English cuisine

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Stereotypical afternoon tea in English style at the Rittenhouse Hotel, Philadelphia

English cuisine encompasses the cooking styles, traditions and recipes associated with England. It has distinctive attributes of its own, but also shares much with wider British cuisine, partly through the importation of ingredients and ideas from North America, China, and India during the time of the British Empire and as a result of post-war immigration.

Traditional meals have ancient origins, such as bread and cheese, roasted and stewed meats, meat and game pies, boiled vegetables and broths, and freshwater and saltwater fish. The 14th-century English cookbook, the Forme of Cury,[a] contains recipes for these, and dates from the royal court of Richard II.

English cooking has been influenced by foreign ingredients and cooking styles since the Middle Ages. Curry was introduced from the Indian subcontinent and adapted to English tastes from as early as 1747 with Hannah Glasse's recipe for chicken "currey". French cuisine influenced English recipes throughout the Victorian era. After the rationing of the Second World War, Elizabeth David's Mediterranean cooking had wide influence, bringing Italian cuisine to English homes. Her success encouraged other cookery writers to describe other styles, including Chinese and Thai cuisine. England continues to absorb culinary ideas from all over the world.

History[edit]

Middle ages[edit]

English cookery has developed over many centuries since at least the time of The Forme of Cury, written in the Middle Ages around 1390 in the reign of King Richard II.[1] The book offers imaginative and sophisticated recipes, with spicy sweet-and-sour sauces thickened with bread or quantities of almonds boiled, peeled, dried and ground, and often served in pastry.[2] It was not at all, emphasises the historian of cookery Clarissa Dickson Wright, a matter of large lumps of roast meat at every meal as imagined in Hollywood films.[2]

Eighteenth century[edit]

James Woodforde's Diary of a Country Parson gives a good idea of the sort of food eaten in England in the eighteenth century by those who could afford to eat whatever they liked.[3] To welcome some neighbours on 8 June 1781, he gave them for dinner "a Couple of Chicken boiled and a Tongue, a Leg of Mutton boiled and Capers and Batter Pudding for the first Course, Second, a couple of Ducks rosted and green Peas, some Artichokes, Tarts and Blancmange. After dinner, Almonds and Raisins, Oranges and Strawberries, Mountain and Port Wines. Peas and Strawberries the first gathered this year by me. We spent a very agreeable day".[4] Another country clergyman, Gilbert White, in The Natural History of Selborne (1789) recorded the increased consumption of vegetables by ordinary country people in the south of England, to which, he noted, potatoes had only been added during the reign of King George III: "Green-stalls in cities now support multitudes in comfortable state, while gardeners get fortunes. Every decent labourer also has his garden, which is half his support; and common farmers provide plenty of beans, peas, and greens, for their hinds to eat with their bacon."[5]

Nineteenth century[edit]

How English puddings should look, according to Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management, 1861

English cooking was systematized and made available to the middle classes by a series of popular books, their authors becoming household names. One of the first was Mrs Rundell's A New System of Domestic Cookery, 1806; it went through sixty-seven editions by 1844, selling hundreds of thousands of copies in Britain and America.[6] This was followed by Eliza Acton's Modern Cookery for Private Families 1845, which has been called "the greatest cookery book in our language",[7] but "modern" only in an eighteenth-century sense. Acton was supplanted by the most famous English cookery book of the Victorian era, Isabella Beeton's Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management, 1861, which sold nearly two million copies up to 1868.[8] Where Acton's was a book to be read and enjoyed, Beeton's, substantially written in later editions by other hands, was a manual of instructions and recipes, to be looked up as needed.[9] Mrs Beeton was substantially plagiarized from authors including Raffald and Acton.[10]

Twentieth century[edit]

Elizabeth David profoundly changed English cooking with her 1950 Book of Mediterranean Food.[11] Written at a time of food rationing and scarcity, her book began with "perhaps the most evocative and inspirational passage in the history of British cookery writing":[11]

The cooking of the Mediterranean shores, endowed with all the natural resources, the colour and flavour of the South, is a blend of tradition and brilliant improvisation. The Latin genius flashes from the kitchen pans. It is honest cooking too; none of the sham Grand Cuisine of the International Palace Hotel[11][12]

