||It has been suggested that Diploma of Associate Engineering be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since November 2014.|
In Europe, the engineer degree is ranked at the same academic level as a master's degree, and is often known literally as an "engineer diploma" (abbreviated Dipl.-Ing. or DI). In some countries of Latin America and the United States, the engineer's degree can be studied after the completion of a master's degree and is usually considered higher than the master's degree but below the doctorate in engineering (abbreviated Dr.-Ing.) in Europe. In other countries of Latin America, there is no proper engineer's degree, but the title of Engineer is used for 4 year bachelor's graduates.
- 1 Canada
- 2 Europe, prior to the Bologna Process
- 2.1 Germany and Austria
- 2.2 Turkey
- 2.3 Finland
- 2.4 Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia
- 2.5 Belgium
- 2.6 Portugal
- 2.7 Greece
- 2.8 The Netherlands
- 2.9 United Kingdom
- 2.10 Russia
- 2.11 Belarus and Ukraine
- 2.12 France, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia
- 2.13 Italy
- 2.14 Romania
- 2.15 Spain
- 2.16 Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Ex-Yugoslavia
- 3 Europe, according to the Bologna Process
- 4 United States
- 5 Latin America
- 6 Pakistan
- 7 Bangladesh
- 8 India
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Through the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB), Engineers Canada accredits Canadian undergraduate engineering programs that meet the standards of the profession. Graduates of those programs are deemed by the profession to have the required academic qualifications to be licensed as professional engineers in Canada.
In Canada, A CEAB-accredited degree is the minimum academic requirement for registration as a professional engineer anywhere in Canada, and the standard against which all other engineering academic qualifications are measured.
A graduate of a non-CEAB-accredited program must demonstrate that his or her education is at least equivalent to that of a graduate of a CEAB-accredited program.
Europe, prior to the Bologna Process
In most countries of continental Europe, universities specializing in technical fields have traditionally awarded their students an engineer's degree lasting 5 years. This degree was typically the first university-awarded degree after finishing secondary education, and completing it granted qualifications to further pursue a doctorate.
Following German custom in higher education, the engineer's degree is called Diplom. In addition to Germany itself, this system was common in states like Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Montenegro, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, R. Macedonia and Ukraine.
Germany and Austria
In German, the traditional engineer's degree is called Diplom-Ingenieur (Dipl.-Ing., in Austria also DI) . This degree is generally equivalent to a Master's degree, which is not to be confused with the old Magister degree. Most programs that used to lead to a Dipl.-Ing. degree lead to Master's degrees today, as the Diplom-Ingenieur as an academical title is phased out because of the Bologna process. However some Universities continue to hand out so-called equivalence certificates that certify the equivalence of a Dipl.-Ing. with the newly introduced M.Sc. Degrees.
The German "Universities of Applied Sciences" (Fachhochschule) awarded the traditional engineering degree Diplom-Ingenieur (FH) (Dipl.-Ing (FH)). This degree also required to write a Diplom thesis. This is also being modified by the Bologna process, as bachelor and master degrees from a University of Applied Sciences are equal to the degrees from a traditional university. Universities of Applied Sciences are phased out and they are changed to universities with own faculties and research institutes. These universities are strongly focused on fields like computer science, engineering or business schools. Subjects like Law or Human Medicine etc. which requires a Staatsexamen (state exam) can only be studied at traditional universities. Since 2005, most Universities in Germany offer Bachelor degree programmes (B.Sc., B.Eng. M.Sc., M.Eng, M.C.A. and others) and Master programmes that lead to the academic degree Master of Science, Master of Engineering, Master of Business Administration and others.
In Turkey typical length of study for professional engineering degree is 4 years. Owner of a valid engineering degree is called Mühendis, meaning "geometrist, one who knows geometry and calculation". The "Mühendis" title is limited by law to people with a valid engineering degree, and the use of the title by others (even persons with much more work experience) is illegal. (Law No: 3945 Law about Engineers and Architects 28.06.1938)
In Finnish, the engineer's degree is called diplomi-insinööri and abbreviated dipl.ins., DI or M.Sc.(Tech.). It is possible to obtain after 5 years of studying, or even faster, but the average is around six years. Under the Bologna process, this is split into two parts, the first being one where the students can get the intermediate tekniikan kandidaatti (B.Sc.(Tech.)) degree.
