Ent Air Force Base
|Ent AFB Defense Area
Ent Annex (1975-7)
Ent Air Force Base (1949-75)
Corner of E Boulder St (bottom) & N Union Blvd (right) in 1994 after the last military units transferred from the Ent Annex's "Federal Building" north of the row of pine trees along the hor(upper middle).
1951–1968: Air Defense Command
1968–1976: Aerospace Defense Command
|City||Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA|
|Location||Federal Building (1554 E. Willamette)
Ent Air Force Base was a United States military installation during World War II and the Cold War along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. In addition to the ADCOM & NORAD operations centers and the SPADATS Operation Center, the installation was the site of command headquarters of ADCOM, ARAACOM, and NORAD; as well as the Fifteenth Air Force of Strategic Air Command and the Fourteenth Aerospace Force of Aerospace Defense Command.
Colorado Springs Tent Camp 
The Colorado Springs Tent Camp was established in 1943 after the May 1942 Colorado Springs Army Air Base (to the east adjacent to Peterson Field), and post-war the Tent Camp gained the 1946 Fifteenth Air Force headquarters for bomber operations, including Radar Bomb Scoring (RBS). "Colorado Springs" had the 206th Army Air Force Base Unit (RBS) organized on 6 June 1945 and which initially controlled RBS detachments at Kansas City[where?] and Fort Worth Army Airfield. From August to 8 March 1946, as the 63rd AAFBU, the headquarters was at Mitchel Field on Long Island, New York, and after returning to Colorado Springs, was renamed the 263rd AAFBU. The 263rd, after transferring from 15th AF to directly under Strategic Air Command, was redesignated the 3903rd Radar Bomb Scoring Squadron (SAC) effective on 1 August 1948 and by 25 August 1949, the 3903rd RBSS controlled the nearby "Denver Bomb Plot" RBS detachment. In 1949 the installation was renamed Ent Air Force Base and the 15th AF HQ departed for March AFB (the 3903rd went[when?] to Carswell AFB and became a group in 1951).
Air Defense Command 
United States defense plans in 1945 and November 1946 "recommended moving ADC Headquarters from Mitchel Field to a more central location…in a protected command center … designed to withstand attack by all foreseeable weapons" (e.g., "German A-4 type" missiles). On 10 November 1950, Generals Vandenberg and Twining notified General Whitehead that "the Air Force had approved activation of a separate Air Defense Command [from CONAC] with headquarters on Ent".:140 The ADC Major Command was re-established on 1 January 1951, with the Mitchel Field ADC headquarters moving to Ent on 8 January 1951. Mitchel's Army Anti-Aircraft Artillery Command headquarters moved to one room at Ent in January 1951 and in February the commander's staff began using the downtown Antlers Hotel until August 1953.:60
Ent's building used for the 1951 air defense center was replaced in May 1954 with a "much improved 15,000-square-foot concrete block" Combat Operations Center (COC):261 (by 1961, an image of the COC's "Plexiglass plotting board":151 was being transmitted to SAC's command post.) Ent AFB became part of the City of Colorado Springs when the eastern city limits were moved in TBD.
Continental Air Defense Command 
Continental Air Defense Command (CONAD) was "activated in Colorado Springs" after the Joint Chiefs of Staff agreed to establish a "joint service command for air defense".:283 CONAD had "control of Air Force Air Defense Command forces, Army Anti-Aircraft Command forces, and Naval air defense forces" on 1 September 1954 (CONAD and ADC formally separated in 1956).:283 Ent AFB had a golf course by 1954, and the Ent Gun Club had sanctioned trapshoots by 1958 (Ent hosted the 1974 Armed Forces Skeet Championship.)