All five of David's early books remained in print half a century later, and her reputation among cookery writers such as Nigel Slater and Clarissa Dickson Wright is of enormous influence.[11] The historian of food Panikos Panayi suggests that this is because she consciously brought foreign cooking styles into the English kitchen; she did this with fine writing, and with practical experience of living and cooking in the countries she wrote about.[11] She deliberately destroyed the myths of restaurant cuisine with phrases like "the sham Grand Cuisine of the International Palace Hotel", instead describing the home cooking of Mediterranean countries.[11] Her books "opened the floodgates" for other cookery writers to use foreign recipes. Post-David celebrity chefs, often ephemeral, included Philip Harben, Fanny Cradock, Graham Kerr ("the galloping gourmet"), and Robert Carrier.[11]

Stereotypes[edit]

In 1953, Britain's first celebrity chef,[13] Philip Harben, published Traditional Dishes of Britain.[13] Panayi observes that "The chapter titles simply list the stereotypical stalwarts of the British diet", from Cornish pasty and Yorkshire pudding to shortbread, Lancashire hotpot, steak and kidney pudding, jellied eels, clotted cream and fish and chips.[13] Panayi notes that Harben begins with contradictions and uncited claims, naming Britain's supposed reputation for the worst food in the world, but claiming that the country's cooks were technically unmatched and that the repertoire of national dishes was the largest of any country's.[13]

Foreign influence[edit]

English cookery has been open to foreign ingredients and influence from as early as the thirteenth century. The Countess of Leicester, daughter of King John purchased large amounts of cinnamon,[31] while King Edward I ordered large quantities of spices such as pepper and ginger, as well as of what was then an expensive imported luxury, sugar.[32] Dickson Wright refutes the popular idea that spices were used to disguise bad meat, pointing out that this would have been as fatal then as it would be today. She suggests instead that spices were used to hide the taste of salt, which was used to preserve food in the absence of refrigeration.[33]

Panayi introduces his book Spicing Up Britain with the words of the English celebrity cook Fanny Cradock: "The English have never had a cuisine. Even Yorkshire pudding comes from Burgundy."[34] He cites Nicola Humble's observation that in Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management, there are about the same number of recipes from India as from Wales, Scotland and Ireland together.[35][36] Panayi created controversy by asserting, with evidence,[b] that fish and chips had foreign origins: the fried fish from Jewish cooking, the potato chips from France; the dish only became "an important signifier of national identity" from about 1930.[13]

Curry was created by the arrival of the British in India in the seventeenth century, beginning as bowls of spicy sauce used, Lizzie Collingham writes, to add "bite to the rather bland flavours of boiled and roasted meats."[37] Hannah Glasse's The Art of Cookery (1747) contains what Clarissa Dickson Wright calls a "famous recipe" which describes how "To make a currey the Indian way"; it flavours chicken with onions fried in butter, the chicken then being fried with turmeric, ginger and ground pepper, then stewed in its own stock with cream and lemon juice, and served with boiled rice. Dickson Wright comments that she was "a bit sceptical" of this recipe, as it had few of the expected spices, but was "pleasantly surprised by the end result" which had "a very good and interesting flavour".[38] The process of adapting Indian cooking continued for centuries. Anglo-Indian recipes could completely ignore Indian rules of diet, such as by using pork or beef. Some dishes, such as "liver curry, with bacon" were simply ordinary recipes spiced up with ingredients such as curry powder. In other cases like kedgeree, Indian dishes were adapted to British tastes; khichari was a "simple rice and lentil dish". Curry was accepted in almost all Victorian era cookery books, such as Eliza Acton's (1845): she offered recipes for curried sweetbreads and curried macaroni, merging Indian and European foods into standard English cooking. By 1895, curry was included in Dainty Dishes for Slender Incomes, aimed at the poorer classes.[39]

Foreign influence was by no means limited to specific dishes. James Walvin, in his book Fruits of Empire, argues that potatoes, sugar (entirely imported until around 1900 and the growing of sugar beet), tea, and coffee as well as increasing quantities of spices were "Fruits of Empire" that became established in Britain between 1660 and 1800, so that by the nineteenth century "their exotic origins had been lost in the mists of time" and had become "part of the unquestioned fabric of local life".[40][41]

