English As She Is Spoke
|Original title||O Novo Guia da Conversação em Portuguez e Inglez|
|Language||Portuguese and English|
|Publisher||Appleton & Co.|
|Text||English As She Is Spoke at Wikisource|
English as She Is Spoke is the common name of a 19th-century book written by Pedro Carolino, and falsely additionally credited to José da Fonseca, which was intended as a Portuguese-English conversational guide or phrase book, but is regarded as a classic source of unintentional humour, as the given English translations are generally completely incoherent.
The humour appears to be a result of dictionary-aided literal translation, which causes many idiomatic expressions to be translated wildly inappropriately. For example, the Portuguese phrase chover a cântaros is translated as raining in jars, whereas an idiomatic English translation would be raining buckets.
It is widely believed that Carolino could not speak English, and that a French-English dictionary was used to translate an earlier Portuguese-French phrase book, O Novo guia da conversação em francês e português, written by José da Fonseca. Carolino likely added Fonseca's name to the book without his permission in an attempt to give it some credibility. The Portuguese-French phrase book is apparently a competent work, without the defects that characterize English as She Is Spoke.
Cultural appraisals and influence
The book played its part in maintaining morale during the American Civil War—Frederick W. Seward recording how, in January 1864, "As John Hay read aloud its queer inverted sentences, Lincoln and Seward laughed heartily, their minds finding a brief but welcome relief from care".
Stephen Pile mentions this work in The Book of Heroic Failures, and comments: "Is there anything in conventional English which could equal the vividness of 'to craunch a marmoset'?" The original has "to craunch the marmoset", an entry under the book's "Idiotisms and Proverbs." This is the author's attempt to translate the French slang idiomatic expression "croquer le marmot", used to indicate waiting patiently for someone to open a door, with "croquer" referring to the knocking or rapping sound and "marmot" a term for the grotesque door knockers in vogue at the time. The term is presumably inspired by the marmot's large teeth, as many of the grotesque door knockers were figures holding the knocker clasped in their teeth.
- 1853 - In Paris, J.-P. Aillaud, Monlon e Ca published a Portuguese-French phrase book entitled O Novo guia da conversação em francês e português by José da Fonseca. The Portuguese Biblioteca Nacional has a copy of this book with catalogue number L.686P. Another copy of this book is in the Bibliothèque nationale de France under the catalogue number FRBNF30446608.
- 1855 - In Paris, J.-P. Aillaud, Monlon e Ca published a Portuguese-English phrase book entitled O Novo Guia da Conversação, em Português e Inglês, em Duas Partes (literally, The new guide to conversation, in Portuguese and English, in two parts), with authorship attributed to José da Fonseca and Pedro Carolino. A copy of this book is in the Bibliothèque nationale de France under the catalogue number FRBNF30446609. Another copy is in the Bodleian Library, Oxford.
- 1883 - The book was published in London as English as She is Spoke. The first American edition, published in Boston also came out this year, with an introduction by Mark Twain.
- 1969 - The book was re-published in New York by Dover Publications, under the title English as she is spoke; the new guide of the conversation in Portuguese and English (ISBN 0-486-22329-9).
- 2002 - A new edition edited by Paul Collins was published under the Collins Library imprint of McSweeney's (ISBN 0-9719047-4-X).
- 2002 - Brazilian edition of the copies of the 1855 edition held in the Bibliothèque nationale de France and the Bodleian Library, published by Casa da Palavra, Rio de Janeiro (ISBN 85-87220-56-X).
- 2004 - A revised paperback version of the above Collins Library edition was published (ISBN 1-932416-11-0).
The phrase inspired some other publications, notably:
- English as she is wrote (1883)
- English as she is taught (1887), also with introduction by Mark Twain
- Ingglish az she iz spelt (1885), by "Fritz Federheld" (pseud. of Frederick Atherton Fernald)
- Britain as she is visit, a spoof tourist guide in similar style to the original book. By Paul Jennings, British Life (M Joseph, 1976)
The phrase English as she is spoke is nowadays used allusively, in a form of linguistic play, as a stereotypical example of bad English grammar.
- Striking and Picturesque Delineations of the Grand, Beautiful, Wonderful, and Interesting Scenery Around Loch-Earn
- All your base are belong to us for a modern example of unintended humorous translation.
- Dirty Hungarian Phrasebook
- "The Collins Library: The Mystery of Pedro Carolino". Archived from the original on 2002-04-15. Retrieved 2009-01-15.
- "The Origins of English as She is Spoke". Archived from the original on 2003-02-02. Retrieved 2009-01-15.
- "The Evolution of "English as She is Spoke"". Archived from the original on 2002-12-07. Retrieved 2009-01-15.
- Mark Twain, Introduction to The New Guide of the Conversation in Portuguese and English" (1883) p. 239
- D. K. Goodwin, Team of Rivals (2009) p. 600
- "Scan of 1883 printed version; p.60". Retrieved 2009-06-14.
- A mistranslation of the French expression "croquer le marmot", to wait around (fruitlessly).
- English as she is spoke (1883), "Related: English as she is Taught by Caroline B. Le Row (1887)."
- Sampson, Rodney; Smith, Colin (1997). And now for something completely different: Dictionary of allusions in British English. Hueber. p. 324. ISBN 3-19-002468-5.
- The New Guide of the Conversation, in Portuguese and English, in Two Parts: full facsimile of the 1855 edition at Google Books
- English as She is Spoke; Or, A Jest in Sober Earnest: Full facsimile/ scan of the original book (1883)
- English as She is Spoke; Or, A Jest in Sober Earnest: full facsimile at Google Books (US Only)
- Plain text ebook of English as She is Spoke at Project Gutenberg
- English as she is spoke vs. Babelfish
- English as she is spoke: Idiotisms and Proverbs