Energy in Sweden

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Energy in Sweden describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Sweden. Electricity sector in Sweden is the main article of electricity in Sweden.

Overview[edit]

Energy in Sweden [1]
Capita Prim. energy Production Import Electricity CO2-emission
Million TWh TWh TWh TWh Mt
2004 8.99 627 408 236 138.7 52.2
2007 9.15 586 391 221 139.4 46.2
2008 9.26 577 387 229 137.1 45.9
2009 9.30 528 353 207 131.5 41.7
2010 9.38 596 390 229 140.1 47.6
2012 9.45 570 378 219 132.6 44.9
Change 2004–10 4.3 % -4.9 % -4.5 % -3.1 % -1.0  % -8.8 %
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh . Prim. energy includes energy losses that are 2/3 for nuclear power[2]

The emissions decline 7.7% in 2008–2009 was at least partly influenced by the European economic recession of 2008–2009 and not only by the sustainable changes in energy consumption. From 2008 to 2009 the change in the US was a 7.0% decline and in Canada was a 9.6% decline.[3]

A report was published in 2011 by the World Energy Council in association with Oliver Wyman, entitled Policies for the Future: 2011 Assessment of Country Energy and Climate Policies, which ranks country performance according to an energy sustainability index.[4] The best performers were Switzerland, Sweden and France.

Consumption[edit]

Buildings and the residential sector currently account for 40 percent of Sweden's energy consumption. Buildings have a long life-span. Thus energy efficiency is important for houses being built. Better energy efficiency for existing buildings is biggest challenge.[5]

Renewable energy[edit]

The share of renewable energy in Sweden was 50 % in 2005 and 60 % in 2012.[6] In 2013 renewable energy investment was more than USD 1 billion in Sweden. [7] The share of renewable energy in per cent in Sweden was 48 % in 2012 and 38 % in 2000. The share of renewable energy 5 years average 2006-2010 was 45,6 % and 10 years average 2001-2010 was 42,7 %. The share of renewable energy in Sweden:[8]

1990 33 % 1995 36 % 2000 38 % 2005 41 % 2010 48 %

Wind power[edit]

Main article: Wind power in Sweden

Wind power accounted for 2.4% of the electricity production in Sweden in 2010, 5 % in 2012.[9][10]

Sweden has wind power potential of 510 TWh/a at land and 46 TWh/a at sea. [11] Consumption was 140 TWh of power in 2010.

In 2013 Sweden was second top country for wind power capacity per inhabitant in the world: 488 W per person.[12] In correlation one must note that Swedish use of energy per inhabitant is much higher than in average in the Europe.

EU and Sweden Wind Energy Capacity (MW)[13][14][15][16]
No Country 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998
- EU-27 105,696 93,957 84,074 74,767 64,712 56,517 48,069 40,511 34,383 28,599 23,159 17,315 12,887 9,678 6,453
8 Sweden 3,745 2,907 2,163 1,560 1,048 788 571 509 442 399 345 293 231 220 174

Wave power[edit]

Sweden has a wave power station outside Lysekil.

Hydroelectric power[edit]

Hydroelectric power accounts for more than half of energy production. More than 1900 power stations operate all over the country. Forty-five produce 100 MW and over, 17 produce 200 MW and over, and 6 produce 400 MW and over. The largest station, which is located on the upper Lule River, has a maximum production capacity of 977 MW. The Lule River is also the most productive river, with almost 18% of the Swedish installed effect. Almost all of the medium to large plants are located in northern Sweden.

Biofuels[edit]

Further information: Biofuel in Sweden

Sweden aims for a fossil fuel free vehicle fleet by 2030. [17]

Sweden published the sustainability criteria for biofuels (2011) which consider the areas with high biological values to be protected in respect to fuels production. The feedstock origin used for production of bioliquids in Sweden during 2011 was Sweden 49% The Netherlands 17% United States 17% Finland 6% Belgium 3% and other 8% (Brazil, Malaysia and Russia). Palm oil is often pointed out as a dirty feed-stock for biofuels. None of the Swedish companies used palm oil in 2011. The largest share of feedstock for bioliquids comes from the forest industry in the form of tall oil pitch, tall oil and methanol.[18]

In 2013 the bus fleets in more than a dozen cities relied entirely on biomethane, local plants produced more than 60% of the total biomethane used in Swedish natural gas vehicles, and more filling stations were opened in 2012 and 2013. Goteborg Energi (Gothenburg Energy) has a 20 MW facility that gasifies forest residues and then converts the synthesis gases—hydrogen and carbon monoxide—into biomethane. [19]

Thermal and Nuclear[edit]

Nuclear is dominating in this sector. The other operational plant is in almost all cases fueled with renewable fuels. Oil plant are few, and are either decommissioned or used as a reserve,

Nuclear power[edit]

More than 35% of the energy is produced by 10 Nuclear reactors, previously 12. They are spread out on 4 power stations:

Global warming[edit]

According to Energy Information Administration the CO2 emissions from energy consumption of Sweden were in 2009 54.77 Mt, slightly below Finland 54.86 Mt, despite the difference in the population.[20] The emissions per capita were in Sweden 5.58 and in Finland 9.93 tonnes per capita in 2009.[21]

See also[edit]

Regional:

References[edit]

  1. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2006 IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
  2. ^ Energy in Sweden 2010. Facts and figures. The Swedish Energy Agency. Table 8 Losses in nuclear power stations Table 9 Nuclear power brutto
  3. ^ World carbon dioxide emissions data by country: China speeds ahead of the rest Guardian 31 January 2011
  4. ^ http://www.worldenergy.org/publications/3800.asp
  5. ^ Energy efficiency in the built environment – new research and innovation program initiated Swedish Energy Agency 2013-02-28
  6. ^ Energiläget i siffror 2014 Tabell 45: Andel förnybar energianvändning i Sverige 1990-2012 och i olika sektorer 2005–2012
  7. ^ Renewables 2014 Global Status Report, page 70
  8. ^ Energy in Sweden 2012. Facts and figures
  9. ^ Significant increase in energy from wind power The Swedish Energy Agency
  10. ^ Energiläget i siffror 2014 18: Sveriges elproduktion per kraftslag och total elanvändning 1970–2012
  11. ^ Sweden report Greenpeace 12.11.2012
  12. ^ Renewables 2014 Global Status Report, page 56
  13. ^ EWEA Staff (2010). "Cumulative installed capacity per EU Member State 1998 - 2009 (MW)". European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  14. ^ EWEA Staff (February 2011). "EWEA Annual Statistics 2010". European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2011-01-31. 
  15. ^ EWEA Staff (February 2012). "EWEA Annual Statistics 2011". European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2011-02-18. 
  16. ^ Wind in power: 2012 European statistics February 2013
  17. ^ Renewables 2014 Global Status Report, page 29
  18. ^ Sustainable bioliquids 2011
  19. ^ Renewables 2014 Global Status Report, page 35+37
  20. ^ World carbon dioxide emissions data by country: China speeds ahead of the rest Guardian 31 January 2011
  21. ^ world carbon dioxide emissions country data co2 Guardian 31 January 2011