English American

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English American
English Americans.png
Total population

49,598,035
(1980 census; self reported)[1]
27,657,961
(2010 census; self reported)[2]

9.0% of the U.S. population (2010)
Regions with significant populations

Throughout entire United States

Plurality in Utah · Vermont[3] · Maine and every Southern state except Louisiana
California 4,946,554[4]
Texas 3,083,323[4]
Ohio 2,371,236[4]
New York 2,320,503[4]
Florida 2,232,514[4]
Michigan 2,036,021[4]
Illinois 1,808,333[4]
North Carolina 1,778,008[4]
Georgia 1,584,303[4]
Tennessee 1,435,147[4]
Pennsylvania 1,058,737[5]
Religion
Christianity · Predominately Protestantism (Anglicanism • Methodism • Baptists • Congregationalism • Other Protestants) Mormonism · Roman Catholicism · Irreligious.
Related ethnic groups
Americans · English people · English Canadians · Scottish Americans · Welsh Americans · Irish Americans · Scotch-Irish Americans · Cornish Americans · British Americans

English Americans, also referred to as Anglo-Americans, are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England.

According to American Community Survey in 2010 data, Americans reporting English ancestry made up an estimated 9.0% of the total U.S. population, and form the third largest European ancestry group after German Americans and Irish Americans.[6] However, demographers regard this as an undercount, as the index of inconsistency is high, and many, if not most, people from English stock have a tendency to identify simply as Americans[7][8][9][10] or, if of mixed European ancestry, identify with a more recent and differentiated ethnic group.[11] Throughout the nineteenth century, England was the largest investor in American land development, railroads, mining, cattle ranching, and heavy industry. Perhaps because English settlers gained easy acceptance, they founded few organizations dedicated to preserving the traditions of their homeland. Scotch-Irish Americans are descendants of Lowland Scots and Northern English (specifically: County Durham, Cumberland, Northumberland and Westmorland) settlers who colonized Ireland during the Plantation of Ulster in the 17th century.

In the 1980 United States Census, over 49 million (49,598,035) Americans claimed English ancestry, at the time around 26.34% of the total population and largest reported group which, even today, would make them the largest ethnic group in the United States.[12][13] This suggests that the currently reported number is vastly underestimated.

In 1982, an opinion poll organization showed respondents a card listing a number of ethnic groups and asked, "Thinking both of what they have contributed to this country and have gotten from this country, for each one tell me whether you think, on balance, they've been a good or a bad thing for this country". The English were the top ethnic group with 66% saying they were a good thing for the United States, followed by the Irish at 62%.[14]

The overwhelming majority of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America were of English extraction, including Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, John Adams, James Madison[15] and Thomas Jefferson.

As with most immigrant groups, the English later sought economic prosperity and began migrating in large numbers without state support, particularly in the 19th century.[16]

Sense of identity[edit]

Americans of English heritage are often seen, and identify, as simply "American" due to the many cultural ties between the two countries and their impact on the population of the United States of America, which has hardly disappeared. In the context of other European ethnic groups (as opposed to the native population), this may be due to the early establishment of English settlements, as well as a non-English population that took time to emigrate to establish significant communities.[17]

In the succeeding years since the founding of the United States of America, English-Americans have been less likely to proclaim their heritage in the face of the upsurge of cultural and ethnic pride by African-Americans, Irish-Americans, Scottish-Americans, Italian-Americans or other ethnic groups. While there may be many reasons for this, after centuries of intermarriage and internal geographic mobility, many are unable to determine a specific English origin. For these reasons, no other part of the pluralist American society is so difficult to describe as a separate entity as the English. English immigrants were and are often seen as an invisible ethnic group, due to the length of time their ancestors may have been in the United States, as the majority of the founding colonists were English people.[18]

There is little or no celebration of the English Patron Saint St. George's Day other than by the Boy Scouts of America[citation needed].

Number of English Americans[edit]

Number of English Americans
Year Number
1980[19]
49,598,035
1990[20]
32,651,788
2000[21]
24,515,138
2010[22]
27,657,961
Map with      England and the       United States highlighted. Shows the first permanent English settlement of Jamestown in 1607.

From the time of the first permanent English presence in the New World until 1900, these immigrants outnumbered all others, therefore the cultural pattern had been firmly established as the American model.[23]

1775 estimates[edit]

According to the United States Historical Census Data Base (USHCDB) (2002), the ethnic populations in the American Colonies of 1775 were:

Populations in the American Colonies of 1775 [24][25]
Ancestry Percentage
English 48.7%
African 20.0%
Scot-Irish 7.8 %
German 6.9%
Scottish 6.6 %
Dutch 2.7%
French 1.4%
Swedish 0.6%
Other 5.3%
Note - If the Scottish and Ulster Scots
(known as Scotch-Irish) are added together they form 14.4%.