The degree of insinööri (AMK) is a bachelor's degree from a Finnish University of Applied Sciences (ammattikorkeakoulu), similar to a German Fachhochschule, but it is not interchangeable with the academic tekniikan kandidaatti.
Due to the Bologna process, a new master's degree called insinööri (ylempi AMK) or "engineer (higher amk)" has been introduced. It carries a requirement of two years of work experience after the degree of insinööri (AMK) and then some studies.
Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia
In the western Slavic-speaking countries, the engineer's degree is called inżynier (Polish), inžinier (Slovak) or inženýr (Czech), and the abbreviation is inż. in Poland, and Ing. in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, which may be written before the person's name.
In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, the degree of Ing. is given for complete university studies in technical (like engineering), economical or agricultural fields. In one of these cases it can be equivalent to a Master of Science in Engineering. Poland In Poland, the degree of inżynier is available after 3, 3.5 or 4 years of studies (like the licencjat in non-engineering science) after a final thesis is completed. A magister inżynier (abbreviated mgr inż.) refers to a Master of Science in Engineering, after completing 5 years of study and a written thesis. Oryginally there were "inżynier" studies that lasted for 4 years, and after that degree one could obtain "magister" title in 2-year studies - the total of 6 years was resulting in two degrees "magister" and "inżynier". In the early 1960's new track of studies was developed to speed up education and the "magister inżynier" 5 years track was created. Whichever way one obtained the education the "magister inżynier" [mgr inż. before the name) was the equivalent degree and designated "inżynier" (this is the professional engineer (PE in USA) right and title designation) and "magister" designating the academic level. Mistakenly some Czech bon USA based experts think that "mgr inż." is one degree. There are other significant differences in education for which Polish system should not be in the same chapter as Czech and Slovak. After "Bologne" the first level is "inżynier" obtainable after nominally 3 years of studies (although some are longer) with the same professional that privileges as before, and "masters" after 1 or 2 years gives the same academic and professional designation as before. But the ultimate shortening of the period of studies resulted in some professional groups are demanding (e.g. architects) that "magister inżynier" be made as a basis for professional rights. Be it as it may - the level of education in Poland has dropped significantly below what it was before 1975 and in comparison to other countries. The except for 1 or 2 universities Polsih universities are absent in in first 300 of 400 ranked higher education institutions ().
In Belgium, there are two types of engineering degrees:
- "Burgerlijk Ingenieur" /"Ingénieur civil" or "Master of Science in Engineering" (abbrev. "ir.") - 5 years study (3 BSc. + 2 MSc.)
- "Bio-ingenieur"/ "Bioingénieur" or "Master of Science in Bioscience Engineering" (abbrev. "ir") - 5 years study (3 BSc. + 2 MSc.)
- "Industrieel Ingenieur" or "Master of Science in Industrial Sciences" (abbrev. "Ing.") - 4 years study (3 BSc. + 1 MSc.)(3 BSc. + 2 MSc. in 2013-future) (for the Flemish Region)
- "Ingénieur industriel" or "Master of Science in Industrial Sciences" (abbrev. "Ing.") - 5 years study (3 BSc. + 2 MSc.) (for the Walloon Region)
Belgium is particularly noteworthy as having a system under which demands made on students of engineering are particularly severe.
In Portugal, the degree was Licenciado (5 years) and although almost totally equal to a Bologna Master, it was considered a simple Degree for foreign countries (the word engineer is Engenheiro - abbrev. Eng.). The Master also existed (Mestrado) and was a 2 years course over the previous 5 of the Licenciatura.
In Greece, the title of "Engineer" is awarded by two parallel,put not equivalent, and complementary parts of public higher education.
The title "Diplomate Engineer" is awarded after completion of the five-year engineering study course (300 ECTS, ISCED 5A) at a University or a Technical University. Although some institutions issue certificates of equivalence to a Master's degree, these are not officially recognized by the Greek legislation.
The title of "Certified Engineer" is awarded after completion of the four-year course of engineering studies, equivalent to Honours Bachelor's Degree (240 ECTS, ISCED 5A),at a Technological Educational Institute - T.E.I.
In the Netherlands, somebody holding an engineer's degree is an ingenieur. There are two types of engineers with different abbreviations:
- Ir. is obtained by university graduates (Wetenschappelijk onderwijs or WO). It is the highest engineer qualification. - 5 years study (3 B.Sc. + 2 M.Sc.)
- Ing. is obtained by graduates from polytechnics (hoger beroeps onderwijs or HBO). - 4 years study (4 B.Sc.)
