British colonization of the Americas

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European colonization
of the Americas
First colonization
British
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Dutch
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Hospitaller
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Colonization of Canada
Colonization of the U.S.
Decolonization

British colonization of the Americas (including colonization by both the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland before the Acts of Union, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707) began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas. The English, and later the British, were among the most important colonizers of the Americas, and their American empire came to rival the Spanish American colonies in military and economic might.

Three types of colonies existed in the British Empire in America during the height of its power in the eighteenth century. These were charter colonies, proprietary colonies and royal colonies. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815), British territories in the Americas were slowly granted more responsible government. In 1838 the Durham Report recommended full responsible government for Canada but this did not get fully implemented for another decade. Eventually with the Confederation of Canada, the Canadian colonies were granted a significant amount of autonomy and became a self-governing Dominion in 1867. Other colonies in the rest of the Americas followed at a much slower pace. In this way, two countries in North America, ten in the Caribbean, and one in South America have received their independence from the United Kingdom. All of these are members of the Commonwealth of Nations and nine are Commonwealth realms. The eight remaining British overseas territories in the Americas have varying degrees of self-government.

Britain in the Americas

North America[edit]

Pre-British colonisation of North America[edit]

English colonies in North America[edit]

Plaque in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, commemorating Gilbert's founding of the British overseas Empire

A number of English colonies were established under a system of Proprietary Governors, who were appointed under mercantile charters to English joint stock companies to found and run settlements, most notably the Virginia Company, which created the first successful English settlement at Jamestown and the second at St. George's, Bermuda.

In 1664, England also took over the Dutch colony of New Netherland, (including the New Amsterdam settlement), which England renamed the Province of New York. With New Netherland, the English also came to control the former New Sweden (in what is now Delaware), which the Dutch had conquered earlier. This later became part of Pennsylvania after it was established in 1680.

Scottish colonies in North America[edit]

There was also an early unsuccessful attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to establish a colony at Darién, and the short-lived Scottish colonisation of Nova Scotia (New Scotland) from 1629 to 1632. Thousands of Scotsmen also participated in the English colonisation even before the two countries were united in 1708.

British colonies in North America[edit]

The Kingdom of Great Britain acquired the French colony of Acadia in 1713 and then Canada and the Spanish colony of Florida in 1763. After being renamed the Province of Quebec, the former French Canada was divided in two Provinces, the Canadas, consisting of the old settled country of Lower Canada (today Quebec) and the newly settled Upper Canada (today Ontario).

In the north, the Hudson's Bay Company actively traded for fur with the indigenous peoples, and had competed with French, Aboriginal, and Metis fur traders. The company came to control the entire drainage basin of Hudson Bay called Rupert's Land. The small part of the Hudson Bay drainage south of the 49th parallel went to the United States in the Anglo-American Convention of 1818.

Thirteen of Great Britain's colonies rebelled with the American Revolutionary War, beginning in 1775, primarily over representation, local laws and tax issues, and established the United States of America, which was recognised internationally with the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1783) on 3 September of that year (1783).

Great Britain also colonised the west coast of North America, indirectly via the Hudson's Bay Company licenses west of the Rocky Mountains, the Columbia District and New Caledonia fur district, most of which were jointly claimed as the Oregon Country by the United States from 1818 until the 49th parallel was established as the international boundary west of the Rockies by the Oregon Treaty of 1846. The Colony of Vancouver Island, founded in 1849, and the Colony of British Columbia, founded in 1858, were combined in 1866 with the name Colony of British Columbia until joining Confederation in 1871. British Columbia also was expanded with the inclusion of the Stikine Territory in 1863, and upon joining Confederation with the addition of the Peace River Block, formerly part of Rupert's Land.

In 1867, the colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the Province of Canada (the southern portion of modern-day Ontario and Quebec) combined to form a self-governing dominion, named Canada, within the British Empire (the term "kingdom" was avoided so as to not provoke the United States). Quebec (including what is now the southern portion of Ontario) and Nova Scotia (including what is now New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island) had been ceded to Britain by the French. The colonies of Prince Edward Island and British Columbia joined over the next six years, and Newfoundland joined in 1949. Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory were ceded to Canada in 1870. This area now consists of the provinces of Manitoba (admitted after negotiation between Canada and a Métis provisional government in 1870), Saskatchewan, and Alberta (both created in 1905), as well as the Northwest Territories, the Yukon Territory (created 1898, following the start of the Klondike Gold Rush), and Nunavut (created in 1999).

List of English and British colonies in North America[edit]

The British Colonies in North America, 1763–1775

Non-colonial British territories in North America[edit]

  • Rupert's Land, territory of the Hudson's Bay Company, founded in 1670 and transferred to the new Dominion of Canada in 1867 as the Northwest Territories
  • Columbia District, the trading district of the Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company from 1821 to the Oregon Treaty of 1846, by which most of the Columbia District was formally annexed to the United States. HBC lands south of the 49th parallel were guaranteed by the Oregon Treaty but ownership and compensation issues were not fully resolved until 1861.
  • New Caledonia, fur district. First created in 1805 as part of North West Company for operations, administered by Hudson's Bay Company following the two companies' forced merger in 1821, until incorporated as the part of the Colony of British Columbia in 1858, by which time the term "New Caledonia" had come to refer to the whole of the British mainland, not just the original fur district in what is now its Central Interior.
  • Stikine Territory, aka Stickeen Territories, founded in 1862 in response to the Stikine Gold Rush to prevent an American takeover.
  • North-Western Territory, a Hudson's Bay Company trading area covering lands north and northwest of Rupert's Land and, after 1863, north of the Stikine Territory's original boundary at the 62nd parallel. Its remnant was incorporated at the Yukon Territory after the part of it south of the 60th parallel was amalgamated to British Columbia.
  • Nova Albion, never incorporated or settled, exact location unknown, claimed by Sir Francis Drake and one of the precedents for the British claims to the Pacific Northwest during the Oregon boundary dispute.
  • the southeastern Alaska Panhandle was leased from the Russian Empire, from 1839 to 1867, until the lease was ignored by both the Russians and Americans and, subsequently, by the Canadian and the British imperial governments, despite British Columbia's protests.