1790 Census[edit]

The United States Census of 1790 was the first census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on August 2, 1790. The ancestry of the 3,929,214 population in 1790 has been estimated by various sources by sampling last names in the very first United States official census and assigning them a country of origin.[26] The estimate results indicate that people of English ancestry made up about 47.5% of the total population or 60.9% of the European American population. Some 80.7% of the total United States population was of European heritage.[27] Around 757,208 were of African descent with 697,624 being slaves. Of the remaining population, more than 75% was of British origin.[28]

The states with the highest percentage of English ancestry were Massachusetts 82%, Vermont 76%, Rhode Island 71%, Virginia including West Virginia 68.5%, Connecticut 67%, Maryland incl.DC 64.5%, North Carolina 66%, New Hampshire 61%, South Carolina 60.2%, Maine 60%, Delaware 60%, Kentucky and Tennessee 57.9%, Georgia 57.4%, New York 52%, New Jersey 47%, Pennsylvania 35.3%,

Estimated origin - 1790 United States Census [26][29]
European American Ancestry only Percentage
British (total) 74.3%+
English 60.9%
Scot-Irish/Scot 14.3%
German 8.7%
Dutch/French/Swedish 5.4%
Irish 3.7%
Unidentifiable 7.0 %
Total 100%
African Americans were some 19.3% of the total U.S population.

2000 Census[edit]

English

1790 U.S Ancestry
Based on Evaluated census figures[30]
2000 U.S Ancestry
from the official U.S census[30]
Ancestry group Number
(1790 estimate)
% of
total
Ancestry Number
(2000 count)
% of
total
English 1,900,000 47.5 German 42,885,162 15.2
African 750,000 19.0 African 36,419,434 12.9
Scotch-Irish 320,000 8.0 Irish 30,594,130 10.9
German 280,000 7.0 English 24,515,138 8.7
Irish 200,000 5.0 Mexican 20,640,711 7.3
Scottish 160,000 4.0 Italian 15,723,555 5.6
Welsh 120,000 3.0 French 10,846,018 3.9
Dutch 100,000 2.5 Hispanic 10,017,244 3.6
French 80,000 2.0 Polish 8,977,444 3.2
Spanish 50,000 1.0 Scottish 4,890,581 1.7
Native American 20,000 0.5 Dutch 4,542,494 1.6
Swedish or other 20,000 0.5 Norwegian 4,477,725 1.6
Total 3,929,326 [31] 100 Total 281,421,906 100

In the 2000 census, 24.5 million Americans reported English ancestry, 8.7% of the total U.S. population. This estimate is probably a serious undercount by over 30 million given that, in the 1980 census, around 50 million citizens claimed to be of at least partial English ancestry. In 1980, 23,748,772 Americans claimed wholly English ancestry and another 25,849,263 claimed English along with another ethnic ancestry.[32]

In 1860, an estimated 11 million or almost 35% of the population of the United States was wholly or primarily of English ancestry. The population has increased by almost ten times the numbers in 1860. As with any ethnicity, Americans of English descent may choose to identify themselves as just 'American ethnicity' if their ancestry has been in the United States for many generations or if, for the same reason, they are unaware of their lineages.

English expatriates[edit]

In total, there are estimated to be around 678,000 British born expatriates in the United States with the majority of these being English.[33] By American definition there are around 540,000 English people of any race in the United States, 40,000 Asian English, 20,000 Black British people and approximately 10,000 people of a mixed background.[34]

Distribution[edit]

Hildale, Utah has 66.9% of its population of English descent.
Panguitch, Utah has 40.0%.

Following are the top 20 highest percentages of people of English ancestry, in U.S. communities with 500 or more total inhabitants (for the total list of the 101 communities, see the reference):[35]

  1. Hildale, UT 66.9%
  2. Colorado City, AZ 52.7%
  3. Milbridge, ME 41.1%
  4. Panguitch, UT 40.0%
  5. Beaver, UT 39.8%
  6. Enterprise, UT 39.4%
  7. East Machias, ME 39.1%
  8. Marriott-Slaterville, UT 38.2%
  9. Wellsville, UT 37.9%
  10. Morgan, UT 37.2%
  11. Harrington, ME 36.9%
  12. Farmington, UT 36.9%
  13. Highland, UT 36.7%
  14. Nephi, UT 36.4%
  15. Fruit Heights, UT 35.9%
  16. Addison, ME 35.6%
  17. Farr West, UT 35.4%
  18. Hooper, UT 35.0%
  19. Lewiston, UT 35.0%
  20. Plain City, UT 34.7%

States[edit]

English Americans are found in large numbers throughout America, particularly in the Northeast, South and West. According to the 2000 US census, the 10 states with the largest populations of self reported English Americans are