Names are traditionally prefixed with the ir. and/ or ing. titles. Use of these titles are regulated and protected by Dutch law. Under the Bologna agreement the titles are increasingly interchanged with the English-language degrees (B.Sc, BBE, M.Sc, etc.).
The highest engineer qualification in the UK and Ireland is the Chartered Engineer which is a minimum of 8 years but usually a 12 year education, training and professional practice process. Chartered Engineer is a terminal qualification. The qualification which is minimum for gaining chartership in engineering is the Master of Engineering (MEng) in addition to 4–6 years peer reviewed professional practice. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales this is a four-year course or a 'sandwich' five-year course (with one year spent working in industry). In Scotland, it is a five-year course. The Bachelor of Engineering (BEng) is usually a three-year course (four in Scotland), or can also include a year in industry. Many universities offer the BEng, and may then allow a transfer onto the MEng.
The Engineering Council Graduate Diploma is set at the same level as the final year of a British BEng and its Postgraduate Diploma is set at the same level as the final year of a British MEng.
The Graduateship in engineering, awarded by the City & Guilds of London Institute (Institution Established in 1878 recognized by Royal Charter n.117 year 1900), is mapped to a British Bachelor of Engineering(Honours) -BEng(Honours)-degree. The Post Graduate Diploma is mapped to a British Master of Engineering (MEng) degree.
Engineers who have been awarded a BEng(Ordinary) or BEng(Honours) and have appropriate training and experience in the work place are able to apply to become an Incorporated Engineer (IEng), if the qualification has been accepted for this classification, by the engineering council. If an engineer has studied beyond the BEng for an MSc or has an MEng, they may apply to become a Chartered Engineer (CEng), once they have completed the required amount of post graduate work-based competency training and experience. Competency and training requirements are met over a period of 4–8 years in practice for a total of 8–12 years education, training and professional responsibility. Formal structured post graduate training schemes such as the monitored professional development programme administered by IMechE enables the Engineer in training to satisfy the requirements for Chartered Engineer faster.
Chartered Engineer and Incorporated Engineer titles awarded by the Engineering Council UK, are similar but not equivalent to North American Professional Engineer (PEng / PE) and Professional Technologist (PTech) designations, but with often a far greater geographical recognition. The UK and North American system of regulating engineering professional qualifications is very different and not equivalent. In the USA and Canada engineering is a regulated profession in terms of practice and enforced by law and licensing. It is more than the regulation of engineering titles - like the UK. This means that many UK chartered Engineers who are grandfathered to the title or are non degrees holders (HNC/HND) will be unable to be recognized formally as professional engineers in Canada and the USA. There is strict interpretation of qualifications and education because there are legal implications. There is no back door entry or experiential exemption from the formal academic requirements. This is simply because of the legal legislation on practice. This engineering governance legal framework does not exist in the UK.
MIET-Member of the Institution of Engineering and Technology is recognised as regulated engineering profession by virtue of the Statutory Instruments n.2007/2781-The European Communities (Recognition of Professional Qualifications) Regulation 2007-Directive European Union 2005/36/EC. http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/qualifications/regprof/index.cfm?fuseaction=profession.regProfs&profId=6361&mode=desc&cId=0&quid=3
This meaning retains the 19th century idea that "real" engineers were military personnel, while "other" engineers were civilians.
As of year 2012 in Russia, following degrees correspond to the "engineer's degree" in the sense of this article:
- Инженер - "engineer", which was formerly awarded after 4, 5, 6 years of study, may also contain clarification on the nature of engineering field, such as "mining engineer" or "systems engineer".
- Инженер по специальности - "engineer at specialty" (where specialty's name is mentioned), currently awarded after 5 or 6 years of study, may also contain clarification on the nature of engineering field, such as "engineer-ecologist at specialty "Rational usage of natural resources and protection of the environment"
- Инженер-исследователь по специальности - "engineer-researcher at specialty" (where specialty's name is mentioned), was formerly awarded after 7 years of study
- Бакалавр по направлению - "bachelor at area" (where area's name is mentioned), currently awarded after 4 years of study, and "area" is an engineering area, corresponding to one or more of former "specialties"
- Магистр по направлению - "magister (master) at area" (where area's name is mentioned), currently awarded after 2 years of study to those already having any higher-education degree, and "area" is an engineering area, corresponding to one or more of former "specialties"
Anything but "bachelor" is considered "second-level" higher education and gives access to post-graduate education for "candidate of sciences" degree, "bachelor" is considered "first-level" higher education degree and gives access to study for masters (magister) degree.
