Enolase 2

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Enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal)
Protein ENO2 PDB 1te6.png
PDB rendering based on 1te6.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols ENO2 ; NSE
External IDs OMIM131360 MGI95394 HomoloGene74414 ChEMBL: 4993 GeneCards: ENO2 Gene
EC number 4.2.1.11
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ENO2 201313 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 2026 13807
Ensembl ENSG00000111674 ENSMUSG00000004267
UniProt P09104 P17183
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001975 NM_013509
RefSeq (protein) NP_001966 NP_038537
Location (UCSC) Chr 12:
7.02 – 7.03 Mb
Chr 6:
124.76 – 124.77 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Gamma-enolase, also known as enolase 2 (ENO2) or neuron specific enolase (NSE), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ENO2 gene.[1][2] Gamma-enolase is a phosphopyruvate hydratase.

Gamma-enolase is one of the three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. This isoenzyme, a homodimer, is found in mature neurons and cells of neuronal origin. A switch from alpha enolase to gamma enolase occurs in neural tissue during development in rats and primates.[1]

Interactive pathway map[edit]

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]

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GlycolysisGluconeogenesis_WP534 go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to Entrez go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to WikiPathways go to article go to Entrez go to article
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GlycolysisGluconeogenesis_WP534 go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to Entrez go to article go to article go to article go to article go to article go to WikiPathways go to article go to Entrez go to article
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Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis edit
  1. ^ The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "GlycolysisGluconeogenesis_WP534". 

Utility[edit]

Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) immunostaining of a cerebellar hemangioblastoma.

Detection of NSE with antibodies can be used to identify neuronal cells and cells with neuroendocrine differentiation. NSE is produced by small cell carcinomas which are neuroendocrine in origin. NSE is therefore a useful tumor marker for lung cancer patients.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "ENO2 enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal)". NCBI Entrez Gene database. 
  2. ^ Online 'Mendelian Inheritance in Man' (OMIM) Enolase 2 -131360
  3. ^ Clegg N, Ferguson C, True LD, Arnold H, Moorman A, Quinn JE, Vessella RL, Nelson PS (April 2003). "Molecular characterization of prostatic small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma". Prostate 55 (1): 55–64. doi:10.1002/pros.10217. PMID 12640661. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Oliva D, Calì L, Feo S, Giallongo A (1991). "Complete structure of the human gene encoding neuron-specific enolase.". Genomics 10 (1): 157–65. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(91)90496-2. PMID 2045099. 
  • Craig SP, Day IN, Thompson RJ, Craig IW (1991). "Localisation of neurone-specific enolase (ENO2) to 12p13.". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 54 (1–2): 71–3. doi:10.1159/000132960. PMID 2249478. 
  • Oliva D, Barba G, Barbieri G et al. (1989). "Cloning, expression and sequence homologies of cDNA for human gamma enolase". Gene 79 (2): 355–60. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(89)90217-5. PMID 2792767. 
  • McAleese SM, Dunbar B, Fothergill JE et al. (1989). "Complete amino acid sequence of the neurone-specific gamma isozyme of enolase (NSE) from human brain and comparison with the non-neuronal alpha form (NNE)". Eur. J. Biochem. 178 (2): 413–7. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1988.tb14465.x. PMID 3208766. 
  • Van Obberghen E, Kamholz J, Bishop JG et al. (1988). "Human gamma enolase: isolation of a cDNA clone and expression in normal and tumor tissues of human origin". J. Neurosci. Res. 19 (4): 450–6. doi:10.1002/jnr.490190409. PMID 3385803. 
  • Day IN, Allsopp MT, Moore DC, Thompson RJ (1987). "Sequence conservation in the 3'-untranslated regions of neurone-specific enolase, lymphokine and protooncogene mRNAs". FEBS Lett. 222 (1): 139–43. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(87)80207-7. PMID 3653393. 
  • Haimoto H, Takahashi Y, Koshikawa T et al. (1985). "Immunohistochemical localization of gamma-enolase in normal human tissues other than nervous and neuroendocrine tissues". Lab. Invest. 52 (3): 257–63. PMID 3974199. 
  • Quan CP, Watanabe S, Vuillier F et al. (1993). "Purification and partial amino acid sequence of suppressive lymphokine from a CD8+ CD57+ human T hybridoma". Immunology 78 (2): 205–9. PMC 1421811. PMID 7682534. 
  • Angelov DN, Neiss WF, Gunkel A et al. (1994). "Axotomy induces intranuclear immunolocalization of neuron-specific enolase in facial and hypoglossal neurons of the rat". J. Neurocytol. 23 (4): 218–33. doi:10.1007/BF01275526. PMID 8035205. 
  • Pechumer H, Bender-Götze C, Ziegler-Heitbrock HW (1994). "Detection of neuron-specific gamma-enolase messenger ribonucleic acid in normal human leukocytes by polymerase chain reaction amplification with nested primers". Lab. Invest. 69 (6): 743–9. PMID 8264236. 
  • Ansari-Lari MA, Shen Y, Muzny DM et al. (1997). "Large-scale sequencing in human chromosome 12p13: experimental and computational gene structure determination". Genome Res. 7 (3): 268–80. doi:10.1101/gr.7.3.268. PMID 9074930. 
  • Lau L (2002). "Neuroblastoma: a single institution's experience with 128 children and an evaluation of clinical and biological prognostic factors". Pediatric hematology and oncology 19 (2): 79–89. doi:10.1080/08880010252825669. PMID 11881792. 
  • Wijnberger LD, Nikkels PG, van Dongen AJ et al. (2002). "Expression in the placenta of neuronal markers for perinatal brain damage". Pediatr. Res. 51 (4): 492–6. doi:10.1203/00006450-200204000-00015. PMID 11919335. 
  • O'Dwyer DT, Clifton V, Hall A et al. (2002). "Pituitary autoantibodies in lymphocytic hypophysitis target both gamma- and alpha-Enolase - a link with pregnancy?". Arch. Physiol. Biochem. 110 (1–2): 94–8. doi:10.1076/apab.110.1.94.897. PMID 11935405. 
  • Chekhonin VP, Zhirkov YA, Belyaeva IA et al. (2002). "Serum time course of two brain-specific proteins, alpha(1) brain globulin and neuron-specific enolase, in tick-born encephalitis and Lyme disease". Clin. Chim. Acta 320 (1–2): 117–25. doi:10.1016/S0009-8981(02)00057-8. PMID 11983209. 
  • Nakatsuka S, Nishiu M, Tomita Y et al. (2005). "Enhanced expression of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL)". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 93 (4): 411–6. PMID 11985791. 
  • Fujiwara H, Arima N, Ohtsubo H et al. (2002). "Clinical significance of serum neuron-specific enolase in patients with adult T-cell leukemia". Am. J. Hematol. 71 (2): 80–4. doi:10.1002/ajh.10190. PMID 12353304. 
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241. PMID 12477932. 
  • Rodríguez-Núñez A, Cid E, Rodríguez-García J et al. (2003). "Neuron-specific enolase, nucleotides, nucleosides, purine bases, oxypurines and uric acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of children with meningitis". Brain Dev. 25 (2): 102–6. doi:10.1016/S0387-7604(02)00160-2. PMID 12581805. 
  • Muley T, Ebert W, Stieber P et al. (2003). "Technical performance and diagnostic utility of the new Elecsys neuron-specific enolase enzyme immunoassay". Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 41 (1): 95–103. doi:10.1515/CCLM.2003.017. PMID 12636057.