Food establishments[edit]

Pub food[edit]

Traditionally pubs in England were drinking establishments and little emphasis was placed on the serving of food, other than "bar snacks", such as pork scratchings,[42] and pickled eggs, along with salted crisps and peanuts which helped to increase beer sales. If a pub served meals they were usually basic cold dishes such as a ploughman's lunch.[43]

In the 1950s some British pubs would offer "a pie and a pint", with hot individual steak and ale pies made easily on the premises by the landlord's wife. In the 1960s and 1970s this developed into the then-fashionable "chicken in a basket", a portion of roast chicken with chips, served on a napkin, in a wicker basket. Quality dropped but variety increased with the introduction of microwave ovens and freezer food. "Pub grub" expanded to include British food items such as steak and ale pie, steak and kidney pudding, shepherd's pie, fish and chips, bangers and mash, Sunday roast, ploughman's lunch, and pasties. In addition, dishes such as burgers, lasagne and chili con carne are often served.[44][45]

International and fusion cuisine[edit]

Indian and Anglo-Indian cuisine[edit]

Main article: Anglo-Indian cuisine
Kedgeree, a popular breakfast dish in the Victorian era.
Chicken tikka masala, adapted from Indian chicken tikka and called "a true British national dish."[6]

Indian cuisine is the most popular alternative to traditional cooking in Britain, followed by Chinese and Italian food.[46][47] The chicken tikka masala is now considered one of Britain's most popular dishes.[48]

Indian food was served in coffee houses from 1809, and cooked at home from a similar date as Mrs Beeton's cookbook attests. There was a sharp increase in the number of curry houses in the 1940s, and again in the 1970s.[49]

In the Victorian era, during the British Raj, Britain first started borrowing Indian dishes, creating Anglo-Indian cuisine. Kedgeree and Mulligatawny soup are traditional Anglo-Indian dishes.[50]

Anglo-Indian fusion food continued to develop with chicken tikka masala in the 1960s and Balti in the 1980s.

Home-cooked curries by ethnically English people are often based on ready made curry powder sauces or pastes, with only a minority grinding and mixing their own spices. Curries may be home-cooked to use up leftovers.

In 2003, there were as many as 10,000 restaurants serving Indian cuisine in England and Wales alone. The majority of Indian restaurants in Britain are run by entrepreneurs of Bangladeshi (often Sylhet) and Pakistani origin.[51] According to Britain's Food Standards Agency, the Indian food industry in the United Kingdom is worth £3.2 billion, accounts for two-thirds of all eating out, and serves about 2.5 million British customers every week.[52]

Indian restaurants typically allow the diner to combine base ingredients — chicken, prawns or "meat" (lamb or mutton) — with curry sauces — from the mild korma to the scorching phall — without regard to the authenticity of the combination. The reference point for flavour and spice heat is the Madras curry sauce (the name represents the area of India where restaurateurs obtained their spices, rather than an actual dish). Other sauces are either prepared from scratch, or are variations on a basic curry sauce:[53] for instance, vindaloo is often rendered as lamb in a Madras sauce with extra chilli, rather than the original pork marinated in wine vinegar and garlic.

In addition to curries, Indian restaurants offer "dry" tandoori and tikka dishes of marinated meat or fish cooked in a special oven, and biriani dishes, where the meat and rice are mixed together. Samosas, Bhajis and small kebabs are served as starters, or can be eaten by themselves as snacks.

In recent years, some Indian restaurants have started aiming higher than the norm for ethnic food, two of them garnering Michelin stars in the process.[54][55]

Other[edit]

Chinese food is well established in England, with large cities often having a Chinatown district. Predominantly derived from Cantonese cuisine,[56] it may be so adapted to Western tastes that Chinese customers may be offered an entirely separate menu.[citation needed] Spare ribs in OK sauce is an example of crossover cuisine. South-East Asian cuisines, such as Thai, Indonesian and Vietnamese are catching up in popularity.

