Energy in the United Kingdom
|This article is outdated. (October 2012)|
Energy use in the United Kingdom stood at 37.83 MWh (3,252 kilogrammes of oil equivalent) per capita in 2010 compared to a world average of 21.54 MWh (1,852 kilogrammes of oil equivalent). In 2012, total electricity consumed was 317.5 TWh (27.3 million tonnes of oil equivalent). Demand for electricity in 2012 was 35.8GW on average, and 57.490GW at its peak.
Successive UK governments have outlined numerous commitments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. One such announcement was the Low Carbon Transition Plan launched by the Brown ministry in July 2009, which aimed to generate 30% electricity from renewable sources, and 40% from low carbon content fuels by 2020.
Government commitments to reduce emissions are occurring against a backdrop of economic crisis across Europe. During the European financial crisis, Europe’s consumption of electricity shrank by 5%, with primary production also facing a noticeable decline. Britain's trade deficit was reduced by 8% due to substantial cuts in energy imports. Between 2007 and 2012, the UK's peak electrical demand has fallen from 61.5 GW to 57.5 GW
UK government energy policy aims to play a key role in limiting greenhouse gas emissions, whilst meeting energy demand. Shifting availabilities of resources and development of technologies also change the country's energy mix through changes in costs. In 2010, the United Kingdom was ranked 9th in the World on the Environmental Performance Index, which measures how well a country carries through environmental policy.
|Energy in the United Kingdom|
|Change 2004-10||3.9%||-13.3%||-33.9%||420%||-3.9%||-10.0 %|
|Mtoe = 11.63 TWh>, Prim. energy includes energy losses that are 2/3 for nuclear power|
As recently as 2004, the UK was a net exporter of energy, however by 2010, more than 25% of UK energy was imported.
Concerns over peak oil have been raised by high-profile voices in the United Kingdom such as Sir David King and the Industry Task-Force on Peak Oil and Energy Security. The latter's 2010 report states that "The next five years will see us face another crunch - the oil crunch. This time, we do have the chance to prepare. The challenge is to use that time well." (Sir Richard Branson and Ian Marchant).
United Kingdom produced 60% of its consumed natural gas in 2010. In five years the United Kingdom moved from almost gas self-sufficient (see North Sea Gas) to 40% gas import in 2010. Gas was almost 40% of total primary energy supply (TPES) and electricity more than 45% in 2010. Underground storage was about 5% of annual demand and more than 10% of net imports. There is an alternative fuel obligation in the United Kingdom. (see Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation)
With the development of the national grid, the switch to using electricity, United Kingdom electricity consumption increased by around 150% between the post war nationalisation of the industry in 1948 and the mid-1960s. During the 1960s growth slowed as the market became saturated. The United Kingdom is planning to reform its electricity market. It plans to introduce a capacity mechanism and contracts for difference to encourage the building of new generation.
At the beginning of March 2012, the installed capacity of wind power in the United Kingdom was 6,580 megawatts (MW), with 333 operational wind farms and 3,506 wind turbines in the United Kingdom. The country is ranked as the world's eighth largest producer of wind power. 2012 is expected to be a significant year for the offshore wind industry with potentially 5 farms becoming operational with over 1,300 MW of generating capability.
The United Kingdom started to develop a nuclear generating capacity in the 1950s, with Calder Hall being connected to the grid on 27 August 1956. Though the production of weapons-grade plutonium was the main reason behind this power station, other civil stations followed, and 26% of the nation's electricity was generated from nuclear power at its peak in 1997.
Despite the flow of North Sea oil from the mid-1970s, oil fuelled generation remained relatively small and continued to decline.
Starting in 1993, and continuing through to the 1990s, a combination of factors led to a so-called Dash for Gas, during which the use of coal was scaled back in favour of gas-fuelled generation. This was sparked by the privatisation of the National Coal Board, British Gas and the Central Electricity Generating Board; the introduction of laws facilitating competition within the energy markets; and the availability of cheap gas from the North Sea. In 1990 just 1.09% of all gas consumed in the country was used in electricity generation; by 2004 the figure was 30.25%.
