Entamoeba gingivalis

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Entamoeba gingivalis
Parasite130116-1-olm Entamoeba gingivalis microscopy.tif
Entamoeba gingivalis from periodontal pocket [1]
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Phylum: Amoebozoa
Class: Archamoebae
Genus: Entamoeba
Species: E. gingivalis
Binomial name
Entamoeba gingivalis
Gros, 1849
Entamoeba gingivalis from aggressive periodontal disease patient biofilm using phase contrast microscope 1000x. It is recognizable trough its dense core in the middle, formed by a central point encircled by a circular halo and surrounded by bigger phagosomes inside a greyish cytoplasm.

Entamoeba gingivalis is an opportunistic protozoa[citation needed] (reported by some to cause disease)[2][3][4] and is the first amoeba in humans to be described.

It is found in the mouth[5] inside the gingival pocket biofilm near the base of the teeth, and in periodontal pockets.[1] Entamoeba gingivalis is found in 95% of people with gum disease and rarely in people with healthy gums.[6][7] Cyst formation is not present; therefore transmission is direct from one person to another by kissing, or by sharing eating utensils. Only the trophozoites are formed and the size is usually 20 micrometers to 150 micrometers in diameter. Entamoeba gingivalis have pseudopodia that allow them to move quickly and phagocytise the nucleus of polynuclear neutrophils by exonucleophagy in periodontal disease.[8] Their spheroid nucleus is 2 micrometers to 4 micrometers in diameter and contains a small central endosome. There are numerous food vacuoles, which consists mostly of phagocitised PMN nucleus, blood cells and bacteria.

Media[edit]

From the top of the image, Entamoeba gingivalis is sipping a white cell nucleus, imperceptibly through negative suction apparently. Halfway through the process, it starts enveloping its prey in the middle, to better digest it in a future phagosome.

The main activity of the amoeba Entamoeba gingivalis in the infected periodontal crevices, besides moving, consists in feeding on the nucleus of white blood cells. The amoeba penetrates into the cytoplasm to reach the nucleus and literally suctions its contents via the negative pressure of the pseudopod. The food so gulped down is gradually digested inside the endoplasm. Phagocytosis can sometimes continue for more than 20 polynuclear neutrophil nuclei. This activity leaves a denucleated cell, unable to achieve either its NETS activity or its preprogrammed apoptosis. It will release PMN-uncontrolled proteolytic enzymes on surrounding tissues and could be considered a pathogen from this vampirising activity.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bonner, M., Amard, V., Bar-Pinatel, C., Charpentier, F., Chatard, J.-M., Desmuyck, Y., Ihler, S., Rochet, J.-P., Roux de La Tribouille, V., Saladin, L., Verdy, M., Gironès, N., Fresno, M. & Santi-Rocca, J. 2014: Detection of the amoeba Entamoeba gingivalis in periodontal pockets. Parasite, 21, 30. doi:10.1051/parasite/201402 PubMed PMC 4077299
  2. ^ Jian, B.; Kolansky, A.; Baloach, Z.; Gupta, P. (2008). "Entamoeba gingivalis pulmonary abscess - Diagnosed by fine needle aspiration". CytoJournal 5: 12. doi:10.4103/1742-6413.43179. PMC 2669679. PMID 19495399.  edit
  3. ^ Lyons T. et al. "Oral amoebiasis: a new approach for the general practitionner in the diagnosis and the treatment of periodontal disease." in Oral Health, 70: 39-41, 108, 110, October 1980.
  4. ^ Lyons T. Introduction to protozoa and fungi in periodontal disease. Trevor Lyons publications, Ontario, Canada 1989. ISBN 0-9693950-0-0
  5. ^ Prieto-Prieto, J.; Calvo, A. (2004). "Microbiological basis of oral infections and sensitivity to antibiotics". Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal. 9 Suppl: 15–18; 11–18. PMID 15580129.  edit
  6. ^ Kofoid, C.A., Hinshaw, H.C., Johnsotne, H.G., Animal parasites of the mouth and their relation to dental disease. Journal of the American Dental Association 1434-1455, August 1929.
  7. ^ Trim, Robert D.; Skinner, Michael A.; Farone, Mary B.; DuBois, John D.; Newsome, Anthony L. (2011) Use of PCR to detect Entamoeba gingivalis in diseased gingival pockets and demonstrate its absence in healthy gingival sites.
  8. ^ Bonner M. To Kiss or Not to Kiss. Amyris Editions, 2013 EAN : 978-28755-2016-6


Sources[edit]

Roberts L. and Janovy J. Foundations of Parasitology. The McGraw-Hill Companies. New York. 2005: 114-115