Italian cuisine is the most popular form of Mediterranean food, vying with Chinese and Indian food as the most popular ethnic food. Greek and Spanish restaurants are well established. Turkish tends to be associated with the take-away sector in particular late night kebab shops. Whilst Middle Eastern cooking in particular Lebanese has grown in popularity from its traditional enclaves in London.

Apart from beefburgers and hot dogs, food from the Americas tends to be represented by Mexican or Tex-mex cuisine, although there are a few Creole and South American restaurants.

Caribbean and Jewish cuisine can usually only be found where there is a concentration of the community in question.

In England, French cuisine stands somewhat apart from other generally less expensive cuisine, although there are some inexpensive French bistros.[57]

Drinks[edit]

Hot drinks[edit]

Black tea with milk (from c. 1660)[58]

Three of the major hot drinks popular in England, tea, coffee, and chocolate, originate from outside Europe and were already staple items by Victorian times.[59]

Catherine of Braganza brought the Portuguese habit of tea to England around 1660. Initially, its expense restricted it to wealthy consumers, but the price gradually dropped, until by the 19th century its use was widespread.[58]

Introduced in the 16th century, coffee became popular by the 17th century, especially in the coffee houses, the first opening in Oxford in 1650.[60] Coffee is drunk in instant and percolated forms; Italian-style preparations such as espresso and cappuccino are increasingly popular, while sales of tea are falling (2013).[61]

Hot chocolate was a popular drink by the 17th century. Chocolate as a food was developed and marketed by English Quaker-founded businesses such as Joseph Fry's (1847),[62] Rowntree's (1862),[63] and Cadbury's (1868).[62]

Soft drinks[edit]

For much of the 20th century Britain had a system where fresh milk was delivered to the doorstep in reusable glass bottles in the mornings, usually by electric vehicles called "milk floats", though it has largely been replaced by supermarket shopping.

Dandelion and burdock was originally a lightly fermented beverage similar to root beer. Later versions were more artificially made and alcohol-free. Soft ginger beer was popular from the late 19th to mid 20th century. Tizer and Lucozade are British carbonated drinks, the latter marketed as an energy drink. Lemonade generally refers to a clear, fizzy beverage in the UK. International brands of cola and energy drinks became popular since in the 20th century.

Barley water, usually flavoured with lemon or other fruit, is a traditional British soft drink. It is made by boiling washed pearl barley, straining, then pouring the hot water over the rind or pulp of the fruit, and adding fruit juice and sugar to taste.

Squashes and cordials are an alternative to carbonated beverages. They are a non-alcoholic concentrated syrup that is usually fruit-flavoured and usually made from fruit juice, water, and sugar, which needs to be "diluted to taste" before drinking. Some traditional cordials also contain herbal extracts, most notably elderflower and ginger.

Alcoholic drinks[edit]

Beer and cider[edit]

A pint glass of Bitter

England is one of the few countries where cask conditioned beer is still a major part of the market. Lager or Pilsener style beer has increased considerably in popularity since the mid 20th century, and is often used as an accompaniment to spicy ethnic food. Any kind of beer may accompany a meal in a pub. English beer cookery includes steak and ale pie and beer-battered fish and chips.

Stout is a globally known style of beer which originated in England, although it came to be associated with Ireland. It has a culinary association with oysters; they can be used to flavour stout, or it can be drunk with them.

In Britain, "cider" always means an alcoholic drink of fermented apple juice and is served by the pint or half pint like beer. It is traditionally associated with certain regions, such as the South West and Herefordshire, but commercial brands are available nationwide like Bulmers Cider and Strongbow. The cloudy, unfiltered version is called scrumpy and the related beverage made from pears is called perry. In England it is sometimes distilled into apple brandy, but this is not as widespread as with Calvados in France. Culinarily, cider is sometimes used in pork or rabbit dishes.

Wine and mead[edit]

See also: English wine
A vineyard at Wyken Hall in Suffolk.

Wine often accompanies formal meals. It was introduced to England, for both production and consumption, by the Romans. Wine has been imported ever since, although it has not always been accessible to the average person.