By 2004, coal use in power stations had fallen to 50.5 million tonnes, representing 82.4% of all coal used in 2004 (a fall of 43.6% compared to 1980 levels), though up slightly from its low in 1999.
- Gas: 40.4% (0.05% in 1990)
- Coal: 32.3% (67% in 1990)
- Nuclear: 17.6% (19% in 1990)
- Wind: 2.9% (0% in 1990)
- Hydroelectric: 1.7% (2.6% in 1990)
- Bio-Energy: 3.4% (0% in 1990)
- Imports: 0.7% (4% in 1990)
- Oil: 1.5% (7% in 1990)
- Other fuels: 6.6% (1% in 1990)
The UK Government energy policy had targeted a total contribution from renewables to achieve 10% by 2010, but it was not until 2012 that this figure was exceeded; renewable energy sources supplied 11.3% (41.3 TWh) of the electricity generated in the United Kingdom in 2012. The Scottish Government has a target of generating 17% to 18% of Scotland's electricity from renewables by 2010, rising to 40% by 2020.
UK 'energy gap'
In the early years of the 2000s, concerns grew over the prospect of an 'energy gap' in United Kingdom generating capacity. This is forecast to arise because it is expected that a number of coal fired power stations will close due to being unable to meet the clean air requirements of the European Large Combustion Plant Directive (directive 2001/80/EC). In addition, the United Kingdom's remaining Magnox nuclear stations will have closed by 2015. The oldest AGR nuclear power station has had its life extended by ten years, and it is likely many of the others can be life-extended, reducing the potential gap suggested by the current accounting closure dates of between 2014 and 2023 for the AGR power stations.
A report from the industry in 2005 forecast that, without action to fill the gap, there would be a 20% shortfall in electricity generation capacity by 2015. Similar concerns were raised by a report published in 2000 by the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (Energy - The Changing Climate). The 2006 Energy Review attracted considerable press coverage - in particular in relation to the prospect of constructing a new generation of nuclear power stations, in order to prevent the rise in carbon dioxide emissions that would arise if other conventional power stations were to be built.
Among the public, according to a November 2005 poll conducted by YouGov for Deloitte, 35% of the population expect that by 2020 the majority of electricity generation will come from renewable energy (more than double the government's target, and far larger than the 5.5% generated as of 2008), 23% expect that the majority will come from nuclear power, and only 18% that the majority will come from fossil fuels. 92% thought the Government should do more to explore alternative power generation technologies to reduce carbon emissions.
In June 2013, the industry regulator Ofgem warned that the UK's energy sector faces "unprecedented challenges" and that "spare electricity power production capacity could fall to 2% by 2015, increasing the risk of blackouts". Proposed solutions "could include negotiating with major power users for them to reduce demand during peak times in return for payment".
Plugging the energy gap
In 2007, proposals for the construction of two new coal-fired power stations were announced, in Tilbury, Essex and in Kingsnorth, Kent. If built, they will be the first coal-fired stations to be built in the United Kingdom in 20 years.
Beyond these new plants, there are a number of options that might be used to provide the new generating capacity, while minimising carbon emissions and producing less residues and contamination. Fossil fuel power plants might provide a solution if there was a satisfactory and economical way of reducing their carbon emissions. Carbon capture might provide a way of doing this; however the technology is relatively untried and costs are relatively high. As yet (2006) there are no power plants in operation with a full carbon capture and storage system.
However due to reducing demand in the late-2000s recession removing any medium term gap, and high gas prices, in 2011 and 2012 over 2 GW of older, less efficient, gas generation plant was mothballed. In 2011 electricity demand dropped 4%, and about 6.5 GW of additional gas-fired capacity is being added over 2011 and 2012. Early in 2012 the reserve margin stood at the high level of 32%.
