Energy policy of India
The energy policy of India is largely defined by the country's burgeoning energy deficit and increased focus on developing alternative sources of energy, particularly nuclear, solar and wind energy.
The energy consumption in India is the fourth biggest after China, USA and Russia. The total primary energy consumption from crude oil (29.45%), natural gas (7.7%), coal (54.5%), nuclear energy (1.26%), hydro electricity (5.0%), wind power, biomass electricity and solar power is 595 Mtoe in the year 2013. In the year 2013, India's net imports are nearly 144.3 million tons of crude oil, 16 Mtoe of LNG and 95 Mtoe coal totalling to 255.3 Mtoe of primary energy which is equal to 42.9% of total primary energy consumption. About 70% of India's electricity generation capacity is from fossil fuels, with coal accounting for 40% of India's total energy consumption followed by crude oil and natural gas at 28% and 6% respectively. India is largely dependent on fossil fuel imports to meet its energy demands — by 2030, India's dependence on energy imports is expected to exceed 53% of the country's total energy consumption. In 2009-10, the country imported 159.26 million tonnes of crude oil which amounts to 80% of its domestic crude oil consumption and 31% of the country's total imports are oil imports. The growth of electricity generation in India has been hindered by domestic coal shortages and as a consequence, India's coal imports for electricity generation increased by 18% in 2010.
Due to rapid economic expansion, India has one of the world's fastest growing energy markets and is expected to be the second-largest contributor to the increase in global energy demand by 2035, accounting for 18% of the rise in global energy consumption. Given India's growing energy demands and limited domestic fossil fuel reserves, the country has ambitious plans to expand its renewable and nuclear power industries. India has the world's fifth largest wind power market and plans to add about 20GW of solar power capacity by 2022. India also envisages to increase the contribution of nuclear power to overall electricity generation capacity from 4.2% to 9% within 25 years. The country has five nuclear reactors under construction (third highest in the world) and plans to construct 18 additional nuclear reactors (second highest in the world) by 2025.
- 1 Power Generation capacity in India
- 2 Energy conservation
- 3 Rural electrification
- 4 Oil and Gas
- 5 Coal
- 6 Bio-fuels
- 7 Hydrogen energy
- 8 Nuclear power
- 9 Hydro electricity
- 10 Wind power
- 11 Solar energy
- 12 Policy framework
- 13 Electricity trading with neighbouring countries
- 14 Electricity as substitute to imported LPG and Kerosene
- 15 See also
- 16 External links
- 17 References
Power Generation capacity in India
Total installed Power generation Capacity (June 2014)
|Source||Total Capacity (MW)||Percentage|
|Renewable energy source||31,692.14||12.70|
|Sector||Total Capacity (MW)||Percentage|
Energy conservation has emerged as a major policy objective, and the Energy Conservation Act 2001, was passed by the Indian Parliament in September 2001, 35.5% of the population still live without access to electricity. This Act requires large energy consumers to adhere to energy consumption norms; new buildings to follow the Energy Conservation Building Code; and appliances to meet energy performance standards and to display energy consumption labels. The Act also created the Bureau of Energy Efficiency to implement the provisions of the Act.
- The key development objectives of the power sector is supply of electricity to all areas including rural areas as mandated in section 6 of the Electricity Act. Both the central government and state governments would jointly endeavour to achieve this objective at the earliest. Consumers, particularly those who are ready to pay a tariff which reflects efficient costs have the right to get uninterrupted twenty four hours supply of quality power. About 56% of rural households have not yet been electrified even though many of these households are willing to pay for electricity. Determined efforts should be made to ensure that the task of rural electrification for securing electricity access to all households and also ensuring that electricity reaches poor and marginal sections of the society at reasonable rates is completed within the next five years. India is using Renewable Sources of Energy like Hydel Energy, Wind Energy, and Solar Energy to electrify villages.
- Reliable rural electrification system will aim at creating the following:
- Rural Electrification Distribution Backbone (REDB) with at least one 33/11 kv (or 66/11 kv) substation in every Block and more if required as per load, networked and connected appropriately to the state transmission system
- Emanating from REDB would be supply feeders and one distribution transformer at least in every village settlement.