From the Middle Ages, the English market was the main customer of clarets from Bordeaux, France, helped by the Plantagenet kingdom, which included England and large provinces in France. In the 18th century, the Methuen Treaty of 1703 imposed high duties on French wine. This led to the English becoming a main consumer of sweet fortified wines like sherry from Spain, and Port wine and Madeira wine from Portugal. Fortified wine became popular because unlike regular wine, it does not spoil after the long journey from Portugal to England. Fortified wines are used in dessert cookery, for instance sherry features as an ingredient in trifle.

By the late, 20th century wines from around the world were available to the mass market. Viticulture was restarted in the 1970s after a very long break. England is currently a major consumer, but only a very minor producer of wine, with English and Welsh wine sales combined accounting for just 1% of the domestic market.[64]

Another form of domestic wine production is "country wines" or "fruit wines", which are made from wide variety of fruit and vegetables — elderberry, damson, parsnip and so on — other than grapes. Commercial varieties are available, but country wines are also often home-made, sometimes from garden produce or personally harvested wild fruit. Crème de cassis is made in Herefordshire.

Mead, fermented honey, was popular in the Middle Ages, but is now a curiosity.

Spirits and liqueurs[edit]

A pot of wassail

Although gin itself is not a British invention, its most popular style, London Dry Gin was developed in England. Gin and tonic has historical roots going back to the British empire, since the tonic was originally quinine taken to combat malaria in tropical climates. Rum likewise has historic associations for the English.

Whisky production in modern England restarted in Norfolk in late 2006, and the first resulting single malt whisky was made available to the public in November 2009. This was the first English single malt in over 100 years. It was produced at St George's Distillery by the English Whisky Company.[65] Previously Bristol and Liverpool were centres of English whisky production.

Mixed drinks[edit]

An early mixed drink, dating from the 17th century punch. It is typically made of water, fruit, fruit juice and spirits and served in a large bowl to a group of drinkers. Cocktails are thought of as American, but have a British connection: Harry Craddock, a British-born US citizen invented a number of classic cocktails during his tenure at the Savoy Hotel bar. Pimms is a company which has been selling ready-mixed drinks for well over a century. Pimm's associated with the British summertime and events such as Wimbledon, the Henley Royal Regatta, and the Glyndebourne opera festival. It is often used as the basis of further mixtures including fruit, lemonade, etc.

Mixed drinks can also be based on beer (Lamb's wool) and cider (wassail).

Vegetarianism[edit]

Since the end of World War II when there were around 100,000 vegetarians in Britain, increasing numbers have adopted vegetarianism As of 2003 it was estimated that there were between 3 and 4 million vegetarians in the UK,[66] one of the highest percentages in the Western world, while around 7 million people claim to eat no red meat.[67] The majority of restaurants have at least one vegetarian dish on the menu. Quorn, based in the United Kingdom, is the leading meat-free brand in the world,[68] offering substitutes for ham, bacon, chicken and numerous other meat products.

International reputation[edit]

Scrambled Egg and Bacon Ice Cream, a dish served at The Fat Duck restaurant.

English cuisine once suffered from a poor international reputation. Keith Arscott of Chawton House Library comments that "at one time people didn't think the English knew how to cook and yet these [eighteenth and nineteenth century] female writers were at the forefront of modern day cooking."[69]

In 2005, 600 food critics writing for the British Restaurant magazine named 14 British restaurants among the 50 best restaurants in the world, the number one being The Fat Duck in Bray, Berkshire and its chef Heston Blumenthal. The global reach of London has elevated it to the status of a leading centre of international cuisine.[70]

Dishes[edit]

Food writers and chefs[edit]

Major chefs and writers advocating English cuisine include:

