometown of San Diego at Signature Sound.""
- James Montgomery (February 9, 2009). "How Did Blink-182 Become So Influential?". MTV News. Archived from the original on September 6, 2012. Retrieved February 9, 2009.
- Hoppus, 2001. p. 74
- Hoppus, 2001. p. 79
- Hoppus, 2001. p. 81
- Hoppus, 2001. p. 83
- Shooman, 2010. p. 45
- Shooman, 2010. p. 50
- Shooman, 2010. p. 47
- Hoppus, 2001. p. 80
- Hoppus, 2001. p. 85
- Shooman, 2010. p. 52
- Shooman, 2010. p. 57
- Hoppus, 2001. p. 84
- Shooman, 2010. p. 51
- Shooman, 2010. p. 56
- MTV News staff (July 14, 1998). "Blink 182, Aquabats Play Musical Drummers". MTV News. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2010.
- Weiner, Jonah (November 2004). "The Greatest Songs Ever! - All the Small Things". Blender (Alpha Media Group): 76.
- "Tom DeLonge talks guitar tones, growing up and Blink". Total Guitar (Bath, United Kingdom: Future Publishing). October 12, 2012. ISSN 1355-5049. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
- MTV News staff (September 17, 1998). "Blink 182 Lands Role in New Coming-of-Age Film". MTV News. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2010.
- Hoppus, 2001. p. 91
- MTV News staff. "blink-182: Party All the Time". MTV News. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
- Enema of the State (liner notes). US: MCA Records. 1999. MCD 11950.
- Hoppus, 2001. p. 92
- Brian Wallace (July 16, 1999). "Blink-182's Secret Of Success: They Write For Fans". MTV News. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
- Shooman, 2010. p. 63
- Hoppus, 2001. p. 95
- Chris Harris (August 25, 2008). "Blink-182, AFI Producer Jerry Finn Dead At 39". MTV News. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- Hoppus, Mark (2000). Blink-182: The Mark Tom and Travis Show 2000 Official Program. MCA Records. p. 17.
- Take Off Your Pants and Jacket (2013 Vinyl Reissue) (liner notes). US: Geffen / Universal Music Special Markets. 2013. SRC025/SRC026/SRC027/SRC028. "This reference primarily cites the Mark Hoppus foreword."
- "Blink-182 Article". Alternative Press (Cleveland, Ohio: Alternative Press Magazine, Inc.) (134). September 1999. ISSN 1065-1667.
- Nitsuh Abebe (September 25, 2011). "Sentimental Education". New York. Archived from the original on September 5, 2012. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
- Edwards, Gavins (August 3, 2000). "The Half Naked Truth About Blink-182". Rolling Stone. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Jon Carimanica (September 16, 2011). "Not Quite Gone, A Punk Band Is Coming Back". The New York Times. Retrieved September 17, 2011.
- Chonin, Neva (July 8, 1999). "Review: Enema of the State". Rolling Stone (New York City: Wenner Media LLC) (816). ISSN 0035-791X. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
- DeLonge, Tom (2000). Blink-182: The Mark Tom and Travis Show 2000 Official Program. MCA Records. p. 14.
- Hoppus, Mark (2000). Blink-182: The Mark Tom and Travis Show 2000 Official Program. MCA Records. p. 14.
- DeLonge, Tom (2000). Blink-182: The Mark Tom and Travis Show 2000 Official Program: Tom's Stupid Alien Page. MCA Records. p. 17.
- MTV News staff. "Blink-182: Enema of the Stage". MTV News. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2010.
- DeLonge, Tom (2000). Blink-182: The Mark Tom and Travis Show 2000 Official Program. MCA Records. p. 17.
- The Show (liner notes). US: Theologian Records. 1998. T-67.
- Shooman, 2010. p. 67
- Willman, Chris (February 25, 2000). "Nude Sensation". Entertainment Weekly (New York City: Time Inc.) (527). ISSN 1049-0434. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
- "Blink-182 Gets Nursed By Porn Star for New Album Cover". MTV News. March 11, 1999. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2010.
- Kia Makarechi (June 4, 2012). "Blink-182 Cover: Photographer David Goldman Reveals Story Behind The Enema Of The State Shoot". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Proud, Amelia (May 24, 2012). "A decade after Blink 182's iconic Enema of the State album cover... beautiful Janine Lindemulder appears in a MUGSHOT!". Daily Mail. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- "The Story Behind Blink-182′s Enema Of The State Album Cover". Radio.com. CBS Local Media. June 3, 2013. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
- Hoppus, 2001. p. 96
- Allsworth, Steve (May 30, 2006). "US Punk: Blink-182". Total Guitar (Bath, United Kingdom: Future Publishing): 70–71. ISSN 1355-5049.
- Shooman, 2010. p. 69
- Hoppus, 2001. p. 97
- Shooman, 2010. p. 71
- Shooman, 2010. p. 74
- "Blink-182 Spoofs Boy Bands with New Video". MTV News. August 11, 1999. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2010.
- Hoppus, 2001. p. 98
- Olinger, David (May 6, 2000). "Song only clue to student's despair". The Denver Post. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Brackett, Nathan (ed.) (2004). The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. New York: Fireside, 904 pp. First edition, 2004.
- Shooman, 2010. p. 77
- Weiss, Matthew (May 19, 2006). "Tom DeLonge's Masterpiece". Teen People (New York City: Time Inc.). ISSN 0093-7673.