- Household Electrification from distribution transformer to connect every household on demand.
- Wherever above is not feasible (it is neither cost effective nor the optimal solution to provide grid connectivity) decentralised distributed generation facilities together with local distribution network would be provided so that every household gets access to electricity. This would be done either through conventional or non-conventional methods of electricity generation whichever is more suitable and economical. Non-conventional sources of energy could be utilised even where grid connectivity exists provided it is found to be cost effective.
- Development of infrastructure would also cater for requirement of agriculture & other economic activities including irrigation pump sets, small and medium industries, khadi and village industries, cold chain and social services like health and education.
- Particular attention would be given in household electrification to dalit bastis, tribal areas and other weaker sections.
- Rural Electrification Corporation of India, a Government of India enterprise will be the nodal agency at Central Government level to implement the programme for achieving the goal set by National Common Minimum Programme of giving access to electricity to all the households in next five years. Its role is being suitably enlarged to ensure timely implementation of rural electrification projects.
- Targeted expansion in access to electricity for rural households in the desired timeframe can be achieved if the distribution licensees recover at least the cost of electricity and related O&M expenses from consumers, except for lifeline support to households below the poverty line who would need to be adequately subsidised. Subsidies should be properly targeted at the intended beneficiaries in the most efficient manner. Government recognises the need for providing necessary capital subsidy and soft long-term debt finances for investment in rural electrification as this would reduce the cost of supply in rural areas. Adequate funds would need to be made available for the same through the Plan process. Also commensurate organisational support would need to be created for timely implementation. The Central Government would assist the State Governments in achieving this.
- Necessary institutional framework would need to be put in place not only to ensure creation of rural electrification infrastructure but also to operate and maintain supply system for securing reliable power supply to consumers. Responsibility of operation & maintenance and cost recovery could be discharged by utilities through appropriate arrangements with Panchayats, local authorities, NGOs and other franchisees etc.
- The gigantic task of rural electrification requires appropriate cooperation among various agencies of the State Governments, Central Government and participation of the community. Education and awareness programmes would be essential for creating demand for electricity and for achieving the objective of effective community participation.
The electricity industry was restructured by the Electricity Act 2003, which unbundled the vertically integrated electricity supply utilities in each state of India into a transmission utility, and a number of generating and distribution utilities. Electricity Regulatory Commissions in each state set tariffs for electricity sales. The Act also enables open access on the transmission system, allowing any consumer (with a load of greater than 1 MW) to buy electricity from any generator. Significantly, it also requires each Regulatory Commission to specify the minimum percentage of electricity that each distribution utility must source from renewable energy sources.
The introduction of Availability based tariff has brought about stability to a great extent in the Indian transmission grids. A report in 2005 suggested that there was room for improvement in terms of the efficiency of electricity generation in India, and suggested that two factors possibly responsible for the inefficiency were public ownership of utilities and low capacity utilisation.
Rural Electrification Status
|Rural Electrification rates||N.o of states and UTs||Remarks |
|99%||4||electrification %, un-electrified villages: Gujarat (99.8%, 35), Maharashtra (99.9%, 36), Himachal Pradesh (99.9%, 15), West Bengal (99.99%, 4)|
|+95%||7||Assam (96.1%), Bihar (97%), Chhattisgarh (97.4%), Rajasthan (97.6%), Madhya Pradesh (97.7%), Jammu & Kashmir (98.2%), Uttaranchal (98.9%)|
|+90%||2||Tripura (92.9%), Mizoram (93.5%)|
|+80%||5||Orissa (81.9%), Meghalaya (86.3%), Manipur (86.3%), Uttar Pradesh (88.9%), Jharkhand (89.2%)|
|Under 80%||3||Andaman & Nicobar (67.7%), Nagaland (70.1%), Arunachal Pradesh (75.5%)|
Oil and Gas
India imports nearly 75% of its 4.3 million barrels per day crude oil needs but exports nearly 1.25 million barrels per day of refined petroleum products which is nearly 30% of its total production of refined oil products. India has built surplus world class refining capacity using imported crude oil for exporting refined petroleum products . The net imports of crude oil is lesser by one fourth after accounting exports and imports of refined petroleum products.
