Energy in Turkey

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Location of Turkey
Wind farm in Turkey

Energy in Turkey describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Turkey. Energy policy of Turkey describes the energy policy in the politics of Turkey more in detail. Turkey imports most of its energy. Primary energy use in Turkey was 1,146 TWh and 16 TWh/million persons in 2008.[1]

Primary energy use in 2009 in Turkey was 1,136 TWh and 16 TWh per million persons [1] with most of the energy resources in the east and most demand in the west. [2]

Overview[edit]

Energy in Turkey[3]
Capita Prim. energy Production Import Electricity CO2-emission
Million TWh TWh TWh TWh Mt
2004 71.79 952 280 677 127 209
2007 73.90 1163 317 881 163 265
2008 71.08 1146 337 843 171 264
2009 71.90 1,136 352 817 165 256
2012 73.95 1,308 373 932 198 286
Change 2004-2009 0.2 % 19.2 % 25.6 % 20.7 % 30.2 % 22.4 %
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh, Prim. energy includes energy losses

Sources[edit]

Coal[edit]

Turkey produces a lot of lignite. "Lignite power stations churn out large amounts of carbon dioxide, with a comparably low level of efficiency." [4] New coal fired power stations are being built despite the environmental impact of the coal industry.

Gas[edit]

Currently most gas comes from Russia via the Blue Stream pipeline because Iranian gas, which comes through the Tabriz–Ankara pipeline, is more expensive (as of 1st quarter 2014). Azerbaijan supplies Turkey through the South Caucasus Pipeline and may supply more in future through the Trans-Anatolian gas pipeline, currently under construction. Iraq may also supply gas in future, through the Southern Gas Corridor. [5]

In 2012, Turkey paid Azerbaijan $330 for every thousand cubic meters of gas imported and $400 to Russia for the same quantity. Iran, however, sold its gas to Turkey at $505 per thousand cubic meters. [6]

Also some gas is imported as LNG.

At the moment only a small proportion of gas imports are re-exported to the EU. However, if a lower price can be agreed with Iran and sanctions are removed permanently, Turkey would like to buy more from them and re-export more, via the proposed Iran-Turkey-Europe (ITE) pipeline. [7]

Nuclear[edit]

Nuclear energy in Turkey

Renewable energy[edit]

Hydroelectricity in Turkey is the largest renewable source of electricity however solar power looks likely to increase rapidly. Wind power in Turkey is mainly in the west.

EU and Turkey Wind Energy Capacity (MW)[8][9][10][11]
No Country 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998
- EU-27 105,696 93,957 84,074 74,767 64,712 56,517 48,069 40,511 34,383 28,599 23,159 17,315 12,887 9,678 6,453
28 Turkey 2,312 1,691 1,329 801 458

Geothermal power in Turkey is used mainly for heating.

By massively increasing production of solar power in the south and wind power in the west Turkey could meet its entire predicted 2020 energy demand from renewable sources. [12]

Conservation[edit]

According to the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Turkey has the potential to cut 15 to 20 percent of total consumption through energy conservation. [13]

Storage[edit]

With the increase in electricity generated by solar panels storage may become more important.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b IEA Key energy statistics 2010 Page: Country specific indicator numbers from page 48
  2. ^ "Turkey's energy min: Nuclear power improves diversification plan". 
  3. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2006 IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
  4. ^ "Coal in our Energy Mix". 
  5. ^ "Azerbaijan offers Iraq access to Europe gas pipelines". Agence France Presse. 
  6. ^ "Turkey seeks to build Iran pipeline amid uncertain environment". Zaman. 
  7. ^ "Turkey seeks to build Iran pipeline amid uncertain environment". Zaman. 
  8. ^ EWEA Staff (2010). "Cumulative installed capacity per EU Member State 1998 - 2009 (MW)". European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  9. ^ EWEA Staff (February 2011). "EWEA Annual Statistics 2010". European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2011-01-31. 
  10. ^ EWEA Staff (February 2012). "EWEA Annual Statistics 2011". European Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 2011-02-18. 
  11. ^ Wind in power: 2012 European statistics February 2013
  12. ^ "How is 100% Renewable Energy Possible for Turkey by 2020?". Global Energy Network Institute. 
  13. ^ "Turkey Promotes Energy Conservation".