Enfield, New Hampshire
|Enfield, New Hampshire|
|Grafton County, New Hampshire|
|• Board of Selectmen||John W. Kluge, Chair
B. Fred Cummings
Donald J. Crate, Sr.
|• Total||43.1 sq mi (111.6 km2)|
|• Land||40.2 sq mi (104.2 km2)|
|• Water||2.8 sq mi (7.4 km2) 6.61%|
|Elevation||778 ft (237 m)|
|• Density||110/sq mi (41/km2)|
|Time zone||Eastern (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||0873590|
Enfield is a town in Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 4,582 at the 2010 census. The town includes the villages of Enfield, Enfield Center, Upper Shaker Village, Lower Shaker Village, Lockehaven, and Montcalm.
The primary settlement in town, where 1,540 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined as the Enfield census-designated place (CDP) and includes the main village of Enfield, centered around U.S. Route 4 and the inlet of the Mascoma River into Mascoma Lake.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2012)|
The town was incorporated in 1761 by Colonial Governor Benning Wentworth. First named Enfield by settlers from Enfield, Connecticut, the town was renamed Relhan in 1766 to honor Dr. Anthony Relhan (ca. 1715-1776). The doctor was a promoter of sea-bathing as a curative, making Brighton, England, a fashionable resort. Following the American Revolution, the New Hampshire town was renamed Enfield in 1784.
On the southwest shore of Mascoma Lake is Enfield Shaker Village, once a utopian religious community of Shakers, renowned for simple and functional architecture and furniture. Established in 1793 and called Chosen Vale, the village was subdivided into several "Families", with men and women leading pious, celibate and industrious lives. Although the genders shared dormitories, like Enfield's Great Stone Dwelling built between 1837 and 1841, the sexes used separate doors and stairways. They practiced ecstatic singing and dancing, an expression of their worship, which earned them the appellation: Shaking Quakers, or Shakers.
Several trades operated at the village, from agriculture and packaging of seeds, to manufacture of brooms, brushes, spinning-wheels, and furniture. To speed delivery of products to the railroad across Mascoma Lake, in 1849 the community erected Shaker Bridge.
The Shaker movement crested in the 1840s, with 19 "societies" scattered from Maine to Kentucky and west to Indiana. But growing employment opportunities created by the Industrial Revolution, as near as the mill town of Lebanon, enticed away potential and practicing church members. Others grew disaffected with celibacy, self-abnegation, and communal ownership of property. Indeed, Mary Marshall Dyer, once a member of the Enfield church, became an outspoken Anti-Shaker. Eventually the village would close and, in 1927, be sold to the La Salette Brotherhood of Montreal, a Catholic order noted for its Christmas display. In 1986, Enfield Shaker Village was established as a museum.
Centre Village Meeting House in 1909
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 43.1 square miles (112 km2), of which 40.2 sq mi (104 km2) is land and 2.8 sq mi (7.3 km2) is water, comprising 6.61% of the town. Enfield is drained by the Mascoma River. Mascoma Lake, in the west, represents Enfield's lowest elevation at 751 feet (229 m) above sea level. The highest elevation is over 2,100 ft (640 m) at the summit of Prospect Hill, overlooking Halfmile Pond. Crystal Lake is in the east. Enfield lies fully within the Connecticut River watershed.
The village area of the town, defined as a census-designated place (CDP), has a total area of 2.3 square miles (6.0 km2), of which 0.1 sq mi (0.26 km2) (2.55%) is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 4,618 people, 1,975 households, and 1,291 families residing in the town. The population density was 114.7 people per square mile (44.3/km²). There were 2,372 housing units at an average density of 22.8 persons/km² (58.9 persons/sq mi). The racial makeup of the town was 97.94% White, 0.15% African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.74% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, and 0.89% from two or more races. 0.74% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 1,975 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.1% were married couples living together, 7.5% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 34.6% were non-families. 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.78.
In the town the population was spread out with 21.8% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 33.6% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $47,990, and the median income for a family was $53,631. Males had a median income of $33,139 versus $27,177 for females. The per capita income for the town was $23,054. 5.0% of the population and 3.2% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 4.3% are under the age of 18 and 5.6% are 65 or older.
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,698 people, 757 households, and 449 families residing in the central settlement, or CDP. The population density was 742.9 people per square mile (286.3/km²). There were 792 housing units at an average density of 133.5 persons/km² (346.5 persons/sq mi). The racial makeup of the town was 97.76% White, 0.18% African American, 0.12% Native American, 1.06% Asian, 0.18% from other races, and 0.71% from two or more races. 0.94% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 757 households out of which 27.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 10.4% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 40.6% were non-families. 32.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.79.
In the CDP the population was spread out with 22.4% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, and 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 87.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males.
The median income for a household is $35,595, and the median income for a family was $46,198. Males had a median income of $36,000 versus $28,365 for females. The per capita income for the town was $19,963. 7.2% of the population and 6.1% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 5.8% are under the age of 18 and 8.2% are 65 or older.
Sites of interest
- Robert O. Blood, physician and the 65th governor of New Hampshire
- Jacob Cochran, preacher
- William Goodhue Perley, businessman and member of the Canadian House of Commons
- Stan Williams, pitcher with six MLB teams
- United States Census Bureau, American FactFinder, 2010 Census figures. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
- Coolidge, Austin J.; John B. Mansfield (1859). A History and Description of New England. Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 484–485.
- "New Hampshire Search Roots". History of Enfield, Grafton County, New Hampshire. Retrieved 2007-01-02.
- Foster, Debra H.; Batorfalvy, Tatianna N.; and Medalie, Laura (1995). Water Use in New Hampshire: An Activities Guide for Teachers. U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.
- Town of Enfield official website
- Enfield Public Library
- New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau Profile