Energy in Singapore
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Energy in Singapore describes energy related issues in Singapore. Singapore is in East Asia. Energy import is about three times the primary energy. Oil import in relation to population is high. Owner of the biggest palm oil company Wilmar International is in Singapore. Finland has the world biggest palm oil based diesel plant in Singapore 800,000 tonnes annually since end of 2010.
|Energy in Singapore|
|Change 2004–2008||14.2%||-27.6 %||18.6%||14.3%||16.5%|
|Mtoe = 11.63 TWh, Prim. energy includes energy losses|
According to IEA Singapore had no energy production in 2008. Energy import increased 18.6% in 2008 compared to 2004. The primary energy declined about one third 2007-8 but the same years the energy import increased. Energy import was about three times the total primary energy supply in 2008. Pro person the electricity use was 135% and carbon dioxide emissions 110% compared to the UK in 2008 (UK: 61.35 m people 372.19 TWh electricity, 510.63Mt CO2 emissions).
Singapore was top 10 in oil import in 2008: 50 Mt while the import was in Spain 77 Mt (top 8, 45.59 million person) and Italy 73 Mt (top 9, 59.89 million person).
Palm oil 
The biggest palm oil based diesel plant in the world, 800,000 t/a production, started in Singapore in the end of 2010 by Neste Oil from Finland. Plant needs annually almost a million tonnes oil palm Elaeis guineensis raw material equivalent to 2,600–3,400 km2 oil palm plantation. Greenpeace demonstrated in November 2010 in Espoo Finland by hanging an orangutan puppet in front of Neste Oil since they accused that Neste Oil endangers rainforest ecosystem. According to UNEP majority of new palm oil plantases take place in the rainforest. According to European Union studies the increased demand of palm oil inevitably direct to new plantases in the forests and peat land areas. Land use changes have large green house gas emissions making palm oil diesel much more harmful than petroleum in respect to global warming. According to Greenpeace Neste Oil plant in Singapore brought Finnish Neste Oil among leading palm oil consumers and in the forward troops of rain forest destruction.
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) would be a way to mitigate climate change. According to UNEP the international REDD mechanism will be a key element of the post-2012 international climate change regime.
Wilmar International 
Wilmar International is listed in Singapore. Kuok Khoon Hong was the third richest in Singapore in 2009 net worth $3.5 billion. He heads the world's largest palm oil firm, Wilmar International. According to FinnWatch] Kuak family owned in 2007 by Malesian companies a biofuel plant in Indonesia (225 000 t/a). The Wilmar director Martua Sitorus ($3 billion net worth in 2009 2nd in Indonesia) lived in Indonesia in 2009. Wilmar International In July 2007 Friends of the Earth Netherlands and two Indonesian NGOs accused Wilmar of illegal forest clearances in West Kalimantan, inadequate Environmental Impact Assessments and clearing land outside its concessions. Wilmar denies the allegation. The report calls on Unilever, a major purchaser from Wilmar, to review its purchasing relationship with the company.
Global warming 
Singapore was the 9th top carbon dioxide emitter per capita in the world in 2009: 34.59 tonnes per capita. All emissions from building and cement production are local but some people may argue that some Singapore produced fuels and/or goods are consumed abroad.
- IEA Key energy statistics 2010 Page: Country specific indicator numbers from page 48
- Key world energy statistics 2009
- Key world energy statistics 2006
- IEA Key energy statistics 2010 Page: 23, 52, 54 56
- IEA Key energy statistics 2010 Page: 23, 52, 54, 56
- Neste Oil rakentaa Singaporeen maailman suurimman biodieseltehtaan yle 30 November 2007 (Finnish)
- The last stand: State of emergency: Illegal logging, fire and palm oil in Indonesia’s national parks of the orangutan UNEP 2007
- Neste Oilin Singaporen laitos kiihdyttää sademetsätuhoa, Greenpeace 15 November 2010
- Environmental Governance UNEP page 53-63 pdf: 6-Environmental_Governance_UNEP_YearBook_09_low.pdf
- Singapore's 40 Richest No. 3 Kuok Khoon Hong Forbes 2009
- Palmuöljystä biopolttoainetta FinnWatch / Niko Humalisto 2006
- Martua Sitorus on Indonesia's 40 Richest (2009) Forbes 2 December 2009
- Losing land to palm oil in Kalimantan bbc 3 August 2007
- World carbon dioxide emissions data by country: China speeds ahead of the rest Guardian 31 January 2011
- Which nations are most responsible for climate change? Guardian 21 April 2011