The ten states with the most English Americans States with the highest percentages of self reported English ancestry are:
1 California (3,521,355 - 7.4% of state population) 1 Utah (29.0%)
2 Florida (1,468,576 - 9.2%) 2 Maine (21.5%)
3 Texas (1,462,984 - 7%) 3 Vermont (18.4%)
4 New York (1,140,036 - 6%) 4 Idaho (18.1%)
5 Ohio (1,046,671 - 9.2%) 5 New Hampshire (18.0%)
6 Pennsylvania (966,253 - 7.9%) 6 Wyoming (15.9%)
7 Michigan (988,625 - 9.9%) 7 Oregon (13.2%)
8 Illinois (831,820 - 6.7%) 8 Montana (12.7%)
9 Virginia (788,849 - 11.1%) 9 Delaware (12.1%)
10 North Carolina (767,749 - 9.5%) 10 Colorado, Rhode Island, Washington (12.0% each)

English was the highest reported European ancestry in the states of Maine, Vermont and Utah; joint highest along with German in the Carolinas.

Maps[edit]

Percentages by county.
Population by state.
Percentages by U.S. State.

On the left, a map showing percentages by county of Americans who declared English ancestry in the 2000 Census. Dark blue and purple colours indicate a higher percentage: highest in the east and west (see also Maps of American ancestries). Center, a map showing the population of English Americans by state. On the right, a map showing the percentages of English Americans by state.

History[edit]

Reenactment of the first landing where John Smith claims the beach for England
A statue in Historic Jamestowne commemorating the site of the first permanent English settlement in America.

Early settlement and colonization[edit]

English settlement in America began with Jamestown in the Virginia Colony in 1607. With the permission of James I, three ships (the Susan Constant, The Discovery, and The God Speed) sailed from England and landed at Cape Henry in April, under the captainship of Christopher Newport,[16] who had been hired by the London Company to lead expeditions to what is now America.[36]

The second successful colony was Plymouth Colony, founded in 1620 by people who later became known as the Pilgrims. Fleeing religious persecution in the East Midlands in England, they first went to Holland, but feared losing their English identity.[37] Because of this, they chose to relocate to the New World, with their voyage being financed by English investors.[38] In September 1620, 102 passengers set sail aboard the Mayflower, eventually settling at Plymouth Colony in November.[39] This story has become a central theme in the United States cultural identity.

A number of English colonies were established under a system of proprietary governors, who were appointed under mercantile charters to English joint stock companies to found and run settlements.

England also took over the Dutch colony of New Netherland (including the New Amsterdam settlement), renaming it the Province of New York in 1664.[40] With New Netherland, the English came to control the former New Sweden (in what is now Delaware), which the Dutch had conquered from Sweden earlier.[41] This became part of Pennsylvania.

English immigration after 1776[edit]

English-born in the United States 1850-1990 [42][43]
Year Population % of foreign born % of total population
1990 405,588
1980 442,499
1970 458,114 4.8 0.2
1960 528,205 5.4 0.3
1950 809,563
1940 //
1930 809,563 5.7 0.7
1920 813,853
1910 877,719 6.5 1.1
1900 840,513
1890 908,141 9.8 1.4
1880 662,676
1870 550,924 10.0 1.4
1860 431,692
1850 278,675 12.4 1.2




An estimated 3.5 million English immigrated to the U.S. after 1776.[44] English settlers provided a steady and substantial influx throughout the nineteenth century. The first wave of increasing English immigration began in the late 1820s and was sustained by unrest in the United Kingdom until it peaked in 1842 and declined slightly for nearly a decade. Most of these were small farmers and tenant farmers from depressed areas in rural counties in southern and western England and urban laborers who fled from the depressions and from the social and industrial changes of the late 1820s-1840s. While some English immigrants were drawn by dreams of creating model utopian societies in America, most others were attracted by the lure of new lands, textile factories, railroads, and the expansion of mining.

A number of English settlers moved to the United States from Australia in the 1850s (then a British political territory), when the California Gold Rush boomed; these included the so-called "Sydney Ducks" (see Australian Americans).

During the last years of the 1860s, annual English immigration increased to over 60,000 and continued to rise to over 75,000 per year in 1872, before experiencing a decline. The final and most sustained wave of immigration began in 1879 and lasted until the depression of 1893. During this period English annual immigration averaged more than 82,000, with peaks in 1882 and 1888 and did not drop significantly until the financial panic of 1893.[43] The building of America's transcontinental railroads, the settlement of the great plains, and industrialization attracted skilled and professional emigrants from England. Also, cheaper steamship fares enabled unskilled urban workers to come to America, and unskilled and semiskilled laborers, miners, and building trades workers made up the majority of these new English immigrants. While most settled in America, a number of skilled craftsmen remained itinerant, returning to England after a season or two of work.[citation needed] Groups of English immigrants came to America as missionaries for the Salvation Army and to work with the activities of the Evangelical and LDS Churches.