Another important factor in reduced electrical demand in recent years has come from the phasing out of Incandescent light bulbs and a switch to compact fluorescent and LED lighting. Research by the University of Oxford has shown that the average annual electrical consumption for lighting in a UK home fell from 720 kWh in 1997 to 508 kWh in 2012. Between 2007 and 2012, the UK's peak electrical demand has fallen from 61.5 GW to 57.5 GW
While in some ways limited by which powers are devolved, the four countries of the United Kingdom have different energy mixes and ambitions. Scotland currently has a target of 80% of electricity from renewables by 2020, which was increased from an original ambition of 50% by 2020 after it exceeded its interim target of 31 per cent by 2011. It has a quarter of the EU's estimated offshore wind potential, and is at the forefront of testing various marine energy systems.
Britain's fleet of operational reactors consists of 14 advanced gas-cooled reactors on six discrete sites, along with two Magnox units at Wylfa, and one PWR unit at Sizewell B. Overall, the installed nuclear capacity in the United Kingdom is between 10 and 11 GW. In addition, the UK experimented with Fast Breeder reactor technologies at Dounreay in Scotland, however the last fast breeder (with 250MWe of capacity) was shut down in 1994.
While nuclear power does not produce significant carbon dioxide in generation (though the construction, mining, waste handling and disposal, and decommissioning do generate some carbon emissions), it raises other environmental and security concerns. Despite this, it has enormous potential for generating electricity, when it is taken into consideration that uranium could last up to a hundred years. However, even with changes to the planning system to speed applications, there are doubts over whether the necessary timescale could be met, and over the financial viability of nuclear power with present oil and gas prices. With no nuclear plants having been constructed since Sizewell B in 1995, there are also likely to be capacity issues within the native nuclear industry. The existing privatised nuclear supplier, British Energy, had been in financial trouble in 2004.
In October 2010 the British Government gave the go-ahead for the construction of up to eight new nuclear power plants. However, the Scottish Government, with the backing of the Scottish Parliament, has stated that no new nuclear power stations will be constructed in Scotland. In March 2012, E.ON UK and RWE npower announced they would be pulling out of developing new nuclear power plants, placing the future of nuclear power in the United Kingdom in doubt.
There was an 11% increase in the use of nuclear power in 2011, which helped to bring greenhouse gas emissions down 7% on the previous year.
As of September 2010, the installed nameplate capacity of wind power in the United Kingdom was over 5 gigawatts (GW), representing a real-terms figure of approximately 1.5GW. Wind power is the second largest source of renewable energy in the United Kingdom after biomass. Over 1 GW of new wind power capacity was brought online during 2009, 800 MW onshore and 285 MW offshore (1 GW = 1000 MW). Growth has continued in 2010 with the milestone of 1 GW of installed offshore capacity passed in April 2010, by the completion of the Gunfleet Sands and Robin Rigg wind farms. The milestone of 5 GW of total installed capacity was reached in September 2010 with the opening of the Thanet wind farm. RenewableUK estimates that more than 2 GW of capacity will be deployed per year for the next five years.
As of 1 October 2011, there were 295 operational wind farms in the United Kingdom, with 3,415 turbines and 5,752 MW of installed capacity. A further 3,497 MW worth of schemes are currently under construction, while another 5,363 MW have planning consent and some 9,254 MW are in planning awaiting approval.
Elexon, the United Kingdom electricity balancing and settlement code company, forecast the cumulative nameplate capacity of wind farms connected to the transmission network to be 2.43 GW. On 6 September 2010 a historical peak of 1860 MW was recorded from these wind farms, accounting for 4.7% of total generation at the time. Throughout 2009, an average 2.5% of United Kingdom electricity was generated by wind power with a total of around 6.7% of United Kingdom electricity coming from all renewable sources. Such was the rise in new wind energy coming on stream between April & June 2011 renewable sources accounted for 9.6% of electricity, with wind now accounting for 4.7% on average. This is expected to rise dramatically in coming years, as a result of the British government's energy policy strongly supporting new renewable energy generating capacity. In the short to medium term, the bulk of this new capacity is expected to be provided by onshore and offshore wind power.
