Engelbert Endrass

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Engelbert Endrass
Bundesarchiv Bild Bild 183-L15633, Norwegen, Einlaufen eines U-Bootes.jpg
Endrass (foreground) and crew members, 1940
Born (1911-03-02)2 March 1911
Bamberg
Died 21 December 1941(1941-12-21) (aged 30)
Northeast of Azores
44°02′N 20°10′W / 44.033°N 20.167°W / 44.033; -20.167 (Engelbert Endrass (death))
Allegiance  Nazi Germany
Service/branch  Kriegsmarine
Years of service 1935–1941
Rank Kapitänleutnant
Unit 7th U-boat Flotilla
Commands held U-46, May 22, 1940–September 24, 1941
U-567, October 15, 1941 – December 21, 1941
Awards Spanish Cross
Iron Cross First Class
U-boat War Badge with Diamonds
Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves

Lieutenant Engelbert Endrass (German: Engelbert Endraß) (2 March 1911 – 21 December 1941) was a German U-boat commander in World War II. He commanded the Type VIIB U-boat U-46 and the Type VIIC U-567, sinking twenty-two ships on ten patrols, for a total of 118,528 tons of Allied shipping, to become the 23rd highest scoring U-Boat ace of World War II. He was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub). The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and its higher grade Oak Leaves was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership. It was Germany's highest military decoration at the time of its presentation to Engelbert Endrass.[Note 1]

Career[edit]

Snorting bull emblem on the conning tower painted by Endrass.

Endrass began his naval career in April 1935. After some months on the cruiser Deutschland and service on escort ships, he was assigned in October 1937 to the U-boat force. He joined U-47 in December 1938 as Leutnant zur See. He was first Watch Officer when Günther Prien made his famous Scapa Flow attack and sank HMS Royal Oak. The famous snorting bull emblem on U-47's conning tower was painted by Endrass before they returned.[1]

Endrass remained on U-47 until December 1939, when he left the U-boat and after some training courses took over command of U-46 in May 1940 from the relatively unsuccessful Herbert Sohler, who had only sunk two ships in five patrols. Endrass had immediate success and sank five ships, including the British auxiliary cruiser HMS Carinthia.[1]

Endrass' success continued on his second patrol with U-46, sinking five more ships, including another British auxiliary cruiser, HMS Dunvegan Castle although the main periscope was damaged. After returning from this patrol, Endrass received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. Five patrols later he received the Oak Leaves to his Knight's Cross.[1]

In September 1941 Endrass left U-46, which would become a training vessel, and a month later took over U-567. On his second patrol he was killed on December 21, 1941, when U-567 was sunk with all hands by depth charges from the British sloop HMS Deptford and corvette HMS Samphire, northeast of the Azores.[1]

Awards[edit]

References in the Wehrmachtbericht[edit]

