Energy in Singapore

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Energy in the world by danny

describes energy related issues in Singapore. Singapore is in East Asia. Energy import is about three times the primary energy. Oil import in relation to population is high.

The owner of the biggest palm oil company Wilmar International is in Singapore. Finland has the world biggest palm oil based diesel plant in Singapore 800,000 tonnes annually since end of 2010.

Overview[edit]

Energy in Singapore[1]
Capita Prim. energy Production Import Electricity CO2-emission
Million TWh TWh TWh TWh Mt
2004 4.24 298 0 548 34.6 38.1
2007 4.59 311 0 628 39.1 45.0
2008 4.84 215 0 650 39.6 44.3
2009 5.0 215 0 685 39.7 44.8
2012 5.2 43.6 64.8
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh, Prim. energy includes energy losses

According to IEA Singapore had no energy production in 2008. Energy import increased 18.6% in 2008 compared to 2004. The primary energy declined about one third 2007-8 but the same years the energy import increased. Energy import was about three times the total primary energy supply in 2008. Per person the electricity use was 135% and carbon dioxide emissions 110% compared to the UK in 2008 (UK: 61.35 m people 372.19 TWh electricity, 510.63Mt CO2 emissions).[2]

The use of energy (primary energy) in Singapore is only 1/3 of the imported energy.

Oil[edit]

Singapore was the top 10th country in oil imports in 2008: 50 megatonnes. For comparison, oil imports in Spain were 77 megatonnes (the top 8th country, with a population of 45.59 million) and in Italy they were 73 megatonnes (the top 9th country, with 59.89 million persons).[3]

Palm oil[edit]

The biggest palm oil based diesel plant in the world, 800,000 t/a production, started in Singapore in the end of 2010 by Neste Oil from Finland.[4] The plant needs annually almost a million tonnes of raw material from the oil palm Elaeis guineensis, equivalent to 2,600–3,400 km2 oil palm plantation.

Greenpeace demonstrated in November 2010 in Espoo Finland by hanging an orangutan puppet in front of Neste Oil since they accused that Neste Oil endangers rainforest ecosystem. According to UNEP majority of new palm oil plantases take place in the rainforest.[5]

According to European Union studies the increased demand of palm oil inevitably direct to new plantases in the forests and peat land areas. Land use changes have large green house gas emissions making palm oil diesel much more harmful than petroleum in respect to global warming. According to Greenpeace Neste Oil plant in Singapore brought Finnish Neste Oil among leading palm oil consumers and in the forward troops of rain forest destruction.[6]

Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) would be a way to mitigate climate change. According to UNEP the international REDD mechanism will be a key element of the post-2012 international climate change regime.[7]

Companies[edit]

Wilmar International[edit]

Wilmar International is listed in Singapore. Kuok Khoon Hong was the third richest in Singapore in 2009 net worth $3.5 billion. He heads the world's largest palm oil firm, Wilmar International.[8] According to FinnWatch] Kuak family owned in 2007 by Malaysian companies a biofuel plant in Indonesia (225 000 t/a).[9] The Wilmar director Martua Sitorus ($3 billion net worth in 2009 2nd in Indonesia) lived in Indonesia in 2009.[10]

In July 2007 Friends of the Earth Netherlands and two Indonesian NGOs accused Wilmar of illegal forest clearances in West Kalimantan, inadequate Environmental Impact Assessments and clearing land outside its concessions. Wilmar denies the allegation. The report calls on Unilever, a major purchaser from Wilmar, to review its purchasing relationship with the company.[11]

Global warming[edit]

Singapore was the 8th top carbon dioxide emitter per capita in the world in 2009: 34.59 tonnes per capita.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2006 IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
  2. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2010 Page: 23, 52, 54 56
  3. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2010 Page: 23, 52, 54, 56
  4. ^ Neste Oil rakentaa Singaporeen maailman suurimman biodieseltehtaan yle 30 November 2007 (Finnish)
  5. ^ The last stand: State of emergency: Illegal logging, fire and palm oil in Indonesia’s national parks of the orangutan UNEP 2007
  6. ^ Neste Oilin Singaporen laitos kiihdyttää sademetsätuhoa, Greenpeace 15 November 2010
  7. ^ Environmental Governance UNEP page 53-63 pdf: 6-Environmental_Governance_UNEP_YearBook_09_low[1].pdf
  8. ^ Singapore's 40 Richest No. 3 Kuok Khoon Hong Forbes 2009
  9. ^ Palmuöljystä biopolttoainetta FinnWatch / Niko Humalisto 2006
  10. ^ Martua Sitorus on Indonesia's 40 Richest (2009) Forbes 2 December 2009
  11. ^ Losing land to palm oil in Kalimantan bbc 3 August 2007
  12. ^ World carbon dioxide emissions data by country: China speeds ahead of the rest Guardian 31 January 2011