Mrs. Beeton, c. 1860

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cury here means cooking, related to French cuire, to cook.
  2. ^ Panayi cites the Fish Trades Gazette of 29 July 1922 as stating "Later there was introduced into this country the frying and purveying of chip potatoes from France ... which had made the fried fish trade what it is today." He also notes that The Times recorded that "potatoes chipped and fried in the French manner were introduced in Lancashire with great success about 1871." The Financial Times noted of Panayi's claim on 9 January 2004 "Kosher French Connection with Fish and Chips" while the Daily Star announced "Le Great British Feesh and Cheeps: It's Frog Nosh Claims Prof". He further observes that fish and chip shops in the 1920s were often run by Jews or Italians.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dickson Wright, 2011. Page 46
  2. ^ a b Dickson Wright, 2011. Pages 52–53
  3. ^ Dickson Wright, 2011. Pages 285-289
  4. ^ Woodforde, James (1949) [1935]. Beresford, John, ed. The Diary of a Country Parson. Oxford University Press. p. 171. 
  5. ^ White Letter XXXVII (1778).
  6. ^ a b Carrell, Severin (26 June 2007). "Archive reveals Britain's first domestic goddess". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  7. ^ Wilson, Bee (8 May 2011). "Eliza Acton, my heroine". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2 April 2015. 
  8. ^ Stark, Monica (July 2001). "Domesticity for Victorian Dummies". January Magazine. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  9. ^ David, Elizabeth (1968). Ray, Elizabeth, ed. Introduction. The Best of Eliza Acton (Longmans). pp. xxiii–xxvii. 
  10. ^ Shapiro, Laura. "'The Short Life and Long Times of Mrs. Beeton,' by Kathryn Hughes: Domestic Goddess". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 April 2015. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Panayi, 2010. Pages 191–195
  12. ^ David, Elizabeth (1950). Book of Mediterranean Food. London: John Lehmann
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Panayi, 2010. Pages 16–17
  14. ^ "History of Melton Mowbray Pork Pie". Melton Mowbray Pork Pie Association. Retrieved 15 April 2015. 
  15. ^ Wilson, C. Anne (June 2003). Food and Drink in Britain: From the Stone Age to the 19th Century. Academy Chicago Publishers. p. 273. 
  16. ^ Hickman, Martin (30 October 2006). "The secret life of the sausage: A great British institution". The Independent. Retrieved 15 April 2015. 
  17. ^ "Sausage Varieties". Northampton NN3 3AJ, United Kingdom: Sausage Links. 5 December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 January 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014. It is estimated that there are around 400 sausage varieties available in the UK. 
  18. ^ Glasse, Hannah (1758). page 377 Art of Cookery (6th ed.). 
  19. ^ Maggs, Jane. "Relish, pickle and chutney making tips" (PDF). Rheged Centre. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  20. ^ Robertson, Maxwell Alexander, English reports annotated, 1866–1900, Volume 1, Publisher: The Reports and Digest Syndicate, 1867. (page 567)
  21. ^ Stradley, Linda (2004). "History of Sandwiches". Retrieved 15 April 2015. The first written record of the word "sandwich" appeared in Edward Gibbons (1737-1794), English author, scholar, and historian, journal on November 24, 1762. "I dined at the Cocoa Tree....That respectable body affords every evening a sight truly English. Twenty or thirty of the first men in the kingdom....supping at little tables....upon a bit of cold meat, or a Sandwich." 
  22. ^ What's Cooking America, Sandwiches, History of Sandwiches. 2 February 2007.
  23. ^ "Sandwich celebrates 250th anniversary of the sandwich". BBC. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012. 
  24. ^ Marks, Kathy (17 May 1997). "BLT: British, lousy and tasteless". The Independent (London). 
  25. ^ Brady, Tara (6 August 2013). "Move over ham and cheese... Egg mayo is voted Britain's most popular sandwich filling". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  26. ^ Dickson Wright, 2011. Page 284
  27. ^ "Were cream teas "invented" in Tavistock?". BBC News. 17 January 2004. Retrieved 18 April 2015. 