The depression of 1893 sharply decreased English emigration to the United States, and it stayed low for much of the twentieth century. This decline reversed itself in the decade of World War II when over 100,000 English (18 percent of all European immigrants) came from England. In this group was a large contingent of war brides who came between 1945 and 1948. In these years four women emigrated from England for every man.[43] In the 1950s, English immigration increased to over 150,000.and rose to 170,000 in the 1960s.[45] While differences developed, it is not surprising that English immigrants had little difficulty in assimilating to American life. The American resentment against the policies of the British government[citation needed]was rarely transferred to English settlers who came to America in the first decades of the nineteenth century.

Throughout American history, English immigrants and their descendants have been prominent in every level of government and in every aspect of American life. Eight of the first ten American presidents and more than that proportion of the 42 presidents, as well as the majority of sitting congressmen and congresswomen, are descended from English ancestors. The descendants of English expatriates are so numerous and so well integrated in American life that it is impossible to identify all of them. While they are the third largest ethnic nationality self reported in the 1990 census, they retain such a pervasive representation at every level of national and state government that, on any list of American senators, Supreme Court judges, governors, or legislators, they would constitute a plurality if not an outright majority.[46] Today it is estimated that over 80 million Americans are of English ancestry, not including African Americans, who also have some English ancestry.

Political involvement[edit]

Colonial period[edit]

John Trumbull's famous painting, Declaration of Independence. Two Red Ensigns, one British flag, and one English flag can be seen upon the wall.
Thomas Paine was an English-American political activist, author, political theorist and revolutionary. As the author of two highly influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution, he inspired the Patriots in 1776 to declare independence from Britain.
.

As the earliest colonists of the United States, settlers from England and their descendants often held positions of power and made or helped make laws,[47] often because many had been involved in government back in England.[48] In the original 13 colonies, most laws contained elements found in the English common law system.[49]

The Founding Fathers[edit]

The lineage of most of the Founding Fathers was English. Such persons include Samuel Adams.[50] Other signatories of the Declaration of Independence, such as Robert Morris were English born.[51] Of the "Committee of Five" (the group delegated to draft the Declaration of Independence), John Adams of Massachusetts, Benjamin Franklin [52] of Pennsylvania, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, and Roger Sherman of Connecticut had English roots. The United States Declaration of Independence was written primarily by Thomas Jefferson.

Language[edit]

English language distribution in the United States.

The English have contributed greatly to American life. Today, English is the most commonly spoken language in the U.S, where it is estimated that two thirds of all native speakers of English live.[53] English was inherited from English colonization, and it is spoken by the vast majority of the population. It serves as the de facto official language: the language in which government business is carried out. According to the 1990 census, 94% of the U.S. population speak only English.[54] Adding those who speak English "well" or "very well" brings this figure to 96%.[54] Only 0.8% speak no English at all as compared with 3.6% in 1890. American English differs from British English in a number of ways, the most striking being in terms of pronunciation (for example, American English retains voicing of the letter "R" after vowels, unlike standard British English) and spelling (a classic example being the "u" in words such as color, favor (USA) vs colour, favour (UK)). Less obvious differences are present in grammar, vocabulary, and slang usage. The differences are rarely a barrier to effective communication between American English and British English speakers, but there are certainly enough differences to cause occasional misunderstandings, usually surrounding slang or region dialect differences. The two are however generally treated as mutually intelligible.

Some states, like California, have amended their constitutions to make English the only official language, but in practice, this only means that official government documents must at least be in English, and does not mean that they should be exclusively available only in English. For example, the standard California Class C driver's license examination is available in 32 different languages.

Expressions[edit]

"In for a penny, in for a pound" is an expression to mean, ("if you're going to take a risk at all, you might as well make it a big risk"), is used in the United States which dates back to the colonial period, when cash in the colonies was denominated in Pounds, shillings and Pence.[55] Today, the one-cent coin is commonly known as a penny. A modern alternative expression is "In for a dime, in for a dollar".

American cultural icons[edit]

American cultural icons, apple pie, baseball, and the American flag.

Much of American culture also shows influences from English culture.

American flag[edit]

Cuisine[edit]

  • Apple pie - New England was the first region to experience large scale English colonization in the early 17th century, beginning in 1620, and it was dominated by East Anglian Calvinists, better known as the Puritans. Baking was a particular favorite of the New Englanders and was the origin of dishes today seen as quintessentially "American", such as apple pie and the baked Thanksgiving turkey.[56] "As American As Apple Pie" is a well known phrase used to imply everything that is All-American.