The "establishment of command headquarters" for NORAD was at Ent AFB on 12 September 1957,:251 and Ent became a "master station" of the 1958 Alert Network Number 1. After deployment of the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment computer network, the command center received data from the AN/FSQ-8 centrals at Combat Centers. Adjacent to the NORAD center was the SPADATS Operation Center with the 496L Space Detection and Tracking System :262 which began operations in July 1961 (building P4's annex, a former hospital building). Some of Ent's operations/units moved to the 1963 Chidlaw Building ½ mi (¾ km) south-southeast of Ent. (e.g., the COC to the 1963 NORAD Combined Operations Center.) The SPADATS mission remaining at Ent began the move to the Cheyenne Mountain "Group III Space Defense Center" in April 1966 (fully operational at 0001Z, 6 February 1967). ADCOM's Interceptor safety magazine was being published at Ent in 1968 and "12.28 acres"[clarification needed] had been planned for closure in fiscal year 1974.
Ent annex 
Renamed the "Ent Annex" of Peterson Air Force Base on April 1, 1975, the installation was to be vacated to Peterson AFB by 30 June 1976. On October 1, 1976, the Fourteenth Aerospace Force inactivated at Ent. Ent's off-base barracks ( ) at 3920 Marion St (now E San Miguel St) were modified in the late 1970s for a retirement community and Ent Gun Club moved to Peterson Air Force Base.
Ent land totalling 35 acres (14 ha) was transferred in 1977 for the United States Olympic Training Center, the golf course was sold c. 1977 to the city, and the Memorial Hospital facility is now at the former Ent site.
Ent AFB Defense Area 
Ent's Federal Building remained a a military computer facility and was shared with the United States Census Bureau for the 1990 United States Census. Military units of the United States Army and other services afterward moved from the Federal Building to Peterson AFB building 2, which opened in TBD. The Ent AFB Defense Area is a Formerly Used Defense Site.
1151st Special Activities Squadron
|12 Pikes Peak Library images of Ent AFB|
|NORAD building (minute 12:30)|
- Historical Air Force Construction (cost handbook). Directorate of Engineering Support, AFCE Support Agency. February 2007. http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/AF/AFH/histbook.pdf. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
- "Google Street image for 1554 E. Willamette". Retrieved 2013-05-13.
- "Chapter 13: Regional Setting". Retrieved 2012-10-01.
- author tbd (9 November 1983). Hellickson, Gene—2007 transcription using Microsoft Word. ed. Historical Summary: Radar Bomb Scoring, 1945–1983 (Report). Office of History, 1st Combat Evaluation Group. http://www.mobileradar.org/Documents/hist_sum_rad_bom_scrg.pdf. Retrieved 2012-10-01. "On 6 June 1945, the 206th Army Air Force Base Unit (RBS) ( 206th AAFBU), was activated art Colorado Springs, Colorado under the command of Colonel Robert W. Burns. He assumed operational control of the two SCR-584 radar detachments located at Kansas City and Fort Worth [Det B], Texas. … On 24 July 1945, the 206th was redesignated the 63rd AAFBU (RBS) and three weeks later was moved to Mitchell [sic] Field, New York, and placed under the command of the Continental Air Force. [sic] On 5 March 1946, the organization moved back to Colorado Springs and on 8 March of the same year was redesignated the 263rd AAFBU." (html transcription available at http://www.1stcombatevaluationgroup.com/aboutus.html)
- Toro, MSgt. Radames; Barrios, MSgt. Ramon A. (1 August 1993—Third Edition). "Chapter 1: Command Overview". Space Operations Orientation Course. Peterson AFB, Colorado: 21st Crew Training Squadron. p. 3. "In 1948…the 15th Air Force, then headquartered at Ent AFB… One year later, the 15th Air Force relocated to March AFB California … January 8, 1951…the Air Force established the Air Defense Command (ADC) at Ent AFB."
