A major concern of the coal mines of Kazakhstan is safety and prevention and control of mine explosions.
In 2009 Kazakhstan was 8. top coal producer: 96 million tonnes hard coal and 5 million tonnes brown coal. 22 Mt of hard coal was exported (2009). In 2009 Kazakhstan was world 8. top coal exporter. The top hard coal net exporters in 2009 were (Mt): Australia 262, Indonesia 230, Russia 93, Colombia 69, South Africa 67, United States 33, Vietnam 25, Kazakhstan 22, Canada 20 and Czech Republic 4. The coal of Kazakhstan has low energy value 0.444 toe/tonne compared to e.g. in this respect top coal of Australia 0.689 toe/tonne.
Assuming both hard coal 96 Mt and brown coal 6 Mt having about the same energy value,: the coal production would have been about 101 Mt*0.444 toe/Mt*11.630 TWh/toe = 521 TWh in 2009 and export .22*0.444 toe/Mt*11.630 TWh/toe = 114 TWh.
In 2003 one of the largest foreign corruption investigations in US was uncovered connected to the Government of Kazakhstan funds from oil transactions. Global corruption report 2009 refers to alleged scheme were the Kazakh president and oil minister demanded that international oil companies pay fees to a middleman. The case was under investigation in 2009. According to claims the middleman got from the deals some US$78 million in gifts and bribes to the Kazakh president and others through bank accounts in Switzerland, Liechtenstein and the British Virgin Islands.
According to media reports, the former chief executive of GermanMAN SE’s turbine manufacturing unit MAN Turbo AG, pleaded guilty in June 2010 of bribery. In one case, he reportedly paid a bribe to obtain a major contract with MunayGaz in Kazakhstan for construction of a gas turbine compressor station, which he claimed was solicited in 2004.
In oil town Zhanaozen oil workers have striked already for half a year in December 2011 for better wages. 15 people died in the demonstrations in December. On 17 December, a state of emergency was declared. In the oil company leadership ex oil sub secretary of state and a new municipal leader Baurzhan Mukhamedzhanov were selected based on protests.