Energy in Nigeria

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Nigeria's primary energy consumption was about 108 Mtoe in 2011.[1] Most of the energy comes from traditional biomass and waste, which account for 83% of total primary consumption. The rest is from fossil fuels (16%) and hydropower (1%).[1]

Nigeria has oil reserves of about 35 billion barrels (5.6×109 m3) and gas reserves of about 5 trillion cubic metres, ranking 10th and 9th in the world, respectively. Global production in 2009 reached 29 billion barrels (4.6×109 m3) of oil and 3 trillion cubic meters of natural gas.[2] Nigeria is a member of the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.

Location

Overview[edit]

Energy in Nigeria[3]
Capita Prim. energy Production Export Electricity CO2-emission
Million TWh TWh TWh TWh Mt
2004 128.7 1,151 2,668 1,508 13.4 47.6
2007 148.0 1,241 2,695 1,445 20.3 51.4
2008 151.3 1,293 2,638 1,343 19.1 52.4
2009 154.7 1,259 2,660 1,419 18.6 41.2
2010 158.42 1,315 3,005 1,691 21.62 45.90
2012 162.47 1,376 2,988 1,607 24.45 52.85
Change 2004-10 23.1  % 14.2  % 12.6  % 12.1  % 61.1 % -3.6  %
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh . Prim. energy includes energy losses

Oils[edit]

Oil and gas in Nigeria

Nigeria was 10th top oil producer in 2005.[4] In 2009 Nigeria was not among the top ten crude oil producers, but it was the fifth oil exporter (102 Mt).[5]

Ogoniland[edit]

Ogoni people live historically in the Niger Delta. Ogoniland oil facilities are operated mainly by the Shell Petroleum Development Corporation (Nigeria) in the upstream and the Nigerian National Petroleum Company in the downstream since the 1950s. The Ogoni campaign against Shell Oil is led by the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP). MOSOP is campaigning for the expulsion of Shell from Ogoniland.[6]

According to the UNEP assessment in 8/2011 the oil contamination is widespread in Ogoniland and oil spills continue still even in the old oil field areas. The Ogoni people live with this pollution every day. As Ogoniland has high rainfall, delay in cleaning of the oil spills leads to spread oil contamination in the farmlands. Oil contamination of land areas, sediments and swampland is extensive. The wetlands around Ogoniland are highly degraded and facing disintegration. Fishermen must move to less contaminated areas in search of fish. Current Ogoniland community have lived with chronic oil pollution throughout their lives. Of most immediate concern in 12/2011, community members at Nisisioken Ogale are drinking water contaminated with benzene, a known carcinogen, at levels over 900 times above the WHO guideline.[7][8]

Environmental damage[edit]

The Niger delta is one of the most polluted regions in the world. Oil is spilled more each year than in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. Nigerian government reports more than 7,000 spills between 1970 and 2000 and 2,000 major spillage sites.[9][10]

Pollution and environmental damage of the oil industry has serious impact on people living in the Niger Delta. The environment laws are poorly enforced. Government agencies responsible for enforcement were ineffective and, in some cases, compromised by conflicts of interest. Communities in the Niger Delta frequently had no access to vital information about the impact of the oil industry on their lives. On 1 May 2010, crude oil from a leaking oil from an offshore platform of ExxonMobil’s Qua Iboe oilfield reached the shores of the Ibeno community, Akwa Ibom state.[11]

Representatives of Anglo-Dutch oil giant Shell are appearing in a Dutch civil court to face accusations of polluting Nigerian villages in 2012.[12] The UNEP report (2011) concludes that pollution of soil by petroleum hydrocarbons in Ogoniland is extensive in land areas, sediments and swampland.[13]

Oil spills[edit]