Post-graduate scientific degrees in engineering areas include кандидат технических наук - "candidate of technical sciences" and доктор технических наук - "doctor of technical sciences". Sometimes in English translations "...of technical sciences" is exchanged for "...of engineering".
Belarus and Ukraine
France, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia
In France, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia the degree is Diplôme d'Ingénieur, while the title is Ingénieur diplômé (ID) but is never used before the holder's name. The degree can be obtained after five years of engineering studies after the Baccalauréat. The degree deliverance is regulated by the Commission des titres d'ingénieur (CTI) independent organism. The CTI mandates the French engineering schools (mainly Grandes Écoles) to deliver the Diplôme d'Ingénieur. This degree is officially considered as a European Master's Degree since the Bologna Process.
After the French/francophone baccalaureat (high school diploma), about 10% of students are accepted in "Classes Préparatoires aux Grandes Écoles" (intensive preparatory classes), where mathematics, physics, technology or biology are taught. National examinations, with restricted acceptances in the engineering schools, are realized after the first two years. Some schools also include a two-year program shaped with continuous assessments and do not require to pass a national examination.
In Italy until 2001 there were two degrees: a three-year diploma in ingegneria (BEng level, title abbrev. "dipl. ing.") and a five-year laurea in ingegneria (MEng level, title abbrev. "ing."). Since 2001 reform, the bachelor's level is called laurea (abbrev. "L") and master's degree level is called laurea specialistica or laurea magistrale (abbrev. "LS"). Accordingly, today after three years of engineering studies, the degree called laurea in ingegneria (BEng level) and the title of dottore in Ingegneria (abbrev. "dott.") can be obtained. After two additional years of engineering studies, the degree called laurea magistrale in ingegneria (MEng level) and the title of dottore magistrale in Ingegneria (abbrev. "dott.") can be obtained. After a "state exam" you become "Ingegnere" (abbrv. Ing)
Romania followed the French system. One needs a baccalaureate diploma to be accepted at the university. The engineering degree was called Diploma de inginer, and the graduate was called a Inginer diplomat. These five years of study are equivalent to a Bologna Master(M.Sc/M.Eng/MCA). The five-year course concludes with a comprehensive set of specialising exams (examen de diploma). Marks 9 and 10 are considered exceptional. Some universities had called Diploma de Sub-inginer which was a 3 year course equivalent with a college degree. Following the Bologna process, the graduates obtain the Inginer licentiat degree, after following a four-year program. In this case the Inginer Master degree is obtained after an additional one- or two-year graduate program.
The situation in Spain is very similar to France but without the grandes écoles and Germany-U.k. in relation to the Technical Engineering Degrees. Long cycle Engineer's degrees (Ingenieros) traditionally used to be (at least nominally) six-year programs but the tendency since the mid-1990s has been to reduce them to five years. The last step to get the degree is the Proyecto de Fin de Carrera (Degree Project), which involves a combination of application development and some research work. Students submit a dissertation that they have to defend. The Spanish official name for the degree is Ingeniero (Engineer), or other degree called Ingeniero Técnico (Technical Engineer), which is a three-four years degree (involving also a Final Degree Project) and is equivalent to a Bachelor of Engineering, the Technical Engineer in Spain has full competencies and legal authority in their field. A distinctive characteristic of Spanish engineering degrees is that the average duration of studies up to graduation is about 40% above the nominal duration and that the drop-out rate is considerable due to stricter examination standards.
Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Ex-Yugoslavia
In Croatia, the old system included the engineer's degrees diplomirani inženjer (abbr. dipl.ing.) which was awarded by university faculties, and a lower ranked engineer's degree inženjer (abbr. ing.) which was awarded by polytechnics, in a similar vein to the situation in the Netherlands. The old dipl.ing. degree could later be upgraded to a magistar (abbr. mr., Magister degree) and then a doktor (abbr. dr., Doctorate). The situation was the same in other countries previously part of Yugoslavia. In Serbian, the abbreviation is dipl.inž.
Europe, according to the Bologna Process
Following the introduction of the Bologna process, universities divide higher-education studies in three cycles, corresponding to a three-year bachelor's degree, a two-year master's degree, and a doctoral degree.
