Enforcer (ice hockey)
Enforcer is an unofficial role in ice hockey. The term is sometimes used synonymously with "fighter", "tough guy", or "goon". An enforcer's job is to deter and respond to dirty or violent play by the opposition. When such play occurs, the enforcer is expected to respond aggressively, by fighting or checking the offender. Enforcers are expected to react particularly harshly to violence against star players or goalies.
Enforcers are different from pests, players who seek to agitate opponents and distract them from the game, without necessarily fighting them. The pest's primary role is to draw penalties from opposing players, thus "getting them off their game", while not actually intending to fight the opposition player (although exceptions to this do occur). Pests and enforcers often play together on the same line, usually the fourth line.
National Hockey League 
Presently in the NHL, teams generally do not carry more than one player whose primary role is enforcer. Enforcers can play either forward or defense, although they are most frequently used as wingers on the 4th forward checking line. Prized for their aggression, size, checking ability, and fists, enforcers are typically less gifted at skill areas of the game than their teammates. Enforcers are typically among the lowest scoring players on the team and receive a smaller share of ice time. They are also not highly paid compared to other players, and tend to bounce around from team to team.
Enforcers nevertheless are often among the most popular players on their teams. "The enforcer, sometimes mocked as a goon or euphemized as a tough guy, may be hockey's favorite archetype," wrote John Branch of The New York Times. "Enforcers are seen as working-class superheroes—understated types with an alter ego willing to do the sport's most dangerous work to protect others. And they are underdogs, men who otherwise might have no business in the game."
Some players combine aspects of the enforcer role with strong play in other areas of the game. Tiger Williams, Bob Probert, and Chris Simon are examples of enforcers who showed an occasional scoring flair, with Williams and Probert playing in the midseason All-Star Game. Terry O'Reilly once scored 90 points in a season, being the first player to finish in the top ten regular season scorers while amassing at least 200 penalty minutes, and later became captain of the Boston Bruins.
Sometimes enforcers can do their job by virtue of their reputation. Clark Gillies was among the best fighters in the NHL during his prime, but over time he rarely had to fight because opponents respected and feared him enough that they would not go after his teammates. As well, some skilled players, such as legends Gordie Howe and current NHL all-star Jarome Iginla, are also capable fighters and can function effectively as their own enforcer. A "Gordie Howe hat trick" is a player scoring a goal, assisting on a goal, and being involved in a fight during one game.
Changing role 
The role of the enforcer has diminished since rule enforcement changed following the 2004–05 NHL lockout to increase game speed and scoring. With fighting decreased, teams are less inclined to keep a roster spot available for a one-dimensional fighter who is a liability as a scorer and defender. This has led to a decrease in the number of players whose predominant role is enforcer. Instead, more well-rounded players are expected to contribute aspects of the enforcer role. Intimidation and fighting continues to be utilized as a strategy in the NHL. In the 2007-08 NHL Season fights occurred in 38.46% of the games, up from 33% the season before, which was just below the pre-lockout fighting level of 41.14% of games in the 2003–04 season. The frequency has steadily declined over time, however, from 1.3 fights per game in the late 1980s to 0.5 in 2012. Major penalties for fighting declined by 25% annually in the first half of the 2011-2012 season.
Statistics indicate that fights are detrimental to teams' play, or have inconsequential benefits. Since the 1979-1980 season, teams in the bottom three of fighting-related major penalties have finished at the top of the regular-season standings 10 times and have won the Stanley Cup 11 times, while teams in the top three have won the regular season and Stanley Cup only twice each. One statistical analysis calculated that winning a fight benefited a team by about 1/80th of a win in the standings. Two others showed that fights increase scoring, but does so evenly for both teams so do not significantly affect wins.
Summer 2011 enforcer deaths 
Another possible reason for the decline in fighting and the use of the enforcer role is greater awareness of the risks from head trauma and resulting chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Three NHL enforcers died during the summer of 2011. Derek Boogaard died at the age of 28 from an accidental mixture of painkillers and alcohol. Rick Rypien died at the age of 27 from what was later confirmed as a suicide. Wade Belak was found dead at the age of 35 in his Toronto hotel room in circumstances that caused a newspaper's police source to categorize his death as a suicide. Retired enforcer Georges Laraque has suggested the NHLPA provide counselling to enforcers, but sports journalist and writer Roy Macgregor opines that in light of recent tragic events there should be more done about it, including eliminating the role altogether. New York Times sportswriter John Branch covered Boogaard's death and the epidemic of chronic traumatic encephalopathy that has come as a result of frequent head trauma sustained by hockey enforcers.
See also 
- List of NHL enforcers
- Violence in ice hockey — about violent acts that are prohibited by all ice hockey leagues
- Tom Cohen (1 September 2011). "Three hockey enforcers die young in four months, raising questions". CNN. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- Branch, John (December 5, 2011). "Derek Boogaard: Blood on the Ice". The New York Times. p. 4. Retrieved December 8, 2011.
- After The Whistle: Al Secord - Points 'n Punches
- The mystique of the Gordie Howe hat trick
- Higgins, Matt (19 December 2006). "As N.H.L. Picks Up Speed, Fighters Are Phased Out". The New York Times.
- "Upon Further Review". CBC News.
- Klein, Jeff Z. (2012-01-22). "Numbers Indicate That Skill Usually Packs a Bigger Punch Than Fists". The New York Times. pp. SP9. Retrieved June 18, 2012.
- Roy Macgregor (1 September 2011). "Wade Belak’s death another warning sign for NHL". Toronto Star. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- Branch, John (12/3/11). "Derek Boogaard: A Boy Learns to Brawl". New York Times. Retrieved 12/6/11.
|Positions on the hockey rink|
|Power forward | Enforcer | Grinder | Pest | Captain | Head coach | Referee & linesman|