Harvest festivals[edit]

The First Thanksgiving at Plymouth, Massachusetts by English Pilgrims in 1621.
  • Thanksgiving -In England, thanks have been given for successful harvests since pagan times. The celebrations on this day usually include singing hymns, praying, and decorating churches with baskets of fruit and food in the festival known as Harvest Festival, Harvest Home or Harvest Thanksgiving. In the U.S. it has become a national secular holiday with religious origins, but in England it remains a Church festival giving thanks to God for the harvest. The first Thanksgiving was celebrated by English settlers to give thanks to God for helping the Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony survive the brutal winter.[57] The modern Thanksgiving holiday traces its origins from a 1621 celebration at the Plymouth Plantation, where the Plymouth settlers held a harvest feast after a successful growing season. William Bradford is credited as the first to proclaim what the American cultural event is generally referred to as the "First Thanksgiving".

Sports[edit]

English-born Henry Chadwick is often called the "father of Baseball".
  • Baseball - English lawyer William Bray recorded a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford, Surrey; Bray's diary was verified as authentic in September 2008.[58][59] This early form of the game was apparently brought to North America by English immigrants. The first appearance of the term that exists in print was in "A Little Pretty Pocket-Book" in 1744, where it is called Base-Ball. Today, Rounders which has been played in England since Tudor times holds a similarity to Baseball. Although, literary references to early forms of "base-ball" in England pre-date use of the term "rounders".[60]

Music[edit]

Another area of cultural influence are American Patriotic songs:

Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of American officialdom.

  • Amazing Grace - written by English poet and clergyman John Newton became such an icon in American culture that it has been used for a variety of secular purposes and marketing campaigns, placing it in danger of becoming a cliché.[67]

Motorcycle maker[edit]

Automobile maker Ford Motor Company: founded by Henry Ford, born to an English father, William Ford

Beverages[edit]

John PembertonCoca-Cola logo.svg

Two of the world's most famous soft drinks were invented by Americans of English descent. Pemberton and Alderton are both English surnames.

Coca-Cola was formulated at the Eagle Drug and Chemical Company, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia by John Pemberton, originally as a coca wine called Pemberton's French Wine Cocoa.[69][70]

The first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886.[71] It was initially sold as a patent medicine for five cents[72] a glass at soda fountains, which were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health.[73] Pemberton claimed Coca-Cola cured many diseases, including morphine addiction, dyspepsia, neurasthenia, headache, and impotence. Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the Atlanta Journal.[74]

Dr Pepper is a soft drink and was invented in the 1880s by pharmacist Charles Alderton in Waco, Texas, and first made in 1885. Charles Courtice Alderton was born in Brooklyn, New York to English parents who was later sent to England to be educated.[75][76] It is the oldest of the major brand soft drinks in America.[77]

English family names[edit]

Of the top ten family names in the United States, eight have English origins or having possible mixed British Isles heritage, the other two being of Spanish origin. This is the first time two surnames of non-British Isles origin have been in the top 10 most common family names. Many African Americans have their origins in slavery (i.e. slave name). Many of them came to bear the surnames of their former owners. Many freed slaves either created family names themselves or adopted the name of their former master. According to 2000 U.S. Census data, the top ten surnames in the United States are:[78] In the last UK Census in 2001, surnames in England can be compared to the United States with 6 of the family names in England being in both their top ten.[79] Many English surnames are also found in Ireland. This is attributable to a number of factors, including the Protestant Plantation of Ireland, as well as the imposition of the Penal Laws in the Middle Ages, which forced many Irish people to Anglicize their surnames. Also, in the 9th century, Viking invaders brought many Norse names to Ireland that they had already brought to England when they established and settled the Danelaw. Although some Scandinavian names may have been brought to England in pre-Viking times, especially in the North and East (who says?). Moreover, the Anglo-Normans who invaded Ireland in the 1170s brought many Norman French names which they had already spread to England.

Name Rank - 2000 Number Country of Origin England - 2001 [79][80]
Smith 1 2,376,207 England,[81] Scotland [82] Smith
Johnson 2 1,857,160 England [83] Jones
Williams 3 1,534,042 England, Wales[84] Taylor
Brown 4 1,380,145 England, Ireland, Scotland [85] Brown
Jones 5 1,362,755 England, Wales [86] Williams
Miller 6 1,127,803 England, Ireland, or Scotland (Miller can be the anglicized version of Mueller/Müller - a surname from Germany)[87] Wilson
Davis 7 1,072,335 England, Wales [88] Johnson
García 8 858,289 Spain [89] Davies
Rodríguez 9 804,240 Spain [90] Robinson
Wilson 10 783,051 England, Scotland [91] Wright

English place names in the United States[edit]

(left) Boston, MA is named after Boston, England. (center) The city of Pittsburgh, is named after Englishman William Pitt. (right) The State of Pennsylvania is named after William Penn.