During the financial year 2012-13, the production of crude oil is 37.86 million tons and 40,679 million standard cubic meters (nearly 26.85 million tons) natural gas. The net import of crude oil & petroleum products is 146.70 million tons worth of Rs 5611.40 billions. This includes 9.534 million tons of LNG imports worth of Rs. 282.15 billions. Internationally, LNG price (> 16 US$ per mmBtu) is fixed below crude oil price in terms of heating value. LNG is slowly gaining its role as direct use fuel in road and marine transport without regasification. In the year 2012-13, India consumed 15.744 million tons petrol and 69.179 million tons diesel which are mainly produced from imported crude oil at huge foreign exchange out go. Use of natural gas for heating, cooking and electricity generation is not economical as more and more locally produced natural gas will be converted in to LNG for use in transport sector to reduce crude oil imports. In addition to the conventional natural gas production, coal gasification, coal bed methane, coal mine methane and Biogas digesters / Renewable natural gas will also become source of LNG forming decentralised base for production of LNG to cater to the widely distributed demand. There is possibility to convert most of the heavy duty vehicles (including diesel driven rail engines) in to LNG fuelled vehicles to reduce diesel consumption drastically with operational cost and least pollution benefits.
The state-owned Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) acquired shares in oil fields in countries like Sudan, Syria, Iran, and Nigeria – investments that have led to diplomatic tensions with the United States. Because of political instability in the Middle East and increasing domestic demand for energy, India is keen on decreasing its dependency on OPEC to meet its oil demand, and increasing its energy security. Several Indian oil companies, primarily led by ONGC and Reliance Industries, have started a massive hunt for oil in several regions in India including Rajasthan, Krishna-Godavari and north-eastern Himalayas. The proposed Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline is a part of India's plan to meet its increasing energy demand.
India has the world's 4th largest coal reserves. In India, coal is the bulk of primary energy contributor with 54.5% share out of the total 595 Mtoe in the year 2013. India is the third top coal producer in 2013 with 7.6% production share of coal (including lignite) in the world. Top five hard and brown coal producing countries in 2013 (2012) are (million tons): China 3,680 (3,645), United States 893 (922), India 605 (607), Australia 478 (453) and Indonesia 421 (386). However, India ranks fifth in global coal production at 228 mtoe (5.9%) in the year 2013 when its inferior quality coal tonnage is converted in to tons of oil equivalent. Coal-fired power plants account for 59% of India's installed electricity capacity. After electricity sector, coal is also used for cement production in substantial quantity. In the year 2013, India imported nearly 95 Mtoe of steam coal and coking coal which is 29% of total consumption to meet the demand in electricity, cement and steel production.
Gasification of coal or lignite produces syngas or coal gas which is a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide gases. Coal gas can be converted in to synthetic natural gas by using Fischer–Tropsch process at low pressure and high temperature. Coal gas can also be produced by underground coal gasification where the coal deposits are located deep in the ground or uneconomical to mine the coal. CNG and LNG are emerging as economical alternatives to diesel oil with the escalation in international crude oil prices. Synthetic natural gas production technologies have tremendous scope to meet the transport sector requirements fully using the locally available coal in India. Dankuni coal complex is producing syngas which is piped to the industrial users in Calcutta. Many coal based fertiliser plants which are shut down can also be retrofitted economically to produce synthetic natural gas as LNG and CNG fetch good price by substituting imports.
The former President of India, Dr. Abdul Kalam, is one of the strong advocaters of Jatropha cultivation for production of bio-diesel. In his recent speech, the Former President said that out of the 6,00,000 km² of waste land that is available in India over 3,00,000 km² is suitable for Jatropha cultivation. Once this plant is grown, it has a useful lifespan of several decades. During its life Jatropha requires very little water when compared to other cash crops. A plan for supplying incentives to encourage the use of Jatropha has been coloured with green stripes.
Gasification of bio mass yields wood gas or syngas which can be converted in to natural gas by Methanation. Nearly 750 million tons of non edible (by cattle) biomass is available annually in India which can be put to higher value addition use and substitute imported crude oil, coal, LNG, urea fertiliser, etc. It is estimated that renewable and carbon neutral biomass resources of India can replace present consumption of all fossil fuels when used productively.