Date Original German Wehrmachtbericht wording Direct English translation
Monday, 17 June 1940 Die deutsche Unterseebootwaffe versenkte in den letzten Tagen über 100 000 BRT. Ein Unterseeboot unter Führung des Kapitänleutnants Frauenheim meldet die Versenkung von 41 500 BRT Schiffraum, darunter den britischen Dampfer "WELLINGTON-STAR" von 11 400 BRT. Ein zweites Unterseeboot unter der Führung von Oberleutnant zur See Endraß meldet 53 000 BRT als vernichtet, darunter den britischen Hilfskreuzer "CARINTHIA" von 22 300 BRT.[5] The German submarine force sank in the past few days over 100 000 GRT. A submarine under the command of Captain Lieutenant Frauenheim reports the sinking of 41 500 GRT of shipping, including the British steamer "WELLINGTON STAR" of 11 400 GRT. A second submarine under the command of First Lieutenant at Sea Endraß reported 53 000 GRT destroyed, including the British auxiliary cruiser "CARINTHIA" of 22 300 GRT.
Thursday, 4 July 1940 Ein Unterseeboot unter Führung von Oberleutnant zur See Endraß erzielte einen Torpedotreffer auf den neusten britischen Flugzeugträger "ILLUSTRIOUS".[6] A submarine under the command of First Lieutenant at Sea Endraß scored a torpedo hit on the latest British aircraft carrier "ILLUSTRIOUS".[Note 2]
Thursday, 4 September 1940 Ein Unterseeboot unter Führung von Oberleutnant zur See Endraß hat auf einer Unternehmung insgesamt sechs bewaffnete feindliche Handelsschiffe mit 51 507 BRT versenkt, darunter den bereits gemeldeten Hilfskreuzer "DUNVEGAN CASTLE".[7] A submarine under the command of First Lieutenant at Sea Endraß has sunk on its last undertaking six armed enemy merchant ships with 51 507 GRT, including the previously announced auxiliary cruiser "DUNVEGAN CASTLE".
Thursday, 4 September 1940 Das Unterseeboot des Oberleutnants zur See Endraß hat durch seinen Anteil an den Erfolgen der letzten Nacht das bisherige Versenkungsergebnis seiner laufenden Unternehmung auf 44 000 BRT gesteigert.[8] The submarine of First Lieutenant at Sea Endraß increased by its share in last night’s successes the previous sinking results of its on-going undertaking to 44 000 GRT.
Friday, 4 April 1941 Bei den letzten Erfolgen gegen die britische Handelsschiffahrt im Nordatlantik haben sich das Boot die Unterseeboote unter Führung von Kapitänleutnant Rosenbaum und Oberleutnant zur See Endraß besonders ausgezeichnet.[9] The submarines under the command of Captain Lieutenant Rosenbaum and First Lieutenant at Sea Endraß have particularly distinguished themselves in recent successes against British merchant shipping in the North Atlantic.
Monday, 9 June 1941 Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Liebe und Oberleutnant zur See Endraß haben als vierter und fünfter Unterseebootkommandant eine Versenkungsziffer von 200 000 BRT überschritten.[10] Captain Lieutenant Heinrich Liebe and First Lieutenant at Sea Endraß have as fourth and fifth submarine captain exceeded the 200 000 tons sunk.
Tuesday, 31 March 1942 Das Unterseeboot unter der Führung von Kapitänleutnant Endraß. Träger des Eichenlaubes zum Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes, ist von Feindfahrt nicht zurückgekehrt. Ein hervorragender Unterseebootkommandant ist mit seiner tapferen Besatzung vor dem Feinde geblieben.[11] The submarine under the command of Captain Lieutenant Endraß, bearer of the Oak Leaves to the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, has not returned from war patrol. An excellent submarine commander and his brave crew stayed before the enemy.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Until late September 1941, the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves was second only to the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross (Großkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes), which was awarded only to senior commanders for winning a major battle or campaign, in the military order of the Third Reich. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves as highest military order was surpassed on 28 September 1941 by the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern).
  2. ^ U-46 did not attack the carrier HMS Illustrious, but the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal, but the torpedo was a dud.

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ a b c d "Kapitänleutnant Engelbert Endrass". uboat.net. Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Busch and Röll 2003, p. 62.
  3. ^ a b Busch and Röll 2003, p. 63.
  4. ^ a b Scherzer 2007, p. 294.
  5. ^ Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 215.
  6. ^ Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 251.
  7. ^ Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 294.
  8. ^ Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 336.
  9. ^ Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 464.
  10. ^ Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, p. 555.
  11. ^ Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 2, p. 73.
Bibliography
  • Busch, Hans-Joachim; Röll (2003). Der U-Boot-Krieg 1939–1945 — Die Ritterkreuzträger der U-Boot-Waffe von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [The U-Boat War 1939–1945 — The Knight's Cross Bearers of the U-Boat Force from September 1939 to May 1945] (in German). Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn Germany: Verlag E.S. Mittler & Sohn. ISBN 978-3-8132-0515-2. 
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtsteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. 
  • Kurowski, Franz (1995). Knight's Cross Holders of the U-Boat Service. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-88740-748-2. 
  • Range, Clemens (1974). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Kriegsmarine [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Navy]. Stuttgart, Germany: Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 978-3-87943-355-1. 
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 
  • Thomas, Franz (1997). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 1: A–K [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 1: A–K] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2299-6. 
  • Williamson, Gordon and Bujeiro, Ramiro (2004). Knight's Cross and Oak Leaves Recipients 1939-40. Osprey Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-84176-641-0.
  • Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 1, 1. September 1939 bis 31. Dezember 1941 [The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 1, 1 September 1939 to 31 December 1941] (in German). München, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 978-3-423-05944-2. 
  • Die Wehrmachtberichte 1939–1945 Band 2, 1. Januar 1942 bis 31. Dezember 1943 [The Wehrmacht Reports 1939–1945 Volume 2, 1 January 1942 to 31 December 1943] (in German). München, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. 1985. ISBN 978-3-423-05944-2. 

External links[edit]