Accordingly, engineering studies which lasted five years are now divided in two parts: first, the bachelor's degree (baccalaureus, three years), and the second optional part (two years), after which either the traditional engineer's degree or a master's degree (MEng or MSc) is awarded. In this new scheme, the graduate must complete the master's degree before attempting to pursue doctoral education.
Countries have varied in the implementation of the Bologna process. Most traditional universities continue to have a primary academic degree program, for example, a five-year Civilingenjör in Sweden, that is distinct from the 3+2 scheme that awards the bachelor's and master's degrees but a student who has done both at a Swedish technical university will in most cases also fulfill the requirements for the civilingenjör degree.
In France, engineering is taught in écoles d’ingénieurs, which are part of the French grandes écoles system. Since the Bologna process, the Diplôme d’Ingénieur is officially considered to be at the level of a European master’s degree.
In the United States, the degree of engineer or engineer's degree is the least commonly obtained advanced degree in engineering. It is usually preceded by a master's degree and is not a prerequisite to a doctoral degree, usually serving instead as a terminal degree. The availability of degrees and the specific requirements differ considerably between institutions and between specialties within an institution. In the past, it was not uncommon for a would-be engineer to earn an engineer's degree as their first and only college degree. But since World War II this has fallen out of favor, and it becomes continually more difficult to find a school that offers this option. Regulation and licensure in engineering in the U.S. usually requires an Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) engineering program accreditation, which is granted only to bachelor's degrees and, rarely, master's degrees.
For graduate students in engineering, the two-year master's degree is most commonly followed by a traditional research doctorate (Ph.D.). However, the engineer's degree provides an alternative to the doctorate for professional engineers rather than academicians. Some graduate programs, such as those offered at Stanford, Caltech and the Naval Postgraduate School, require a thesis for the engineer's degree but the research requirements are generally less than those of Ph.D. candidates and more comparable to those of master of science students. Other universities, such as Santa Clara University, do not have a specific research requirement. For this reason, some consider an engineer's degree to be on a level between a master's degree and a doctorate.
A degree with some form of the word engineer or engineering in the title is not necessarily an engineer's degree. Particularly, a "Master of Engineering" (M.Eng.) or "Engineering Doctorate" (Eng. D) degree is not an Engineer's degree, nor is any other bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degree. Rather, the engineer's degree is in a category of its own. For example, a student with a B.S. and M.S. in electrical engineering might next earn the degree Electrical Engineer. The person would then have a B.S. in E.E., a M.S. in E.E., and an E.E. degree. The former two are degrees in engineering, and only the latter degree is actually an engineer's degree.
In Latin America a degree or title of "Ingeniero" is awarded after complete 4 years of college, that may be translated as "Engineer", however, its international academic equivalence depends on each country's educational system, and may be compared to a 4-year bachelor's degree or even a 6-year post-master's degree. Its award may imply obtaining a state licence to legally practice in the field, or a professional certification outside academic environments.
In Mexico, the educational system follows closely that of the United States. University education is structured in three cycles, as Licenciatura (bachelor's degree), Maestría (master's degree), and Doctorado (doctorate).
The "Engineer" degree is a general denomination for a Licenciatura (first cycle) degree in a technical field, which implies obtaining a professional credential (cédula profesional). The graduate is technically and legally a Licenciado (Lic.), but commonly he or she will use the title of Ingeniero and the abbreviation Ing. before his or her name.
For engineering, completing all taught courses of a Licenciatura does not automatically awards the graduate the title and licence of Ingeniero, for this, a written thesis or very good qualifications are required. It is the case that many people finish all courses in an engineering program, but only formally obtain the diploma and title of Engineer, and the professional credential, after some years of work experience.
Degrees in engineering require 4 to 5 years to complete. After this, the graduate may enroll in a postgraduate program, such as a master's degree, or in exceptional cases, directly into a doctoral degree.
Bachelor of Science(BS) This is a 4 year Engineering degree. Like Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering.
In Chile, the educational system does not strictly follows that of the United States. University education is structured in four cycles, as Licenciatura (bachelor's degree), Professional Title (Título Profesional), Magíster (master's degree) and Doctorado (doctorate or Ph.D).
In this case, the engineer state is a general denomination for a person who has a professional title of engineering (Título Profesional en Ingeniería). The title is obtained after 6 years of study, in this way including a bachelor's degree in science, which is obtained after four years of study.