In 2007, the United Kingdom Government agreed to an overall European Union target of generating 20% of the European Union's energy supply from renewable sources by 2020. Each European Union member state was given its own allocated target; for the United Kingdom it is 15%. This was formalised in January 2009 with the passage of the EU Renewables Directive. As renewable heat and fuel production in the United Kingdom are at extremely low bases, RenewableUK estimates that this will require 35–40% of the United Kingdom's electricity to be generated from renewable sources by that date, to be met largely by 33–35 GW of installed wind capacity.
In December 2007, the United Kingdom Government announced plans for a massive expansion of wind energy production, by conducting a Strategic Environmental Assessment of up to 25 GW worth of wind farm offshore sites in preparation for a new round of development. These proposed sites are in addition to the 8 GW worth of sites already awarded in the 2 earlier rounds of site allocations, Round 1 in 2001 and Round 2 in 2003. Taken together it is estimated that this would result in the construction of over 7,000 offshore wind turbines.
Wind power generation increased during 2014, culminating with a peak of 7,998 megawatts (MW) generated during midday on 18 October 2014 (taking into account all wind capacity in the UK, including local turbines). The total generated by wind power during the weekend of 18/19 October 2014 reached a new high of 7,105 megawatts (MW), representing 23.6% of total electricity generation in the United Kingdom.
The peak generation is expected to increase during the remainder of 2014, but the percentage share generated by wind power is expected to fall significantly - nine nuclear reactors, representing 5,303 megawatts (MW) are due to return online over the winter of 2014, and several coal and gas fired power stations offline as a result of incidents, including Didcot B, are also expected to resume generation during winter 2014/15.
|EU and UK Wind Energy Capacity (MW)|
Combined heat and power plants, where 'waste' hot water from generating is used for district heating, are also a well tried technology in other parts of Europe. While it heats about 50% of all houses in Denmark, Finland, Poland, Sweden and Slovakia, it currently only plays a small role in the United Kingdom. It has, however, been rising, with total generation standing at 27.9 TWh by 2008. This consisted of 1,439 predominantly gas-fired schemes with a total CHP electrical generating capacity of 5.47 GW, and contributing 7% of the UK's electricity supply. Heat generation utilisation has fallen however from a peak of 65 TWh in 1991 to 49 TWh in 2012.
Historically, public sector support for energy research and development in the United Kingdom has been provided by a variety of bodies with little co-ordination between them. Problems experienced have included poor continuity of funding, and the availability of funding for certain parts of the research—development—commercialisation process but not others. Levels of public funding have also been low by international standards, and funding by the private sector has also been limited.
Research in the area of energy is carried out by a number of public and private sector bodies:
The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council funds an energy programme spanning energy and climate change research. It aims to "develop, embrace and exploit sustainable, low carbon and/or energy efficient technologies and systems" to enable the United Kingdom "to meet the Government’s energy and environmental targets by 2020". Its research includes renewable, conventional, nuclear and fusion electricity supply as well as energy efficiency, fuel poverty and other topics.
Since being established in 2004, the UK Energy Research Centre carries out research into demand reduction, future sources of energy, infrastructure and supply, energy systems, sustainability and materials for advanced energy systems.
The Energy Technologies Institute, expected to begin operating in 2008, is to 'accelerate the development of secure, reliable and cost-effective low-carbon energy technologies towards commercial deployment'.
In relation to buildings, the Building Research Establishment carries out some research into energy conservation.
There is currently international research being conducted into fusion power. The ITER reactor is currently being constructed at Cadarache in France. The United Kingdom contributes towards this project through membership of the European Union. Prior to this, an experimental fusion reactor (the Joint European Torus) had been built at Culham in Oxfordshire.
The United Kingdom government has instituted several policies intended to promote an increase in efficient energy use. These include the roll out of smart meters, the Green Deal, the CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme, the Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme and Climate Change Agreements.
In tackling the energy trilemma, saving energy is the cheapest of all measures. The Guardian newspaper reported that in 2012 that by 2050, Germany projects a 25% drop in electricity demand: the UK projects a rise of up to 66%. MP and Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change Ed Davey pointed out in November 2012 that a modest 10% reduction in 2030 means five fewer power stations and £4bn cut from bills.