Hydrogen Energy programme started in India after joining the IPHE (International Partnership for Hydrogen Economy) in the year 2003. There are nineteen other countries including Australia, USA, UK, Japan. This global partnership helps India to set up commercial use of Hydrogen gas as an energy source. This will implemented through Public Private Partnership.
India boasts a quickly advancing and active nuclear power programme. It is expected to have 20 GW of nuclear capacity by 2020, though they currently stand as the 9th in the world in terms of nuclear capacity.
An achilles heel of the Indian nuclear power programme, however, is the fact that they are not signatories of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. This has many times in their history prevented them from obtaining nuclear technology vital to expanding their use of nuclear industry. Another consequence of this is that much of their programme has been domestically developed, much like their nuclear weapons programme. United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act seems to be a way to get access to advanced nuclear technologies for India.
India has been using imported enriched uranium and are under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, but it has developed various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle to support its reactors. Development of select technologies has been strongly affected by limited imports. Use of heavy water reactors has been particularly attractive for the nation because it allows Uranium to be burnt with little to no enrichment capabilities. India has also done a great amount of work in the development of a Thorium centred fuel cycle. While Uranium deposits in the nation are extremely limited, there are much greater reserves of Thorium and it could provide hundreds of times the energy with the same mass of fuel. The fact that Thorium can theoretically be utilised in heavy water reactors has tied the development of the two. A prototype reactor that would burn Uranium-Plutonium fuel while irradiating a Thorium blanket is under construction at the Madras/Kalpakkam Atomic Power Station.
Uranium used for the weapons programme has been separate from the power programme, using Uranium from scant indigenous reserves.
India is endowed with economically exploitable and viable hydro potential assessed to be about 84,000 MW at 60% capacity factor. In addition, 6,780 MW in terms of installed capacity from Small, Mini, and Micro Hydel schemes have been assessed. Also, 56 sites for pumped storage schemes with an aggregate installed capacity of 94,000 MW have been identified for catering to peak electricity demand and water pumping for irrigation needs. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy. The hydro-electric potential of India ranks 5th in terms of exploitable hydro-potential on global scenario.
The installed capacity of hydro power is 40,730 MW as of June, 2014. India ranks sixth in hydro electricity generation globally after China, Canada, Brazil, USA and Russia in the year 2013. During the year 2013, the total hydro electricity generation in India is 132 billion KWh which works out to 25,000 MW at 60% capacity factor. Till now, hydroelectricity sector is dominated by the state and central government owned companies but this sector is going to grow faster with the participation of private sector for developing the hydro potential located in the Himalaya mountain ranges including north east of India. However the hydro power potential in central India forming part of Godavari, Mahanadi and Narmada river basins has not yet been developed on major scale due to potential opposition from the tribal population.
Pumped storage schemes are perfect centralised peaking power stations for the load management in the electricity grid. Pumped storage schemes would be in high demand for meeting peak load demand and storing the surplus electricity as India graduates from electricity deficit to electricity surplus. They also produce secondary /seasonal power at no additional cost when rivers are flooding with excess water. Storing electricity by other alternative systems such as batteries, compressed air storage systems, etc is more costlier than electricity production by standby generator. India has already established nearly 6800 MW pumped storage capacity which is part of its installed hydro power plants.
India has the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the world. As of 31 March 2014, the installed capacity of wind power was 21136.3 MW. Wind power accounts nearly 8.5% of India's total installed power generation capacity, and it generates 1.6% of the country's power. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) of India has announced a revised estimation of the potential wind power resource from 49,130 MW assessed at 50m Hub heights to 102,788 MW assessed at 80m Hub height at 15% capacity factor.
India's theoretical solar potential is about 5000 T kWh per year (i.e. ~ 600 TW), far more than its current total consumption. India's long-term solar potential could be unparalleled in the world because it has the ideal combination of both high solar insolation and a big potential consumer base density. With a major section of its citizens still surviving off-grid, India's grid system is considerably under-developed. Availability of cheap solar can bring electricity to people, and bypass the need of installation of expensive grid lines. Also a major factor influencing a region's energy intensity is the cost of energy consumed for temperature control. Since cooling load requirements are roughly in phase with the sun's intensity, cooling from intense solar radiation could make perfect energy-economic sense in the subcontinent, whenever the required technology becomes competitively cheaper.
