English settlement in Nicaragua

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English settlement in Nicaragua is a process that began in 1633 with the English occupation of the Caribbean coast, taking its repercussions in that area compared to groups of African origin - exported by the English - and indigenous residents in it.

History[edit]

Early English: The Caribbean coast of Nicaragua[edit]

The first English settlers who arrived in Nicaragua, were established in the Caribbean Coast of that country in 1633, exchanging products, in a kind of primitive trade with the Indians Misquitos. Thus, the British ceded manufactured goods such as guns, machetes, beds, mirrors etc., In exchange for cocoa, animal skins, sarsaparilla, rubber, wood, and shells of turtles that were Amerindians. The formation of an English colony in the region led Spain to protest but still, England manages to create a colony on the Atlantic Coast. This colony had several different production methods, but complement each other: The first type of production was a capitalist basis, while the second was communal. Capitalist production was based on the importation of African slaves in the region to use for the operation of the sugar cane plantations, especially cotton and harvesting of Mahogany. So, it was they who, for gains, brought most African slaves of the Nicaraguan coast. The obtained products were sold to other English colonies in North America, the Caribbean Sea and London. Communal production, typical of the area and strengthened by new settlers, was based on the appointment of a Miskito King, to get the people to surrender their territorial sovereignty king of England, in order to legitimize their rule over the oceanic route . In 1847, the British occupied the Nicaraguan side of the Mosquito Coast, eventually building a canal that crossed the Central American mainland or Panama and to try to prevent the United States be advanced .

However, in 1860 Britain and the United States sign a treaty because developed international negotiations between the two countries. So, from 1894, England, abandons gradually the Caribbean coast, delivering in 1905, the territory to U.S. companies, the latter occupation lasting until 1930. [1]

Consequences of withdrawal English[edit]

After British withdrawal, on the Caribbean coast, it remains for 44 years as an autonomous region of Nicaragua, having its own laws and regulations until 1894, when President José Santos Zelaya said the reintegration of Moskitia to Nicaragua, developing monopolies for mestizos in the area and to U.S. interests, as well as replacing the name of the Mosquito Coast by the Department of Zelaya. Beyond this, the government encouraged a massive immigration of Nicaraguan mestizos, especially those engaged in military affairs, commercial, speculative and entrepreneurs. Immigrants and Nicaraguan government officials evicted from their lands to the indigenous Amerindians and Afro-descendants living in them and imposed heavy fines on the natives of the coast. In addition, the government abolished the laws of the region and built the Nicaraguan government institutions and structures, forming schools, police, government etc. This imposition of that such institutions were built, was made through the use of force. The most important result was the prohibition of education in English and their own languages, only languages spoken by the population - indigenous population, Garifuna and Afro descendants- of this Nicaraguan area. It caused an abandonment of schools and colleges of the coast for generations. Anyway, the Nicaraguan coast always remained economically dominated by American companies until the 1930s when U.S. companies were gradually replaced by capital of Somoza family and its allies until 1979 with the triumph of the Sandinista Revolution. In 1987 the Caribbean Coast achieved independence from the government. However, the government feared losing control of the coast so he decides to divide the territory first two autonomous regions: South Atlantic Autonomous Region and North Atlantic Autonomous Region and subsequently in ethnic groups, causing internal conflicts that still remain [1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://www.aiidca.org/es/pagina/Historia%20de%20la%20Costa Breve Reseña Histórica - Asociación Indígena para la Integración y Desarrollo de la Región Autónoma de la Costa Atlántica (In Spanish:Brief History - Indigenous Association for the Integration and Development of the Autonomous Region of the Atlantic Coast)