The UK government has implemented measures aimed at cutting the UK's energy use by 11% by 2020. If achieved, this improvement would be sufficient to replace 22 UK power stations, while possibly providing a boost to the economy and living standards.
- Energy policy of the United Kingdom
- Economy of the United Kingdom
- Energy conservation in the United Kingdom
- Energy switching services in the UK
- Greenhouse gas emissions by the United Kingdom
- Meter Point Administration Number
- "Energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita) | Data | Table". Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- Department of Energy and Climate Change (2013-07-25). "Energy consumption in the UK". GOV.UK. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "Metered half-hourly electricity demands". National Grid. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "World Energy Statistics | Energy Supply & Demand". Enerdata. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- Energy Research Estore. "United Kingdom Energy Report, Enerdata 2012". Enerdata.net. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "Peak Light Bulb". New Scientist. 4 January 2014. p. 4.
- "Data Explorer :: Table of Main Results | Environmental Performance Index". Epi.yale.edu. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2006 IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
- Energy in Sweden 2010, Facts and figures, The Swedish Energy Agency, Table 8 Losses in nuclear power stations Table 9 Nuclear power brutto
- UK Energy Consumption Figures 2008 Department of Energy and Climate Change
- Adam, David (9 June 2010). "Top scientist says politicians have 'heads in the sand' over oil". The Guardian (London).
- "Latest from the Taskforce | The Peak Oil Group". Peakoiltaskforce.net. 2011-05-23. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- The Oil Crunch: A wake-up call for the UK economy, Second report of the UK Industry Taskforce on Peak Oil & Energy Security (ITPOES) February 2010
- Gas emergency policy: Where do IEA countries stand? IEA 25 May 2011, figures
- Elgin North Sea gas platform resumes production almost year after leak The Guardian 11.3.2013
- "Digest of UK energy statistics: 60th Anniversary Report". Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- "BWEA statistical overview of wind farms today". Bwea.com. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- RenewableUK Wind Energy statistics>
- UK Energy in Brief July 2005, DTI statistics
- "Statistics at DECC - Department of Energy & Climate Change - GOV.UK". Decc.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "Department of Energy and Climate Change: Annual tables: ‘Digest of UK energy statistics’ (DUKES) - Chapter 6: Renewable Sources of energy". Retrieved 1 September 2013.
- "Ministers confirm 40 per cent renewables target". Scotland.gov.uk. 2003-03-25. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- Directive 2001/80/EC
- 10-year life extension at Dungeness B nuclear power station, British Energy, 15 September 2005, archived from the original on 22 March 2006, retrieved 19 June 2008
- Stephen Seawright (13 June 2006), Nuclear stations may stay on line to bridge the gap, London: Daily Telegraph, retrieved 30 August 2008
- , page 23, Department of Energy and Climate Change, published 2009-07-30, accessed 2009-08-28
- Support for nuclear and renewable energy, Deloitte, published 2005-12-02, retrieved 2007-03-17
- "BBC News - Ofgem warns danger of power shortages has increased". Bbc.co.uk. 2013-06-27. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- Plans for two coal power stations announced, BBC, published 2007-03-14, accessed 2007-03-17.
- Andreas Walstad (2 August 2011). "UK power plants mothballed on higher gas prices". National Gas Daily (Interfax). Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- "Centrica idles gas-fired plant amid low spark spreads". Argus Media. 12 March 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- Kari Lundgren (23 February 2012). "Centrica May Mothball More Gas Plants as Capacity Trims Profits". Bloomberg. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- "New target for Scottish renewable energy". BBC News. 23 September 2010.
- "New wind farm contracts announced". BBC News. 8 January 2010.
- Dutta, Kunal (17 March 2010). "Marine energy projects approved for Scotland". The Independent (London).