As in other countries, students only need to obtain the bachelor's degree to enter a master's degree or doctoral program, which commonly last 2 and 3 years respectively. Since a professional title considers six years of study, after obtaining this title the graduate can enroll directly into a doctoral degree. In this manner, the international academic equivalence of a Professional Title in Chile corresponds to a 6-year post-master's degree.
Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC) accredits the undergraduate engineering degrees and regulates the engineering profession in Pakistan. The qualification of B.Tech is not equivalent to Bachelor of engineering or Bachelors of Science in Engineering. Therefore PEC does not register them as such. PEC only registers engineers having accredited engineering qualification.
Pakistan represented by PEC is a provisional signatory to Washington Accord.
Engineering degrees at undergraduate level are referred to as: BS Engineering / B.Sc Engineering (Bachelors of Science in Engineering). B.E. (Bachelors of Engineering) - 4 years duration.
Likewise, a postgraduate degree in engineering is referred to as: MS Engineering (Master of Science in Engineering) - 2 years duration.
A doctorate in engineering is simply referred to as: Ph.D. Engineering - 4 to 5 years duration.
In Bangladesh, the engineering degree is referred to as B.E (Bachelors of Engineering) and B.Sc Engineering (Bachelors of Science in Engineering) at the undergraduate level. Likewise, a master's degree is referred to as Masters of Science in Engineering (M.Engg) Masters of Science in Engineering (M.Sc), Masters in Computer Application (MCA). At the undergraduate level, the duration of the course is 4 years whereas at master's degree has a duration usually between 1.5 to 2 years. Graduated Engineers who are members of Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh are legally and formally allowed to use 'Engr.' before their names (e.g. Engr. John Smith).
In India, engineering qualifications include the following:
- Diploma in engineering (3 years, after class 10).
- Bachelors degrees (4 years, after class 12): B.E. (Bachelor of Engineering) and B.Tech. (Bachelor of Technology). Both are equivalent. Admission is usually through an engineering entrance examination.
- Masters degrees (2 or more years, after B.E., B.Tech., or equivalent): M.E. (Master of Engineering), M.Tech. (Master of Technology), M.Sc. (Engg.) (Master of Science in Engineering), M.S. (Master of Science). Admission usually requires qualification in the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering, or some work experience in engineering. The M.Tech. and M.E. degrees are of 2 years' duration, and usually have coursework in the first year and a project in the second year. The M.Sc. (Engg.) and M.S. degrees are usually research - oriented, and may require 2 or more years to complete.
- Doctoral degrees (3 to 5 years): Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy). Admission requirements vary across universities, but usually include a masters degree in engineering or science, or a bachelors degree in engineering with an exceptionally good academic record.
The Masters in Computer Application (M.C.A.) degree is usually of 3 years' duration. Content wise, it may have some overlap with B.E. or B.Tech. in computer engineering (from third year onward). Some universities also offer Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degrees in fields like information technology, biotechnology, etc., but these are of 3 years' duration and are usually not considered to be at the same level of rigor as the 4-year B.E. or B.Tech. degree in the same discipline.
- Beschluss der Kultusministerkonferenz vom 10.10.2003 i.d.F. vom 07.02.2008)
- "Artikel 435 lid 3 Wetboek van strafrecht" (in Dutch)
- "Opleidingen met een zogenoemd 'zwaar wiskundig profiel' als Bouwkunde, Econometrie en Elektrotechniek zorgen voor de meeste vertraging bij wo-studenten" (in Dutch)
- "Vooral bij techniek, industrie en bouwkunde is de wo-studieduur veel langer"
- In Italy the state accreditation system, degrees and titles are regulated by state law. See regulations (in Italian) DM 4 Agosto 2000 for "laurea" (bachelor) and DM 28 Novembre 2000 for "laurea specialistica" (BEng(Hon)-master). Chartered professions (including engineering) are regulated by state law 328/01 ("D.P.R. 5 giugno 2001, n. 328").
- "National systems of engineering education, QA and accreditation", TREE – Teaching and Research in Engineering in Europe
- Ivan Klajn, Rečnik jezičkih nedoumica (NOLIT, Beograd)
- "Ley Reglamaentaria del Artículo 5º Contitucional, relativo al ejercicio de las profesiones en el Distrito Federal" (in Spanish). Regulatory Law for the 5th Article in the Constitution, relative to the practice of professions in the Federal District, last reform 22 December 1993, law published on 26 May 1945.