- Steve Hochman (May 30, 1999). "Psst . . . Blink-182 Is Growing Up". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
- "Backstreet Boys Hold Off Ja Rule, Jennifer Lopez On Chart". MTV News. June 9, 1999. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2010.
- Billboard staff (June 2001). "Blink-182 Opens At No. 1, Sugar Ray Debuts High". Billboard. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved September 22, 2010.
- Al-Attas, Jai (Director) (2009). One Nine Nine Four (Motion picture). US: Robot Academy.
- Hoppus, 2001. p. 90
- Stephen Thomas Erlewine. "Review: Enema of the State". Allmusic. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- Christgau, Robert (October 26, 1999). "Consumer Guide: Easy Money". The Village Voice (New York). Retrieved December 26, 2013.
- Verna, Paul (June 19, 1999). "Enema of the State - Review". Billboard (New York City: Prometheus Global Media) 111 (25): 17. ISSN 0006-2510.
- Shooman, 2010. p. 68
- Thompson, Stephen (June 1, 1999). "Review: Enema of the State". The A.V. Club. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- "Review: Enema of the State". NME. September 30, 1999. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Footman, Tim (September 1, 2002). "Chapter 8: Keeping It Clean". Blink-182: The Unauthorised Biography in Words and Pictures. Chrome Dreams. pp. 52–55. ISBN 1-84240-168-8.
- Diehl, Matt (April 17, 2007). My So-Called Punk: Green Day, Fall Out Boy, The Distillers, Bad Religion - How Neo-Punk Stage-Dived into the Mainstream. St. Martin's Griffin. pp. 75–76. ISBN 0-312-33781-7.
- Rotter, Jeffery (November 1999). Naughty by Nature. Spin. Retrieved September 7, 2012.
- Sinclair, Tom (March 3, 2000). "Rotten Egged". Entertainment Weekly (New York City: Time Inc.) (528). ISSN 1049-0434. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
- Shooman, 2010. p. 70
- "Second Look: Blink-182, Enema of the State". Beats Per Minute. August 17, 2011. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
- Devon Maloney (April 24, 2013). "What Happened to Emo?". MTV News. Retrieved September 17, 2013.
- Frehsée, Nicole (March 5, 2009). "Pop-Punk Kings Blink-182: Reunited and Ready to Party Like It's 1999". Rolling Stone (New York City: Wenner Media LLC) (1073): 20. ISSN 0035-791X. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
- Staff (4 July 2012). "Rock Sound's 101 Modern Classics: The Final Installment". Rock Sound (Freeway Press). Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- Heisel, Scott (February 2013). "10 Essential Jerry Finn Albums". Alternative Press (Cleveland, Ohio: Alternative Press Magazine, Inc.) (295): 96. ISSN 1065-1667.
- "List of Enema of the State Accolades". Acclaimed Music. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Aizlewood, John (April 2003). "500 CDs You Must Own Before You Die". Blender (Alpha Media Group) (15).
- "100 Greatest Guitar Albums". Guitar World. October 2006.
- Kerrang!. "Kerrang! - The Kerrang! 50 Greatest Punk Albums Ever". Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Kerrang!. "Kerrang! - 100 Greatest Rock Albums". Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Rock Sound. "Top 150 Albums of Our Lifetime (1992–2006)". Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Black, Johnny. (2004). The Stories Behind 50 Years of Great Recordings. San Diego: Thunder Bay Press, 320 pp. First edition, 2005.
- Hoppus, 2001. p. 99
- Basham, David (March 14, 2000). "Blink-182 Nixes European Shows". MTV News. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Basham, David (August 28, 2000). "Blink-182 Records New Song For Live Album". MTV News. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Hoppus, 2001. p. 100
- Moss, Corey (February 16, 2001). "Blink-182 To Kick Off Civic Tour 2001". MTV News. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Blink-182 - Enema of the State. Australian-charts.com. Retrieved on July 30, 2013.
- blink-182 - Awards - Allmusic. Allmusic. Retrieved on July 30, 2013.
- Blink-182 - Enema of the State. Australian-charts.com. Retrieved on July 30, 2013.
- InfoDisc : Le Détail des Albums de chaque Artiste. Infodisc.fr. Retrieved on July 30, 2013. NB user has to select "Blink 182" from the drop down list.
- Chartverfolgung / Blink-182 / Longplay. Musicline.de (in German). Retrieved on July 30, 2013.
- Blink-182 - Enema of the State. Charts.org.nz. Retrieved on July 30, 2013.
- Blink-182 - Enema of the State (Album). Norwegiancharts.com. Retrieved on July 30, 2013.
- Blink-182 - Enema of the State (Album). Swedishcharts.com. Retrieved on July 30, 2013.
- Blink-182 - Enema of the State (Album). Swisscharts.com. Retrieved on July 30, 2013.
- - Blink-182 - Artist - Official Charts. Officialcharts.com. Retrieved on January 18, 2014.
- "Enema of the State Chart History". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
- Hoppus, Anne (October 1, 2001). Blink-182: Tales from Beneath Your Mom. MTV Books / Pocket Books. ISBN 0743422074.
- Shooman, Joe (June 24, 2010). Blink-182: The Bands, The Breakdown & The Return. Independent Music Press. ISBN 978-1-906191-10-8.