There are many places in the United States named after places in England as a result of the many English settlers and explorers. These include New York (after the Duke of York[92]), New Hampshire (after Hampshire[93]), New Jersey after the British Crown Dependency of Jersey. Manchester,[94] Boston,[95] Southampton,[96] Gloucester and the region of New England. In addition, some places were named after the English royal family. The name Virginia was first applied by Queen Elizabeth I (the "Virgin Queen") and Sir Walter Raleigh in 1584.,[97] the Carolinas were named after King Charles I and Maryland named so for his wife, Queen Henrietta Maria (Queen Mary) and also Georgia was named after King George II.[98]

Architecture[edit]

Boston College (left) has some of the earliest examples of collegiate gothic architecture.
Georgian architecture (right) in Philadelphia. They all have influences from the Architecture of England.

Architecture such as the United States Capitol building in Washington, D.C. which was first designed by English-educated American Architect William Thornton. Also, many American college campuses, such as Harvard, Yale, Brown, Williams, Princeton University, and the University of Delaware, have English Georgian or English gothic architecture.

Law[edit]

The American legal system also has its roots in English law.[99] For example, elements of the Magna Carta were incorporated into the United States constitution.[100] English law prior to the revolution is still part of the law of the United States, and provides the basis for many American legal traditions and policies. After the revolution, English law was again adopted by the now independent American States.[101]

Presidents of English descent[edit]

George Washington
Thomas Jefferson
William Henry Harrison
Franklin Pierce
Gerald Ford
George W Bush

Most of the Presidents of the United States have had English ancestry.[102] The extent of English Heritage varies in the presidents with earlier presidents being predominantly of colonial English Yankee stock. Later US Presidents' ancestry can often be traced to ancestors from multiple nations in Europe, including England.

George Washington (English)
1st President 1789-97 (great-grandfather, John Washington from Purleigh, Essex, England.[103][104])
John Adams (English)
2nd President 1797-1801 (great-great-grandfather, Henry Adams born 1583 Barton St David, Somerset, England, immigrated to Boston, Massachusetts.[105][106])
Thomas Jefferson (English and Scots-English)
3rd President 1801–1809 (Maternal English ancestry from William Randolph.)
James Madison (English)
4th President 1809-17[15]
John Quincy Adams (English)
6th President 1825-29 (Henry Adams born 1583 Barton St David, Somerset, England.[105][106])
William Henry Harrison (English)
9th President 1841-1841 [107]
John Tyler (English)
10th President 1841-1845 [108]
Zachary Taylor (English)
12th President 1849-50
Millard Fillmore (English)
13th President 1850-1853 [109]
Franklin Pierce (English)
14th President 1853-1857 [110]
Abraham Lincoln (English, Welsh)
16th President 1861-65 (Samuel Lincoln baptised 1622 in Hingham, Norfolk, England, died in Hingham, Massachusetts.[111][112])
Andrew Johnson (Scots-Irish and English)
17th President 1865-1869 [113]
Ulysses S. Grant (Scots-Irish, English & Scottish)
18th President, 1869-77
Rutherford B. Hayes (English)
19th President 1877-1881 [114]
James A. Garfield (English, Welsh and French)
20th President 1881-81 [115]
Chester A. Arthur (Scots-Irish and English)
21st President 1881-85
Grover Cleveland (Scots-Irish & English)
22nd and 24th President, 1885-89 and 1893-97
Benjamin Harrison (Scots-Irish & English)
23rd President, 1889-93
William McKinley (Scots-Irish & English)
25th President, 1897-1901
Theodore Roosevelt (Scots-Irish, Dutch, Scots, English & French)
26th President, 1901-09
William Howard Taft (Scots-Irish & English)
27th President 1909-13[116][117]
Warren G. Harding (Scots-Irish & English)
29th President 1921-23[118]
Calvin Coolidge (English)
30th President 1923-1929 [119]
Franklin D. Roosevelt (Dutch, French & English)
32nd President 1933-45
Harry S Truman (Scots-Irish, English & German)
33rd President 1945-53[120][121]
Lyndon B. Johnson (English)
36th President 1963-69
Richard Nixon (Scots-Irish, Irish, English & German)
37th President, 1969-74
Gerald Ford (English)
38th President 1974-77
Jimmy Carter (Scotch-Irish & English)
39th President 1977-81 (Thomas Carter Sr. emigrated from England to Isle of Wight County, Virginia.[122])
Ronald Reagan (Scots-Irish, Irish, English & Scottish)
40th President 1981-89: He was the great-grandson, on his father's side, of Irish migrants from County Tipperary who came to America via Canada and England in the 1840s. His mother was of Scottish and English ancestry.[123]
George H. W. Bush (Scots-Irish, English, Dutch & German)
41st President 1989-93: County Wexford historians have found that one of his ancestors, Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke nicknamed "Strongbow" offered his military services in the 12th-century Norman invasion of Wexford, Ireland. Strongbow married Aoife, daughter of Dermot MacMurrough, the Gaelic king of Leinster who had welcomed the Norman assistance to regain his throne in Ireland. .[124][125]
Bill Clinton (Scots-Irish & English)
42nd President 1993-2001
George W. Bush (Scots-Irish, English, Dutch, German & Welsh)
43rd President 2001-2009: Reynold Bush from Messing, Essex, England emigrated in 1631 to Cambridge, Massachusetts.[126]
Barack Obama (Luo, English & Irish)
44th President 2009-: His maternal ancestors came to America from France, England, Germany, Switzerland and Ireland.[127][128] His ancestors lived in New England and the South and by the 1800s most were in the Midwest. His father was Luo (or Jaluo) from Kenya, and was the first person in his family to travel or live outside of Africa.