  • Shell announced a 40,000 barrels of crude oil spill in Nigeria in December 2011. Bonga Field produces around 200,000 barrels a day. The spill was among the worst off the coast of Nigeria in 10 years.[14]
  • 280,000 barrels of oil were estimated spilled in 2008 in two leaks in the Bodo region in the Ogoni district in 2008. Bodo is at the epicentre of several pipelines that collect oil from nearly 100 wells. Nearly 80% of people in Bodo were fishermen dependant on clean water.[9]

Gas[edit]

Gas in Nigeria is supplied to a variety of industrial users in and around Lagos. The gas originates in the Niger Delta area. It passes to Lagos via the Escravos pipeline. A number of major industrial users utilise this gas in captive power plants such as Guinness's Ogba and Benin breweries.[15]

In January 2010, two workers at Chevron’s gas plant, Escravos, in Delta state, were shot dead.[16]

Uranium mining[edit]

Nigeria has large uranium mines.[17]

Business[edit]

Oando is Nigeria’s largest oil company, headquartered in Lagos. Oando is Nigeria's largest non-government owned company in the energy industry. It is listed on the Nigerian and Johannesburg Stock Exchange.

Oil and gas contributors include Nigerian National Petroleum Company NNPC, Chevron Corporation, CNOOC, CNPC, Conoco, Eni, Exxon Mobil Corporation, GEPetrol, Petrobras, Shell, Statoil and Total[18]

Renewable energy[edit]

Renewable energy penetration in Nigeria is still in its nascent stage, the only source of renewable energy in the country is hydro-power and biomass; wind and solar energy have only been deployed in minuscule amount. Solar energy in Nigeria is majorly used in urban areas for street lighting, while in rural areas it is used for irrigation project and water pumping. The country has a target in 2007 to produce 7% of its 2025 energy needs from renewable with solar and hydro as the major priority.[19]

Human rights[edit]

The Niger Delta area is oil-rich. The government has made little to address environmental degradation, endemic state and local government corruption, or political sponsorship of armed groups, which drive and underlie violence and poverty in the region.[citation needed]

Because of Nigeria’s role as a regional power, leading oil exporter, and major contributor of troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions, foreign governments – including the United States and the United Kingdom—have been reluctant to publicly criticize Nigeria’s human rights record. In 2010 the UK increased funding to £140 million in aid to Nigeria, including security sector aid, without demanding accountability for Nigerian officials and members of the security forces implicated in corrupt practices and serious human rights abuses.[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Nigeria: Overview". U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  2. ^ 2011 report on oil and gas companies, Promoting revenue Transparency Transparency International 2011 page reserves 114–115
  3. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2006 IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
  4. ^ Key world energy statistics 2006 page 11
  5. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2010 Page 11
  6. ^ Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland UNEP Aug 4, 2011 Full report 2011 (9.7 MB pdf) Pages 24-25, 39,
  7. ^ UNEP Ogoniland Oil Assessment Reveals Extent of Environmental Contamination and Threats to Human Health UNEP Aug 4, 2011
  8. ^ Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland UNEP Aug 4, 2011 Full report 2011 (9.7 MB pdf)
  9. ^ a b Shell oil spills in the Niger delta: 'Nowhere and no one has escaped' Guardian 3 August 2011
  10. ^ agony dwarfs the Gulf oil spill. The US and Europe ignore it Guardian 30 May 2010
  11. ^ Amnesty International Report 2011 page 247
  12. ^ Nigeria oil spills: Dutch case against Shell begins bbc 11 October 2012
  13. ^ Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland UNEP 2011
  14. ^ [Nigeria on alert as Shell announces worst oil spill in a decade] Guardian 22.12.2011
  15. ^ Guinness, Ogba Combined Heat & Power Plant
  16. ^ Amnesty International Report 2011 page 249
  17. ^ Energy revolution Greenpeace, page 14
  18. ^ 2011 report on oil and gas companies, Promoting revenue Transparency Transparency International 2011
  19. ^ Renewables 2007 Global Status Report, REN21 (Paris) and Worldwatch institute (Washington, DC), 2008, page 41
  20. ^ Human Rights Watch World Report 2011 pages 148