Energy in Kazakhstan

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Energy in Kazakhstan describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Kazakhstan. Energy policy of Kazakhstan describes the politics of Kazakhstan related to energy.

Kazakhstan is net energy exporter. Kazakhstan has oil, gas, coal and uranium reserves.

Overview[edit]

Energy in Kazakhstan[1]
Capita Prim. energy Production Export Electricity CO2-emission
Million TWh TWh TWh TWh Mt
2004 15.0 638 1,379 742 54.4 162.2
2007 15.5 773 1,582 811 68.9 190.5
2008 15.7 825 1,723 899 73.5 201.6
2009 15.9 766 1,696 931 71.6 189.5
2012 16.6 908 1,863 972 81.0 234.2
Change 2004-09 6.0% 20.1% 22.9% 25.6% 31.7% 16.9%
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh, Prim. energy includes energy losses.

According to IEA primary energy supply increased 29% and energy export 21% from 2004 to 2008 in Kazakhstan.

Energy by sources[edit]

Oil[edit]

Kazakhoil is the Kazakhstan state-owned oil company.[2]

Coal[edit]

Coal in Kazakhstan (Mt)[3]
Production Import
2005 79 15
2008 108 27
2009 101 22
2011 117 34

A major concern of the coal mines of Kazakhstan is safety and prevention and control of mine explosions.[4]

In 2009 Kazakhstan was 8. top coal producer: 96 million tonnes hard coal and 5 million tonnes brown coal. 22 Mt of hard coal was exported (2009). In 2009 Kazakhstan was world 8. top coal exporter. The top hard coal net exporters in 2009 were (Mt): Australia 262, Indonesia 230, Russia 93, Colombia 69, South Africa 67, United States 33, Vietnam 25, Kazakhstan 22, Canada 20 and Czech Republic 4.[5] The coal of Kazakhstan has low energy value 0.444 toe/tonne compared to e.g. in this respect top coal of Australia 0.689 toe/tonne.[6]

Assuming both hard coal 96 Mt and brown coal 6 Mt having about the same energy value,: the coal production would have been about 101 Mt*0.444 toe/Mt*11.630 TWh/toe = 521 TWh in 2009 and export .22*0.444 toe/Mt*11.630 TWh/toe = 114 TWh.

Corruption[edit]

In 2003 one of the largest foreign corruption investigations in US was uncovered connected to the Government of Kazakhstan funds from oil transactions. Global corruption report 2009 refers to alleged scheme were the Kazakh president and oil minister demanded that international oil companies pay fees to a middleman. The case was under investigation in 2009. According to claims the middleman got from the deals some US$78 million in gifts and bribes to the Kazakh president and others through bank accounts in Switzerland, Liechtenstein and the British Virgin Islands.[7]

According to media reports, the former chief executive of German MAN SE’s turbine manufacturing unit MAN Turbo AG, pleaded guilty in June 2010 of bribery. In one case, he reportedly paid a bribe to obtain a major contract with MunayGaz in Kazakhstan for construction of a gas turbine compressor station, which he claimed was solicited in 2004.[8]

Kazakhstan oligarch[edit]

Oligarch in Kazakhstan known as the “Trio” are active also in oil & gas: Alijan Ibragimov, Alexander Mashkevich and Patokh Chodiev.

Protests[edit]

In oil town Zhanaozen oil workers have struck already for half a year in December 2011 for better wages. 15 people died in the demonstrations in December. On 17 December, a state of emergency was declared. In the oil company leadership ex oil sub secretary of state and a new municipal leader Baurzhan Mukhamedzhanov were selected based on protests.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2006 IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
  2. ^ Global Corruption Report 2008, Corruption in the Water Sector page 179
  3. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2012, 2010, 2009 and 2006 page 15
  4. ^ Coal from the East and the South, Responsibility in energy company coal purchases, FinnWatch 23.12.2010
  5. ^ Key world energy statistics 2010 IEA
  6. ^ Key world energy statistics 2010 IEA page 59
  7. ^ corruption report 2009 Corruption and the Private Sector Transparency International August 2009 page 55
  8. ^ Progress report, Enforcement of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention 2010 Transparency International July 2010 page 34
  9. ^ YK mukaan tutkimaan Kazakstanin levottomuuksia YLE 22.12.2011 (Finnish)