Other notable English Americans[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ US Census 1980
  2. ^ 2010 ACS Ancestry estimates
  3. ^ Maps of American ancestries
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j http://www.census.gov/population/www/censusdata/files/pc80-s1-10/tab03.pdf
  5. ^ American FactFinder
  6. ^ Census 2009 ACS Ancestry estimates
  7. ^ Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America By Dominic J. Pulera.
  8. ^ Reynolds Farley, 'The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?', Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421.
  9. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, 'The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns', Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44-6.
  10. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, 'Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites', Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82-86.
  11. ^ Mary C. Waters, Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), p. 36.
  12. ^ Data on selected ancestry groups.
  13. ^ 1980 United States Census
  14. ^ Ben J. Wattenberg (1985). "Chapter 14. The First Universal Nation". The good news is the bad news is wrong. American Enterprise Institute. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-671-60641-1. 
  15. ^ a b [1][dead link]
  16. ^ a b English Emigration
  17. ^ From many strands: ethnic and racial groups in contemporary América by Stanley Lieberson
  18. ^ Harvard encyclopedia of American ethnic groups. By Stephan Thernstrom
  19. ^ "Rank of States for Selected Ancestry Groups with 100,00 or more persons: 1980". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
  20. ^ "1990 Census of Population Detailed Ancestry Groups for States". United States Census Bureau. 18 September 1992. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
  21. ^ "Ancestry: 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
  22. ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
  23. ^ Encyclopedia of North American immigration
  24. ^ Ethnic groups in the U.S in 1775 Census
  25. ^ United States Federal Census
  26. ^ a b From many strands: ethnic and racial groups in contemporary América By Stanley Lieberson, Mary C. Waters
  27. ^ Historical U.S population by race
  28. ^ Ethnicity in contemporary America: a geographical appraisal By Jesse O. McKee
  29. ^ The dynamics of American ethnic, religious, and racial group life. By Philip Perlmutter
  30. ^ a b The Source: Gen
  31. ^ U.S 1790 Census
  32. ^ World Culture Encyclopedia
  33. ^ Brits Abroad
  34. ^ English Ethnicity 2005
  35. ^ "Top 101 cities with the most residents of English ancestry (population 500+)". Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  36. ^ Christopher Newport at Infoplease
  37. ^ Bassetlaw Museum
  38. ^ Thanksgiving on the Net
  39. ^ Pilgrims - Learn English
  40. ^ Digital History
  41. ^ US History - New Seden
  42. ^ "Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-born Population of the United States: 1850-1990"
  43. ^ a b c Harvard encyclopedia of American ethnic groups By Stephan Thernstrom
  44. ^ Ethnicity in the U.S English-Americans part 2
  45. ^ English Americans - History, Contemporary england, Immigration, settlement, and employment, Acculturation and Assimilation
  46. ^ The Laws of Olde England Stateside, Marcus Hampshire
  47. ^ Historians.org
  48. ^ History of Colonial America. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. 
  49. ^ The Colonial Period
  50. ^ [2] "Laban Adams belongs to the illustrious family of Henry Adams who came from Devonshire, England, about 1636 and settled in Quincy, Massachusetts His great great grandson, Samuel Adams, was the "Father of the Great American Revolution,"
  51. ^ UShistory - Robert Morris
  52. ^ Benjamin Franklin Timeline
  53. ^ Languages Spoken in the United States.
  54. ^ a b Summary Tables on Language Use and English Ability: 2000 (PHC-T-20). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  55. ^ Michener, "Money in the American Colonies".
  56. ^ Fischer, pp. 74, 114, 134–39.
  57. ^ William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation 1620-1647, 85
  58. ^ Baseball 'origin' uncovered videoclip
  59. ^ Base Ball History
  60. ^ Major League Baseball told: Your sport is British, not American
  61. ^ The new American sport history