  28. ^ "Why do the French call the British 'the roast beefs'?". BBC. 3 April 2003. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  29. ^ Cloake, Felicity (1 March 2012). "How to cook the perfect steak and kidney pudding". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  30. ^ Ayto, John (2012). The Diner's Dictionary: Word Origins of Food and Drink. Oxford University Press. p. 349. ISBN 9780199640249. 
  31. ^ Dickson Wright, 2011. Page 49
  32. ^ Dickson Wright, 2011. Page 51
  33. ^ Dickson Wright, 2011. Page 47
  34. ^ Panayi, 2010. Page 12
  35. ^ Panayi, 2010. Page 14
  36. ^ Humble, Nicola (2000). Introduction. Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management (Oxford University Press). p. xxix. 
  37. ^ Collingham, Lizzie (2005). Curry: A Biography. London. p. 115. 
  38. ^ Dickson Wright, 2011. Pages 304-305
  39. ^ Panayi, 2010. Pages 119–121
  40. ^ Walvin, James (1997). Fruits of Empire: Exotic Produce and British Taste, 1660-1800. London. pp. ix, 115. 
  41. ^ Panayi, 2010. Page 111
  42. ^ "Pub Food". lookupapub.co.uk. Retrieved 26 June 2009. 
  43. ^ "Ploughman's Lunch - Icons of England". Icons.org.uk. 16 July 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2009. 
  44. ^ Better Pub Grub The Brooklyn Paper
  45. ^ Pub grub gets out of pickle The Mirror
  46. ^ "Italian Food : Facts, Figures, History & Market Research". Retrieved 31 January 2008. [dead link]
  47. ^ "Caterersearch : Market snapshot - Ethnic food". Retrieved 31 January 2008. 
  48. ^ "Popular British dishes". BBC News. 21 July 2009. Retrieved 18 February 2010. 
  49. ^ BBC: How Britain got the hots for curry
  50. ^ "Cooking under the Raj". Retrieved 30 January 2008. 
  51. ^ "Professor says Indian eateries are experiencing a U.S. boom". University of North Texas News Service. 13 October 2003. 
  52. ^ "Food Standards Agency – Curry factfile". 
  53. ^ "Every restaurant has a large pan of this sauce always at hand, with the recipe varying only slightly from Chef to Chef. It forms the base of all Restaurant curries from the very mild to the very hot and spicy." Khris Dillon The Curry Secret ISBN 0-7160-0809-2
  54. ^ "Tamarind" Michelin starred Indian restaurant
  55. ^ "Amaya" Indian Restaurant
  56. ^ Rayner, Jay (10 November 2002). "The sweet and sour revolution". The Observer (London). Retrieved 31 January 2008. 
  57. ^ "Haute Cuisine". The Observer (London). 9 March 2003. Retrieved 31 January 2008. 
  58. ^ a b "http://www.tea.co.uk/a-social-history". UK Tea & Infusions Association. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  59. ^ Panayi, 2010. Page 213
  60. ^ "A Proper Cup of Coffee". The Jane Austen Centre. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  61. ^ Sturgess, Emma. "No time for tea? How Britain became a nation of coffee drinkers". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  62. ^ a b Bensen, Amanda (1 March 2008). "A Brief History of Chocolate". Smithsonian. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  63. ^ "History". Nestlé. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  64. ^ Defra UK Wine Industry information
  65. ^ St George's distillery
  66. ^ The Vegetarian Society. "The History of vegetarianism in the UK". Retrieved 9 October 2007. 
  67. ^ "European Vegetarian Union". Retrieved 9 October 2007. 
  68. ^ "With global relevance". Retrieved 27 June 2014. 
  69. ^ "Centuries of home cooking inspiration from female writers to be brought to life at Hampshire’s Sophia Waugh book event". Hampshire Life. 4 February 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2015. 
  70. ^ "Le Cordon Bleu, London". Le Cordon Bleu. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 

Sources[edit]

  • Ayrton, Elisabeth (1974) The Cookery of England: being a collection of recipes for traditional dishes of all kinds from the fifteenth century to the present day, with notes on their social and culinary background. London: Andre Deutsch.
  • Ayrton, Elisabeth (1980) English Provincial Cooking. London: Mitchell Beazley.
  • Grigson, Jane (1974) English Food. London: Macmillan. Enlarged edition 1979 (ISBN 0 33326866 0); later editions Ebury Press with foreword by Sophie Grigson.
  • Dickson Wright, Clarissa (2011) A History of English Food. London: Random House.
  • Hartley, Dorothy (1954) Food in England. London: Macdonald (reissued: London: Little, Brown, 1996, ISBN 0-316-85205-8)
  • Lehmann, Gilly (2003) The British Housewife. Totnes: Prospect Books.
  • Panayi, Panikos (2010 [2008]) Spicing Up Britain. London: Reaktion Books.

External links[edit]