Installation of solar power plants require nearly 2.4 hectares (6 acres) land per MW capacity which is similar to coal fired power plants when life cycle coal mining, consumptive water storage & ash disposal areas are also accounted and hydro power plants when submergence area of water reservoir is also accounted. 1.33 million MW capacity solar plants can be installed in India on its 1% land (32,000 square km). There are vast tracts of land suitable for solar power in all parts of India exceeding 8% of its total area which are unproductive barren and devoid of vegetation. Part of waste lands (32,000 square km) when installed with solar power plants can produce 2000 billion Kwh of electricity (two times the total generation in the year 2013-14) with land productivity/yield of 1.5 million Rs per acre (6 Rs/kwh price) which is at par with many industrial areas and many times more than the best productive irrigated agriculture lands. Moreover these solar power units are not dependent on supply of any raw material and are self productive. There is unlimited scope for solar electricity to replace all fossil fuel energy requirements (natural gas, coal, lignite and crude oil) if all the marginally productive lands are occupied by solar power plants in future. The solar power potential of India can meet perennially to cater per capita energy consumption at par with USA/Japan for the peak population in its demographic transition.
Synergy with irrigation water pumping and hydro power stations
The major disadvantage of solar power (PV type) is that it can not produce electricity during the night time and cloudy day time also. In India, this disadvantage can be overcome by installing pumped-storage hydroelectricity stations. Ultimate electricity requirement for river water pumping (excluding ground water pumping) is 570 billion Kwh to pump one cubic meter of water for each square meter area by 125 m height on average for irrigating 140 million hectares of net sown area (42% of total land) for three crops in a year. This is achieved by utilising all the usable river waters by interlinking Indian rivers. These river water pumping stations would also be envisaged with pumped-storage hydroelectricity features to generate electricity during the night time. These pumped-storage stations would work at 200% water pumping requirement during the day time and generate electricity at 50% of total capacity during the night time. Also, all existing and future hydro power stations can be expanded with additional pumped-storage hydroelectricity units to cater night time electricity consumption. Most of the ground water pumping power can be met directly by solar power.
Electricity driven vehicles
The retail prices of petrol and diesel are high in India to make electricity driven vehicles more economical as more and more electricity is generated from solar energy in near future without appreciable environmental effects. During the year 2013, many IPPs offered to sell solar power below 6.50 Rs/Kwh to feed in to the low voltage (< 33 KV) grid. This price is below the affordable electricity retail tariff for the solar power to replace petrol and diesel use in transport sector.
The retail price of diesel is 53.00 Rs/litre in the year 2012-13. The affordable electricity retail price (860 Kcal/Kwh at 75% input electricity to shaft power efficiency) to replace diesel (lower heating value 8572 Kcal/litre at 40% fuel energy to crank shaft efficiency) is 9.97 Rs/Kwh. The retail price of petrol is 75.00 Rs/litre in the year 2012-13. The affordable electricity retail price (860 Kcal/Kwh at 75% input electricity to shaft power efficiency) to replace petrol (lower heating value 7693 Kcal/litre at 33% fuel energy to crank shaft efficiency) is 19.06 Rs/Kwh. In the year 2012-13, India consumed 15.744 million tons petrol and 69.179 million tons diesel which are mainly produced from imported crude oil at huge foreign exchange out go.
V2G is also feasible with electricity driven vehicles to contribute for catering to the peak load in the electricity grid. The electricity driven vehicles would become popular in future when its energy storage / battery technology becomes more long lasting and maintenance free.
In general, India's strategy is the encouragement of the development of renewable sources of energy by the use of incentives by the federal and state governments. Other examples of encouragement by incentive include the use of nuclear energy (India Nuclear Cooperation Promotion Act), promoting windfarms such as Muppandal, and solar energy (Ralegaon Siddhi).
A long-term energy policy perspective is provided by the Integrated Energy Policy Report 2006 which provides policy guidance on energy-sector growth. Increasing energy consumption associated primarily with activities in transport, mining, and manufacturing in India needs rethinking India's energy production.