  62. ^ "John Stafford Smith: Composer of the Star Spangled Banner". 
  63. ^ Star-Spangled Banner origins
  64. ^ Star Spangled Banner
  65. ^ "My country 'tis of thee [Song Collection]". The Library of Congress. Retrieved 2009-01-20. 
  66. ^ Snyder, Lois Leo (1990). Encyclopedia of Nationalism. Paragon House. p. 13. ISBN 1-55778-167-2. 
  67. ^ Tracing the History of a Beloved Hymn
  68. ^ Littleport England and the Harley connection
  69. ^ Coca Cola Inventor was Local Pharmacist, Columbus Ledger
  70. ^ "Coca-Cola  — Our Brands". Retrieved 2007-02-11. 
  71. ^ "The Chronicle Of Coca-Cola". Retrieved 2007-11-28. 
  72. ^ Harford, Tim (2007-05-11). "The Mystery of the 5-Cent Coca-Cola: Why it's so hard for companies to raise prices". Slate. 
  73. ^ "Themes for Coca-Cola Advertising (1886-1999)". Retrieved 2007-02-11. 
  74. ^ Mark Pendergrast (2000). For God, Country and Coca-Cola. Basic Books. p. 32. ISBN 0-465-05468-4. 
  75. ^ Entrepreneur magazine encyclopedia of entrepreneurs By Anthony Hallett
  76. ^ Made in America: From Levi's to Barbie to Google By Nick Freeth
  77. ^ Oldest of the major brand soft drinks in America
  78. ^ Sam Roberts (2007-11-17). "In U.S. Name Count, Garcias Are Catching Up With Joneses". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-11-18. 
  79. ^ a b www.ucl.ac.uk/paediatric-epidemiology Most common surnames in Britain.
  80. ^ English Surnames - Meanings & Origins of the Most Popular English Surnames
  81. ^ SMITH - Surname Meaning | Origin for the Surname Smith Genealogy
  82. ^ Scottish Surnames
  83. ^ JOHNSON - Name Meaning & Origin
  84. ^ WILLIAMS - Name Meaning & Origin
  85. ^ BROWN - Name Meaning & Origin
  86. ^ JONES - Name Meaning & Origin
  87. ^ The Geography of European Surnames
  88. ^ Name Meaning & Origin
  89. ^ GARCIA - Name Meaning & Origin
  90. ^ RODRIGUEZ - Name Meaning & Origin
  91. ^ WILSON - Name Meaning & Origin
  92. ^ 50 States - NY.
  93. ^ Netstate - New Hampshire.
  94. ^ Manchester History.
  95. ^ Boston History.
  96. ^ Southampton, Massachusetts.
  97. ^ In 1584 Sir Walter Raleigh sent Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to lead an exploration of what is now the North Carolina coast, and they returned with word of a regional "king" named "Wingina." This was modified later that year by Raleigh and the Queen to "Virginia", perhaps in part noting her status as the "Virgin Queen." Stewart, George (1945). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. p. 22. 
  98. ^ Introduction to Maryland
  99. ^ Sources of United States Legal Information
  100. ^ Magna Carta
  101. ^ COMMON LAW V. CIVIL LAW SYSTEMS
  102. ^ "Genealogy and Ancestry of Barack Obama and the Other U.S. Presidents". 
  103. ^ [3][dead link]
  104. ^ Irvin Haas (1992). Historic Homes of the American Presidents. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-26751-2. 
  105. ^ a b Henry Adams born 1583 Barton St David, Somerset, England
  106. ^ a b Henry Adams
  107. ^ [4][dead link]
  108. ^ [5][dead link]
  109. ^ [6][dead link]
  110. ^ [7][dead link]
  111. ^ The Ancestry of Abraham Lincoln, James Henry Lea, Robert Hutchinson, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1909, p. 4.
  112. ^ Ancestors of Abraham Lincoln
  113. ^ [8][dead link]
  114. ^ [9][dead link]
  115. ^ [10][dead link]
  116. ^ Marck, John T. "William H. Taft". aboutfamouspeople.com. Retrieved 2008-04-14. 
  117. ^ "The Presidents, William Taft". American Heritage.com. Retrieved 19 November 2009. 
  118. ^ "Warren Gamaliel Harding". thinkquest.com. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  119. ^ [11][dead link]
  120. ^ Marck, John T. "Harry S. Truman". aboutfamouspeople.com. Retrieved 2008-04-16. 
  121. ^ "The Presidents, Harry S Truman". American Heritage.com. Retrieved 19 November 2009. 
  122. ^ ANCESTRY OF PRESIDENT CARTER
  123. ^ "The Presidents, Ronald Reagan". American Heritage.com. Retrieved 19 November 2009. 
  124. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (2005-01-27). "Scion of traitors and warlords: why Bush is coy about his Irish links". London: Guardian. Retrieved 13 July 2010. 
  125. ^ "American Presidents with Irish Ancestors". Directory of Irish Genealogy. Retrieved 15 April 2008. 
  126. ^ George W Bush, Essex boy
  127. ^ [12][dead link]
  128. ^ "Ancestry of Barack Obama". William Addams Reitwiesner. Retrieved 2009-12-02.