Enterobacter cloacae

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Enterobacter cloacae
Enterobacter cloacae on tryptic soy agar.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Enterobacter
Binomial name
Enterobacter cloacae
(Jordan 1890)
Hormaeche and Edwards 1960

E. c. subsp. cloacae
E. c. subsp. dissolvens


Bacillus cloacae Jordan 1890
Bacterium cloacae (Jordan 1890) Lehmann and Neumann 1896
Cloaca cloacae (Jordan 1890) Castellani and Chalmers 1919
Aerobacter cloacae (Jordan 1890) Bergey et al. 1923
Aerobacter cloacae (Jordan 1890) Hormaeche and Edwards 1958
Erwinia dissolvens (Rosen 1922) Burkholder 1948
Pseudomonas dissolvens Rosen 1922
Bacterium dissolvens Rosen 1922
Phytomonas dissolvens (Rosen 1922) Rosen 1926
Aplanobacter dissolvens (Rosen 1922) Rosen 1926
Aerobacter dissolvens (Rosen 1922) Waldee 1945
Enterobacter dissolvens (Rosen 1922) Brenner et al. 1988

Enterobacter cloacae is a clinically significant Gram-negative, facultatively-anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium.


In microbiology labs, E. cloacae is frequently grown at 30°C on nutrient agar or broth or at 35°C in tryptic soy broth.[1] It is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium, is facultatively anaerobic, and bears peritrichous flagella. It is oxidase-negative and catalase-positive.[citation needed]

Industrial use[edit]

Enterobacter cloacae has been used in a bioreactor-based method for the biodegradation of explosives and in the biological control of plant diseases.[citation needed]


E. cloacae is considered a biosafety level 1 organism in the United States and level 2 in Canada.[citation needed]


A draft genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae was announced in 2012. The bacteria used in the study were isolated from giant panda feces.[2]

Clinical significance[edit]

Enterobacter cloacae is a member of the normal gut flora of many humans and is not usually a primary pathogen.[3] It is sometimes associated with urinary tract and respiratory tract infections. Treatment with cefepime and gentamicin has been reported.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Dalben, M; Varkulja, G; Basso, M; Krebs, VL; Gibelli, MA; van der Heijden, I; Rossi, F; Duboc, G; Levin, AS; Costa, SF (September 2008). "Investigation of an outbreak of Enterobacter cloacae in a neonatal unit and review of the literature.". The Journal of hospital infection 70 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2008.05.003. PMID 18632183. 
  2. ^ Yan, Y; Zhao, CW; Zhang, YZ; Zhang, ZH; Pan, GL; Liu, WW; Ma, QY; Hou, R; Tan, XM (December 2012). "Draft Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae Strain 08XA1, a Fecal Bacterium of Giant Pandas.". Journal of bacteriology 194 (24): 6928–9. doi:10.1128/JB.01790-12. PMID 23209197. 
  3. ^ Keller, R; Pedroso, MZ; Ritchmann, R; Silva, RM (February 1998). "Occurrence of virulence-associated properties in Enterobacter cloacae.". Infection and immunity 66 (2): 645–9. PMC 113501. PMID 9453621. 
  4. ^ Barnes BJ, Wiederhold NP, Micek ST, Polish LB, Ritchie DJ (April 2003). "Enterobacter cloacae ventriculitis successfully treated with cefepime and gentamicin: case report and review of the literature". Pharmacotherapy 23 (4): 537–42. doi:10.1592/phco.23.4.537.32126. PMID 12680484.