- Author: Marion Brünglinghaus, ENS, European Nuclear Society. "Nuclear power plants, world-wide". Euronuclear.org. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "Nuclear Power in the United Kingdom |UK Nuclear Energy". World-nuclear.org. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "Dounreay Site Restoration Ltd - Prototype Fast Reactor". Dounreay.com. 2008-08-18. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- Uranium 2007 – Resources, Production and Demand. OECD Publishing. 17 June 2008. ISBN 978-92-64-04766-2.
- Eight new nuclear power stations despite safety and clean-up concerns Telegraph, published 2010-10-18, accessed 2011-03-29
- "Answers to your questions on energy in Scotland". The Scottish Government. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- "Official Report 17 January 2008". The Scottish Parliament. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
- David Maddox (30 March 2012). "Nuclear disaster casts shadow over future of UK’s energy plans". The Scotsman.
- Vaughan, Adam (29 March 2012). "UK greenhouse gas emissions down 7% in 2011". The Guardian (London).
- "RenewableUK 23 September 2010 Press Release". Bwea.com. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- NewEnergyFocus wind news webpage
- Energy Solutions news article
- "Elexon Peak Wind Generation Forecast table (Power Park Modules)". Bmreports.com. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "RenewableUK record wind generation press release". Bwea.com. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- Department of Energy & Climate Change. "Department of Energy and Climate Change Digest of United Kingdom energy statistics (DUKES) 2010". Decc.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- "RenewableUK 29 September 2011 Press Release". Bwea.com. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- McKenna, John (2009-04-08). "New Civil Engineer – Wind power: Chancellor urged to use budget to aid ailing developers". Nce.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- Daley, Janet. "Earth". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- "UKWED Figures explained". RenewableUK. 2012-04-03. Retrieved 2013-10-05.
- Harrabin, Roger (22 October 2014). "Wind farms outstrip nuclear power". BBC News (BBC). Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- "Wind power steps up when nuclear and gas go offline" (Press release). RenewableUK. 20 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- EWEA Staff (2010). "Cumulative installed capacity per EU Member State 1998 - 2009 (MW)". European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- EWEA Staff (February 2011). "EWEA Annual Statistics 2010". European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
- EWEA Staff (February 2012). "EWEA Annual Statistics 2011". European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2011-02-18.
- Wind in power: 2012 European statistics February 2013
- , Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
- , UK Energy Research Centre
- , Building Research Establishment
- "ESOS: Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme". The Carbon Trust. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- Energy saving finally gets serious as alarm bells wake ministers - Ed Davey has plugged a gaping hole in coalition energy policy by proposing serious if very belated - energy efficiency measures, but the overall policy remains a risky bet, The Guardian 29 November 2012
- Energy efficiency could replace 22 UK power stations Guardian 12 November 2012
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Energy in the United Kingdom.|
- IEA Graph: Evolution of Electricity Generation by Fuel from 1971 to 2003 (pdf)
- DTI UK Energy Statistics
- DTI 2006 Energy Review
- DEFRA Market Transformation Programme
- DEFRA The United Kingdom element of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme
- NISP National Industrial Symbiosis Programme (NISP)
- UK Energy Research Centre
- Map of United Kingdom power stations
- Friends of the Earth: The Future starts here: the route to a low carbon economy
- The Rise of the Machines: A review of energy using products in the home
- Market Transformation Programme: Consumer Electronics
- Energy Consumption & Production in the UK
- Energy Analyses in UK
- Map of the UK oil and gas infrastructure
- GB electricity generation by fuel type Latest six months, 30-minute resolution. Includes France, Netherlands and NI Interconnects.
- In the media
- September 2006, NewBuilder, Climate Change perceived as greater threat than terrorism
- May 2006, BBC, Survey: Your electricity choices revealed
- May 2006, The Times, Minister's links to nuclear lobby
- May 2006, BBC, Blair backs nuclear power plans
- March 2006, The Independent, Global warming: Your chance to change the climate
- March 2006, BBC, Is DIY power generation going to be the next big thing?
- January 2006, BBC, The UK's energy debate has been framed wrongly
- May 2002, European Environmental Bureau, Biofuels not as green as they sound
- June 2000, RCEP, Royal commission calls for transformation in the UK's use of energy to counter climate change