Central and South America, Caribbean[edit]

English and later British Caribbean colonies[edit]

Planter and his wife, with a servant, circa 1780

In order of settlement or founding:

  • Saint Kitts – The island was settled by Sir Thomas Warner in 1623. The following year the French also settled part of St Kitts. After they massacred the Caribs, the British and French turned on each other and St Kitts changed hands between the two several times before the Treaty of Paris (1783) gave the island to Britain. It became independent as Saint Kitts and Nevis in 1983.
  • Barbados – The island was claimed for the British Empire in 1625, and later settled in 1627 as a proprietary colony of Anglo-Dutchman William Courten. It became an independent nation in 1966.
  • Nevis – The island was permanently settled in 1628. It became independent as Saint Kitts and Nevis in 1983.
  • Providencia Island – part of an archipelago off the coast of Nicaragua, this island was settled in 1630 by English Puritans. The colony was conquered by the Spanish and became extinct in 1641. The island today is Providencia Island, which is administered by Colombia. Providence Island colony was a sister colony to the more well known Massachusetts Bay Colony.
  • Antigua – The island was settled in 1632. It became independent as Antigua and Barbuda in 1981
  • Barbuda – The island was settled about 1632. It became independent as Antigua and Barbuda in 1981.
  • Montserrat – The island was settled in 1632. It was occupied by the French in 1664–68 and 1782–84. It remains a British territory.
  • Bahamas – The islands were settled from 1647. They became independent in 1973.
  • Anguilla – The island was settled in 1650. Its government was united with St. Christopher from 1882 until 1967, when it declared its separation. It was brought back under British administration in 1969. It remains a British territory.
  • Jamaica – The island was conquered from Spain in 1655. It became independent in 1962.
  • British Virgin Islands – The islands were settled from 1666. They remain a British territory.
  • Cayman Islands – The islands were acquired from Spain in 1670. It remains a British territory.
  • Turks and Caicos Islands – The islands were first permanently settled in the 1750s. They remain a British territory.
    A linen market in the West Indies, circa 1780
  • Dominica – The island was captured from the French in 1761. The French occupied it again from 1778 to 1783. Dominica became independent in 1978.
  • Trinidad and Tobago – The island of Tobago was captured in 1762. The island of Trinidad was captured from the Spanish in 1797. The two governments were joined in 1888. They became independent in 1962.
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – Saint Vincent was colonised in 1762. France captured it in 1779 but returned it to Britain in 1783. The islands were formerly part of the British colony of the British Windward Islands from 1871 to 1958. The nation gained full independence in 1979.
  • Grenada – The island was conquered from France in 1762. The French reoccupied it from 1779 to 1783. It became independent in 1974.
  • Saint Lucia – The island was captured from the French in 1778, but returned in 1783. In 1796 and in 1803 it was captured again, and permanently annexed by Britain in 1814. Saint Lucia became independent in 1979.

English and later British Central and South American colonies[edit]

  • Belize – English adventurers starting in 1638, used Belize as a source for logwood, a tree used to make a wool dye. The area was claimed by Spain but they had not settled it or been able to control the natives. The Spanish destroyed the British colony in 1717, 1730, 1754 and 1779. The Spanish attacked a final time in 1798, but were defeated. The colony was known as 'British Honduras' from the 19th century until 1973, whereupon its name changed to 'Belize'. Although Guatemalan claims to Belize delayed independence, full independence was granted in 1981.[6]
  • Mosquito Coast (Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast) – This area was first settled by the English in 1630. It was briefly assigned to Honduras in 1859, along with the Bay Islands north of the country, then ceded to Nicaragua in 1860 and the area was disputed until a treaty of 1965 divided the Mosquito coast for each country.[citation needed]
  • British Guiana – The English began colonies in the Guiana area in the early 17th century. In the Treaty of Breda, the Dutch gained control of these colonies. Britain later controlled various colonies in the area. Britain ceded Suriname in exchange for New Amsterdam. The Congress of Vienna (1815) awarded the settlements of Berbice, Demerara, and Essequibo in the Guiana region to Great Britain; they were united as British Guiana in 1831. It became independent as Guyana in 1966. Till this day, Venezuela claims sovereignty over half of Guyana's territory.
  • Falkland Islands – The first British base of 1765 was abandoned in 1776. The Islands have been under British control since the Argentine administration was expelled in 1833, save for a brief Argentine occupation during the Falklands War of 1982.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "William Vaughan and New Cambriol". Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Web Site Project. Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 9 January 2010. 
  2. ^ Nicholas Canny, The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume I: The Origins of Empire: British Overseas Enterprise to the Close of the Seventeenth Century , 2001, ISBN 0-19-924676-9.
  3. ^ "Early Settlement Schemes". Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Web Site Project. Memorial University of Newfoundland. 1998. Retrieved 9 January 2010. 
  4. ^ Paul O'Neill, The Oldest City: The Story of St. John's, Newfoundland, 2003, ISBN 0-9730271-2-6.
  5. ^ Colony of Avalon, [1], Colony of Avalon Foundation, Revised March 2002, accessed 27 August 2006
  6. ^ "The Belize Position". Government of Belize. Retrieved 12 September 2006. 

External links[edit]