- 1945 U.S. Air Defense Plan (Short Term): 1946–1947, & November 1946 Radar Fence Plan (Plan SUPREMACY)--both cited by Schaffel p. 72
- subj: Development of Radar Equipment for Detecting and Countering Missiles of the German A-4 type, 27 Dec 1946, USAFHRC microfilm (cited by Schaffel, p. 314)
- Schaffel, Kenneth (1991). "Emerging Shield: The Air Force and the Evolution of Continental Air Defense 1945–1960" (45MB pdf). General Histories (Office of Air Force History). ISBN 0-912799-60-9. http://www.worldcat.org/title/emerging-shield-the-air-force-and-the-evolution-of-continental-air-defense-1945-1960/oclc/55082092?title=&detail=&page=frame&url=http%3A%2F%2Fpurl.access.gpo.gov%2FGPO%2FLPS48543%26checksum%3D432fe82c17a73c88ef5516c191915970&linktype=digitalObject. Retrieved 2011-09-26. "General Irvine's Army Antiaircraft Artillery Command Headquarters also left Mitchel to join ADC in Colorado Springs.":147
- compiled by Johnson, Mildred W. (31 December 1980) [February 1973: Cornett, Lloyd H. Jr]. A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization 1946 – 1980. Peterson Air Force Base: Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
- Osato, Lt Col Timothy (1968). Militia Missilemen: The Army National Guard in Air Defense, 1951–1967 (Report). ARADCOM Historical Monograph. Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army. http://ed-thelen.org/MilitiaMissilemenArNG-Part-I.pdf. Retrieved 2012-09-30. "CONAD is the unified command which constitute the U.S.contribution to the combined U.S.-Canadian North American Air Defense Command (NORAD), but because both have the same Commander in Chief (CINC), the better-known term CINCNORAD is often used herein. Strictly speaking, however, it is to the operational command of the CINCONAD that ARADCOM and its ARNG units are subordinated, and the frequent use of the terms CINCNORAD and NORAD in this study should be viewed with this important qualification in mind. … When General Irvine moved his headquarters from Mitchel Air Force Base, Long Island, to Colorado Springs in January 1951, the entire staff and command group of ARAACOM occupied a single room at Ent Air Force Base. When the headquarters was moved to the Antlers Hotel in Colorado Springs at the end of February 1951, there were, in addition to General Irvine, only four other officers, two WACs, and three or four civilian employees. Interv with Mrs. Roy C. Howell (a member of the original group at Ent AFB) , 15 Jan 68."
- History of Strategic and Ballistic Missile Defense: Volume I: 1945–1955. "To be closer to ConAC, ARAACOM moved to Mitchel AFB, New York on 1 November 1950."
- "Aerospace Defense Command: Home of the "SIX"". F-106DeltaDart.com. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
- "Fires 241 To Take Tourney". Yuma Daily Sun. 1 November 1956. p. 7. Retrieved 2012-10-04.
- http://rmclaysports.com/CSTA.html Col Elbert Throckmorton "broke 98 from 26 at Ent R&GC at Colorado Springs to be moved back to the 27" yard line for handicap trapshooting.
- Preface by Buss, L. H.—Director. (Report).
- 1961–1969 Historical reports from the Squadron on file at the Air Force Historical Research Agency, Maxwell AFB AL, AFHRA Microfilm reel KO363
- Leonard, Barry (pdf created 15 July 2008) [c. 1974[specify]]. History of Strategic and Ballistic Missile Defense: Volume II: 1956–1972 (Army.mil PDF – also available at Google Books). Retrieved 2012-09-01. "In July of 1961, the National Space Surveillance and Control Center (NSSCC) was discontinued as the new SPADATS Center became operational at Ent AFB, Colorado."
- "Google Map with route from Ent AFB to Chidlaw Bldg". Retrieved 2012-07-17.
- "NORAD Chronology". NORAD.mil. Retrieved 2012-07-28. (see also FAS.org chronology)
- (abstract) 9th Aerospace Defense Division (Report). Ent Air Force Base. 1966. http://airforcehistoryindex.org/data/000/425/800.xml. Retrieved 2012-09-02. "DELTA I FIFTH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT OF AND AUTOMATED COMPUTER PROGRAMMING SYSTEM TO PERFORM SDC (SPACE DEFENSE CENTER) FUNCTIONS IN NEW GROUP III SPACE DEFENSE CENTER LOCATED IN NORAD CHEYENNE MOUNTAIN COMPLEX CO."
