Energy in the Middle East

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Energy in the Middle East describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in the Middle East. Energy policy of the Middle East will describe the politics of the Middle East related to energy more in detail.

Primary energy use[edit]

Primary energy in the Middle East 2008[1]
# TWh Capita Capita growth
2004-2008
TWh/million
1 Iran 2,350 71.96 7.4% 33
2 Saudi Arabia 1,879 24.65 2.9% 76
3 Turkey 1,146 71.08 -1.0 % 16
4 Egypt 822 81.53 12.2% 10
5 United Arab Emirates 680 4.48 3.7% 152
6 Iraq 395 28.22 11.2% 14
7 Kuwait 306 2.73 11.0 % 112
8 Qatar 281 1.28 64.1 % 219
9 Israel 256 17.31 7.5% 15
10 Syria 229 21,23 14.3 % 11
11 Oman 191 2.79 10.3% 69
12 Bahrain 107 0.77 6.9 % 139
13 Yemen 87 23.05 13.4% 4
14 Jordan 82 5.91 8.6% 14
15 Lebanon 61 4.14 16.9 % 15
16 Cyprus 30 0.80 -3.6 % 38
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh. Prim. energy includes energy losses

Energy export[edit]

Energy export from the Middle East in 2010 [2]
# TWh  %
1 Saudi Arabia 4,551 37.2%
2 Qatar 1,748 14.3%
3 Iran 1,574 12.9%
4 Kuwait 1,159 9.5%
5 United Arab Emirates 1,129 9.2%
6 Iraq 1,017 8.3%
7 Oman 617 5.0%
8 Egypt 164 1.3%
9 Yemen 139 1.1%
10 Bahrain 79 0.6%
11 Syria 51 0.4%
Total: Middle East 12,228 100%

Energy export from the Middle East in 2010 was 12,228 TWh. The major exporters were Saudi Arabia 37.2%, Qatar 14.3% and Iran 12.9%.[2]

Oil[edit]

In 2009 the largest share of oil production was in the Middle East (24 million barrels daily, or 31 per cent of global production. According to Transparency International based on BP data regionally the largest share of proved oil reserves is in the Middle East (754 billion barrels, constituting 51 per cent of global reserves including oil sands and 57 per cent excluding them). According to BP of the world oil reserves were in Saudi Arabia 18%, Iran 9%, Iraq 8%, Kuwait 7% and UAE 7%.[3]

Natural gas[edit]

Middle Eastern countries possess about 40 per cent of natural gas reserves. According to BP in 2009 of the proved gas reserves were in Iran 16% and Qatar 14%.[3]

Business[edit]

Major energy companies in the Middle East include Saudi Aramco, Qatar Petroleum, Kuwait Petroleum Corporation KPC and National Iranian Oil Company NIOC.

Climate change[edit]

Middle East countries include top carbon dioxide emitters per capita: World dirty top countries were in 2009 (tonnes/capita): 1) Gibraltar 152, 2) Virgin Islands U,S 114, 3) Qatar 80, 4) Netherlands Antilles 51, 5) Bahrain 43. 6) United Arab Emirates 40, 7) Trinidad and Tobago 39, Singapore 34 and Kuwait 32.[4] All emissions from building and cement production are local but some people may argue that some United Arab Emirates produced fuels and/or goods are consumed abroad.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IEA Key energy statistics 2010 Page: Country specific indicator numbers from page 48
  2. ^ a b IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2012, Country specific indicator numbers from page 48
  3. ^ a b 2011 report on oil and gas companies, Promoting revenue Transparency Transparency International 2011 pages 113-115
  4. ^ World carbon dioxide emissions data by country: China speeds ahead of the rest Guardian 31 January 2011
  5. ^ Which nations are most responsible for climate change? Guardian 21 April 2011

See also[edit]