Electricity trading with neighbouring countries
The per capita electricity consumption is low compared to many countries despite cheaper electricity tariff in India. Despite low electricity per capita consumption in India, the country is going to achieve surplus electricity generation during the 12th plan (2012 to 2017) period provided its coal production and transport infrastructure is developed adequately. Surplus electricity can be exported to the neighbouring countries in return for natural gas supplies from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar.
Bangladesh, Myanmar and Pakistan are producing substantial natural gas and using for electricity generation purpose. Bangladesh, Myanmar and Pakistan produce 55 million cubic metres per day (mcmd), 9 mcmd and 118 mcmd out of which 20 mcmd, 1.4 mcmd and 34 mcmd are consumed for electricity generation respectively. Whereas the natural gas production in India is not even adequate to meet its non-electricity requirements.
Bangladesh, Myanmar and Pakistan have proven reserves of 184 billion cubic metres (bcm), 283 bcm and 754 bcm respectively. There is ample opportunity for mutually beneficial trading in energy resources with these countries. India can supply its surplus electricity to Pakistan and Bangladesh in return for the natural gas imports by gas pipe lines. Similarly India can develop on BOOT basis hydro power projects in Nepal, Myanmar and Bhutan. India can also enter into long term power purchase agreements with China for developing the hydro power potential in Brahmaputra river basin of Tibet region. India can also supply its surplus electricity to Sri Lanka by undersea cable link. There is ample trading synergy for India with its neighbouring countries in securing its energy requirements.
Electricity as substitute to imported LPG and Kerosene
The net import of LPG is 6.093 million tons and the domestic consumption is 13.568 million tons with Rs. 41,546 crores subsidy to the domestic consumers in the year 2012-13. The LPG import content is nearly 40% of total consumption in India. The affordable electricity retail price (860 Kcal/Kwh at 90% heating efficiency) to replace LPG (lower heating value 11,000 Kcal/Kg at 75% heating efficiency) in domestic cooking is 6.47 Rs/Kwh when the retail price of LPG cylinder is Rs 1000 (without subsidy) with 14.2 kg LPG content. Replacing LPG consumption with electricity reduces its imports substantially.
The domestic consumption of Kerosene is 7.349 million tons with Rs. 30,151 crores subsidy to the domestic consumers in the year 2012-13. The subsidised retail price of Kerosene is 13.69 Rs/litre whereas the export/import price is 48.00 Rs/litre. The affordable electricity retail price(860 Kcal/Kwh at 90% heating efficiency) to replace Kerosene (lower heating value 8240 Kcal/litre at 75% heating efficiency) in domestic cooking is 6.00 Rs/Kwh when Kerosene retail price is 48 Rs/litre (without subsidy).
During the year 2013-14, The plant load factor (PLF) of coal fired thermal power stations is only 65.43% whereas these stations can run above 85% PLF comfortably provided there is adequate electricity demand in the country. The additional electricity generation at 85% PLF is nearly 240 billion units which is adequate to replace all the LPG and Kerosene consumption in domestic sector. The incremental cost of generating additional electricity is only their coal fuel cost which is less than 3 Rs/Kwh. Enhancing the PLF of coal fired stations and encouraging domestic electricity consumers to substitute electricity in place of LPG and Kerosene in household cooking, would reduce the government subsidies and idle capacity of thermal power stations can be put to use economically. The domestic consumers who are willing to surrender the subsidised LPG / Kerosene permits or eligible for subsidised LPG / Kerosene permits, may be given free electricity connection and subsidised electricity tariff.
During the year 2014, IPPs are offering to sell solar power below 5.50 Rs/Kwh to feed in to the high voltage grid. This price is below the affordable electricity tariff for the solar power to replace LPG and Kerosene use (after including subsidy on LPG & Kerosene) in domestic sector. Two wheelers and three wheelers consume 62% and 6% of petrol respectively in India. The saved LPG replaced by electricity in domestic sector can be used by two and three wheelers with operational cost and least pollution benefits. Solar electricity price is going to become the benchmark price for deciding the other fuel (Petroleum products, LNG, CNG, LPG, coal, lignite, biomass, etc.) prices based on their ultimate use and advantages.
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