- "✓ points" (Hathi Trust Digital Library image). The Interceptor (Air Defense Command): 26. Retrieved 2012-10-01. "The Editor, INTERCEPTOR, Box 46, Ent AFB, Colorado 80912"
- "Aerospace Defense Command (Zone of Interior): Peterson Field, Colo.". Military Construction Authorization FY74 (annotated transcript of Senate hearing). publisher tbd--image at WHS.mil (Pentagon Digital Library). date "730806"[verification needed]. Retrieved 2010-10-04. "fiscal year 1974 military construction program(MCP), plus those now planned for the fiscal year 1975 MCP, will allow Air Force to vacate Ent AFB by June 30, 1976." (General Reilly) [Document identifies planned PAFB construction of NCO club, commissary, female dormitories, maintenance complex, and post office.]
- Walsh, Mike (29 June 2007). "Retirement complex started as barracks" ("did you ever wonder" column). The Gazette (Colorado Springs). Retrieved 2012-10-01.
- "USOC-Colorado Springs History". The Sports Corp @ ColoradoSpringsSports.org. 11 February 2011. Retrieved 2012-10-01.
- http://newspaperarchive.com/colorado-springs-gazette/1977-11-04/ "partial pay ment to the municipal airport for airport land traded to the Air Force for Ent AFB for park land and for golf course". For the appropriations for the Peterson AFB golf course, see http://www.whs.mil/library/Legislative%20History/93-194_V2_730529_02.htm.
- Defense Technical Information Center: 4th Weather Wing
- http://newspaperarchive.com/colorado-springs-gazette/1967-04-23/page-33/ Three new teams have been added since last week to give a total of 13 fighting for the base The new teams are 1151st Special activities Squad 4th Weather and 4608th Support Other teams already fielded represent 4600th Transportation and CAM 47th Com 4604th Support 9th Aero space Defense Head quarters and Defense Com Western A pre season ation tournament will kick off the season on May"
- The DEW System (brochure) (cited by Schaffel p. 312)
- Sturm, Thomas A., Volan, Denys, and McMullen, Richard F (1956). Buss, Lydus H., ed. History of Continental Air Defense Command and Air Defense Command July to December 1955. Ent AFB, CO: Directorate of Historical Services, Air Defense Command.
- http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a024517.pdf "Chief, Institute Technical Division, ADC DOTI, ATTN: Mr R. E. Coward, Ent AFB"
- "In December 951, the Air Defense Personnel and Training Research Laboratory was established at Ent AFB, Colorado"
- (abstract) 9th Aerospace Defense Division (Report). Ent Air Force Base. 1966. http://airforcehistoryindex.org/data/000/425/800.xml. Retrieved 2012-09-02.
- Headquarters Air Defense Command Special Orders G-69, 19 July 1961
- http://veterantributes.org/TributeDetail.php?recordID=533 His next assignment was as Director of Command and Control of the 4608th Support Squadron at Ent AFB, from September 1970 to June 1972
- Del Papa, Dr. E. Michael; Warner, Mary P (October 1987). A Historical Chronology of the Electronic Systems Division 1947–1986 (Report). http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a201708.pdf. Retrieved 2012-07-19.
- http://ed-thelen.org/USAADSDigest1965chapter2.pdf "On 21 March 1957, in recognition of its growing combat-ready surface-to-air guided missile force, ARAACOM was redesignated the U. S. Army Air Defense Command (ARADCOM)."
- US Defense Communications Agency & Canadian Forces Headquarters (9 December 1970), "Appendix 1", Memorandum of Agreement, retrieved 2012-09-28
- Fifteen Years of AirDefense (Report). Ent AFB: NORAD Directorate of Command History. 1 December 1960.
- North America Air Defense Command, Office of Information, Direct of Command History, Historical Summary, NORAD and CONAD, Ent AFB, Colorado, December 1958
North America Air Defense Command, Office of Information, The Aerospace Defense Story, lecture, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 1962.
- Donaldson, E.M.. "Russian Satellite Seen to Change Orbit," Daily Telegraph. London: 28 November 1963