Enflurane

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Enflurane
Enflurane.svg
Enflurane-3D-balls.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(RS)-2-chloro-1-(difluoromethoxy)-1,1,2-trifluoro-ethane
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com Micromedex Detailed Consumer Information
Legal status
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Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 97%
Identifiers
CAS number 13838-16-9 YesY
ATC code N01AB04
PubChem CID 3226
DrugBank DB00228
ChemSpider 3113 YesY
UNII 91I69L5AY5 YesY
KEGG D00543 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:4792 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL1257 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C3H2ClF5O 
Mol. mass 184.492 g/mol
 YesY (what is this?)  (verify)

Enflurane (2-chloro-1,1,2,-trifluoroethyl-difluoromethyl ether) is a halogenated ether. Developed by Ross Terrell in 1963, it was first used clinically in 1966. It was increasingly used for inhalational anesthesia during the 1970s and 1980s[1] but is no longer in common use.

Enflurane is a structural isomer of isoflurane. It vaporizes readily, but is a liquid at room temperature.

Physical properties[edit]

Property Value
Boiling point at 1 atm 56.5 °C
MAC 1.68
Vapor pressure at 20 °C 22.9 kPa (172 mm Hg)
Blood:gas partition coefficient 1.9
Oil:gas partition coefficient 98

Side effects[edit]

Clinically, enflurane produces a dose-related depression of myocardial contractility with an associated decrease in myocardial oxygen consumption. Between 2% and 5% of the inhaled dose is oxidised in the liver, producing fluoride ions and difluoromethoxy-difluoroacetic acid. This is significantly higher than the metabolism of its structural isomer isoflurane.

Enflurane also lowers the threshold for seizures, and should especially not be used on people with epilepsy. It is also known to cause malignant hyperthermia.

It relaxes the uterus in pregnant women.

Enflurane and methoxyflurane have a nephrotoxic effect and cause acute renal failure, usually by its nephrotoxic metabolite. [2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Niedermeyer, Ernst; Silva, F. H. Lopes da (2005). Electroencephalography: Basic Principles, Clinical Applications, and Related Fields. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1156. ISBN 978-0-7817-5126-1. 
  2. ^ By G. Edward Morgan, Maged S. Mikhail, Michael J. Murray, C. Philip Larson; Clinical Anaesthesiology third edition,142.